|William Crowninshield Endicott|
|36th United States Secretary of War|
March 5, 1885 – March 5, 1889
|Preceded by||Robert Todd Lincoln|
|Succeeded by||Redfield Proctor|
|Born||November 19, 1826|
Salem, Massachusetts, U.S.
|Died||May 6, 1900 (aged 73)|
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
|Alma mater||Harvard University|
Life and work
William Crowninshield Endicott, son of William P. and Mary (Putnam) Endicott, was born in Salem, Massachusetts. He graduated from Harvard University in 1847 and attended Harvard Law School in 1849–1850, prior to his admission to the Massachusetts bar in 1850. He married Ellen Peabody, daughter of George and Clarissa Peabody of Salem on December 13, 1859, in Salem. Her grandfather was the distinguished Salem ship owner, Joseph Peabody, who made a fortune importing pepper from Sumatra and was one of the wealthiest men in the United States at the time of his death in 1889. They had two children.
Following an unsuccessful run for Congress in 1879, Endicott served on the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court until 1882. After an unsuccessful gubernatorial race in 1884, he was appointed Secretary of War. He served in that capacity in the administration of Grover Cleveland between 1885 and 1889. Endicott oversaw many important changes in the organization of the United States Army, including the establishment of a system of examinations to determine the promotion of officers. Endicott chaired the Endicott Board of Fortifications which would provide the models for the generation of American coastal defense fortifications constructed in the era of the Spanish–American War, the Endicott Period Fortifications.
William Crowninshield Endicott died in Boston, Massachusetts. He is buried with his wife in the Endicott Lot (1554) at Harmony Grove Cemetery in Salem.
His daughter, Mary Crowninshield Endicott, married first the British statesman, Joseph Chamberlain, in 1888 and upon her first husband's passing, married the Anglican clergyman, William Hartley Carnegie, in 1916.
His son, William Crowninshield Endicott Jr., married in 1889 Marie Louise Thoron (1864–1958), daughter of Joseph and Anna Barker Ward Thoron. He was a direct descendant of the Massachusetts governor, John Endecott, and a first cousin three times removed of another Massachusetts governor, Endicott Peabody.
- Biography in Secretaries of War and Secretaries of the Army a publication of the United States Army Center of Military History.
- Walter Muir Whitehill, Captain Joseph Peabody: East India Merchant of Salem (1757–1844) (Salem, Massachusetts: Peabody Museum, 1962), 179.
|New seat||Associate Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court
Robert Todd Lincoln
|U.S. Secretary of War
Served under: Grover Cleveland
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