|Vietnam People's Air Force|
Không Quân Nhân Dân Việt Nam
|Active||1959 - present|
|Country||Vietnam (North Vietnam in the past)|
30,000 personnel (2009)|
551 active aircraft
|Part of||Vietnam People's Army|
|Colors||Azure, Dark Green|
|Anniversaries||October 22, 1963|
First Indochina War|
Operation Linebacker II
The 1975 Spring Offensive
|Commander||Lieutenant General Phuong Minh Hoa|
|Ceremonial chief||Major General Nguyen Van Thanh|
|Chief of Staff||Major General Nguyen Van Tho|
|Flag of Vietnam People's Air Force|
|Fighter||Su-30, Su-27, MiG-21|
|Trainer||Yak-52, Yak-130, L-39|
|Transport||An-38, M-28, An-24, UH-1, Mi-8, Mi-17|
The Vietnam People's Air Force (Vietnamese language: Không quân Nhân dân Việt Nam ) is the air force of Vietnam. It is the successor of the former North Vietnamese Air Force and the absorbed Republic of Vietnam Air Force following the re-unification of Vietnam in 1975. The Vietnam People's Air Force (VPAF) is one of three main branches in the Vietnam People's Army which is a part of the Ministry of Defence. The main mission of the VPAF is the defence the Vietnamese airspace and the provision of air cover for operations of the Vietnam People's Army.
Beginning-1964 (North Vietnam)
The first aircraft in service for the Vietnamese Armed Forces were two trainers, a de Havilland Tiger Moth and a Morane-Saulnier, which were initially the private property of the emperor Bảo Đại. In 1945, Bảo Đại gave the aircraft to the Vietnamese government. Until 1950, even though the Vietnam People's Army (VPA) had acquired credible offensive capabilities on the ground, it was almost powerless against reconnaissance or attacking operations from the French Expeditionary Air Force. On March 9, 1949, General Vo Nguyen Giap was authorized to establish the Air Force Research Committee (Ban Nghiên cứu Không quân) under the General Staff to study ways to deal with the air war. The first Vietnamese service aircraft flight was made by the Tiger Moth on August 15, 1949. A small-scale training was carried out in the following years.
Further development of aviation in North Vietnam began in 1956, when a number of trainees were sent to the USSR and China for pilot training. They were organized into two groups, for pilots and mechanics, respectively; and among others, utilized the Czechoslovak Zlín Z-226 and Aero Ae-45. The first unit of the VPAF was the No. 919 Transport Regiment (Trung đoàn Không quân Vận tải 919), organized on May 1, 1959, with An-2, Li-2, Il-14 aircraft, followed by the No. 910 Training Regiment (Trung đoàn Không quân 910) with Yak-18 trainers. In 1963 the Air Force and Air Defense Force were merged into the Air and Air Defence Force (Quân chủng Phòng không - Không quân).
1964–74 (North Vietnam)
The first North Vietnamese combat plane was a T-28 Trojan trainer, whose pilot defected from the Royal Lao Air Force; it was utilized from early 1964 by the North Vietnamese as a night fighter. The T-28 was the first North Vietnamese aircraft to shoot down a U.S. aircraft, a C-123, on February 15, 1964.
The North Vietnamese Air Force (NVAF) received its first jet fighter aircraft, the MiG-17 in February 1964, but they were initially stationed at air bases on Mainland China, while their pilots were being trained. On February 3, 1964, the first fighter regiment No. 921 (Trung đoàn Không quân Tiêm kích 921), aka "Red Star squadron", was formed, and on August 6 it arrived from China in North Vietnam with its MiG-17s. On September 7, the No. 923 fighter regiment, aka "Yen The Squadron", led by Lt. Col. Nguyen Phuc Trach, was formed. In May 1965, No. 16 bomber company (Đại đội Không quân Ném bom 16) was formed with Il-28 twin engine bombers. Only one Il-28 sortie was flown in 1972 against Royal Laotian forces.
The North Vietnamese Air Force's first jet air-to-air engagement with U.S. aircraft was on April 3, 1965. The NVAF claimed the shooting down of two US Navy F-8 Crusader, which was not confirmed by US sources, although they acknowledged having encountered MiGs. Consequently, April 3 became "North Vietnamese Air Force Day". On April 4 the VPAF (NVAF) scored the first confirmed victories to be acknowledged by both sides. The US fighter community was shocked when relatively slow, post-Korean era MiG-17 fighters shot down advanced F-105 Thunderchief fighters-bombers attacking the Thanh Hóa Bridge. The two downed F-105s were carrying their normal heavy bomb load, and were not able to react to their attackers.
In 1965, the NVAF were supplied with supersonic MiG-21s by the USSR which were used for high speed GCI controlled hit and run intercepts against American air strike groups. The MiG-21 tactics became so effective, that by late 1966, an operation was mounted to especially deal with the MiG-21 threat. Led by Colonel Robin Olds on 2 January 1967, Operation Bolo lured MiG-21s into the air, thinking they were intercepting a F-105 strike group, but instead found a sky full of missile armed F-4 Phantom IIs set for aerial combat. The result was a loss of almost half the inventory of MiG-21 interceptors, at a cost of no U.S. losses. The VPAF (NVAF) stood down for additional training after this setback.
Meanwhile, the disappointing performances of US Air Force and US Navy (USN) airmen, even though flying the contemporary advanced aircraft of those times, combined with a legacy of successes from World War II and the Korean War, resulted in a total revamping of aerial combat training for the USN in 1968 (Top Gun school; established 1969). The designs for an entire generation of aircraft, with engineering for optimized daylight air to air combat (dog fighting) against both older, as well as for emerging MiG fighters, were being put to the drawing board. US forces could not consistently track low flying MiGs on radar, and were hampered by restrictive rules of engagement (ROE) which required pilots to visually acquire their targets, nullifying much of the advantage of radar guided missiles, which often proved unreliable when used in combat.
The VPAF (NVAF) was a defensive air arm, with the primary mission of defending North Vietnam, and until the last stages of the war, did not conduct air operations into South Vietnam; nor did the NVAF conduct general offensive actions against enemy naval forces off the coast. However it did conduct limited attacks on the opposing naval vessels, notably damaging the United States destroyer USS Higbee in 1972. In a separate incident, MiG-17s that ventured over water were shot down by surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) fired by U.S. warships.
The VPAF (NVAF) did not engage all US sorties. Most US aircraft were destroyed by SA-2 surface-to-air missiles or anti-aircraft artillery (AAA), and in some cases, even small arms. Typically, VPAF MiGs would not engage unless it was to their advantage. Some of the aerial tactics used were similar to Operation Bolo, which lured the NVAF to the fight.
On March 24, 1967, regiments Nos. 921, 923 and 919 were incorporated into the 371st Air Division "Thăng Long" (Sư đoàn Không quân 371). In 1969, No. 925 fighter regiment was formed, flying the Shenyang J-6 (the Chinese-built MiG-19). In 1972 the fourth fighter regiment, No. 927 "Lam Son", was formed.
U.S. Navy ace Randy Cunningham believed that he shot down a Mig-17 piloted by the mythical "Nguyen Toon" or "Colonel Tomb" while flying his F4 Phantom. However, no research has been able to identify Col. Tomb's existence; Cunningham most likely downed a flight leader of the 923rd Regiment. Legend states Col. Toon downed 13 US aircraft during his tenure. Many North Vietnamese pilots were not only skilled but unorthodox, as Cunningham found out after making elementary tactical errors. The resulting dogfight became extended. Cunningham climbed steeply, and the MiG pilot surprised Cunningham by climbing as well. Using his Top Gun training, Cunningham finally forced the MiG out ahead of him and destroyed it. In fact, there wasn't any pilot in VPAF named Nguyễn Toon, he was a fictional character of the American pilots and they often made jokes with the dissertation. As a goodwill of the American pilots, Colonel Toon was a combination of good pilots in Vietnam, like the "solo artist" lonely night bombing in World War II was called Washing Machine Charlie.
There were several times during the war that the U.S. bombing restrictions of North Vietnamese Airfields were lifted. Many VPAF (NVAF) aircraft were destroyed on the ground, and those that were not, were withdrawn to a sanctuary in China. In December 1972, the North Vietnamese air defences nearly exhausted their supply of surface-to-air missiles trying to down the high-flying B-52 raids over the North. The North Vietnamese Air Defense Network was degraded by electronic countermeasures (ECM) and other suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) measures. Though the North Vietnamese forces claim over 81 US aircraft as shot down during Operation Linebacker II, (including 34 B-52s, two attributed to the VPAF), most sources acknowledge only 27 aircraft lost by the Americans.
After the negotiated end of American involvement in early 1973, the No. 919 transport air group (Lữ đoàn Không quân vận tải 919), was formed; and equipped with fix-winged aircraft, as well as helicopters (rotor-wing) in November.
During the 1975 Spring Offensive, the bombing of Tan Son Nhut Air Base, the only airstrike conducted by the VPAF, occurred on April 28, 1975, just two days before the Fall of Saigon. The operation was carried out by the VPAF's Quyet Thang Squadron, using captured A-37s aircraft flown by hero pilot Nguyen Thanh Trung who had bombed the Presidential Palace in Saigon, less than one month earlier before defecting to the north.
During the Vietnam War, NVAF used the MiG-17F, PF (J-5); MiG-19 (J-6), MiG-21F-13, PF, PFM and MF fighters. They claimed to have shot down 266 US aircraft, and US claimed to have shot down or destroyed 204 MiGs aircraft and at least six An-2s, of which 196 were confirmed with solid evidence (100 MiG-17s, 10 MiG-19s and 86 MiG-21s). However, VPAF admits only 154 MiGs were lost through all causes, including 131 in air combat ). Like that, total kill ratio would be 1:1.3 to 1:2. With the number of losses to MiGs confirmed by US (121 aircraft shotdown and 7 damaged), the kill ratio turn 1.7:1 against the MiGs, or 1.1:1 even accepting the VPAF's figure of only 131 in air combat.
1975–present (reunified Vietnam)
The VPAF did not play a major role during the Ho Chi Minh Campaign in 1975. The only sorties flown were conducted by five captured VNAF A-37s. SA-2s were transported into South Vietnam to counter possible US military air strikes. The US could not bring back their air power during the 1975 offensive, which had proven decisive in 1972, and the VNAF did not have the capability to strike targets in the north nor to defend against the onslaught in the south.
After the end of the Vietnam War (called the American War in Vietnam) in May 1975, more regiments were formed. No. 935 fighter regiment "Đồng Nai" and no. 937 fighter-bomber regiment "Hậu Giang", followed by no. 918 transport regiment "Hong Ha" and no. 917 mixed transport regiment "Đồng Tháp" were created in July 1975. In September 1975, the four newly created regiments were formed into the 370nd Air Division "Lê Lợi" and the 372nd Air Division "Hai Van" was formed, including among others the 925th fighter regiment.
On May 31, 1977, the Vietnam People's Air Force (Không quân Nhân dân Việt Nam) was separated from the Air Defense Force (Quân chủng Phòng không).
When Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1979, former VNAF A-37s flew most of the ground support missions. These aircraft were more suited to the role than the MiGs. Former VNAF F-5Es, C-123s, C-130s, and UH-1s were used by the VPAF for many years after the end of the War.
In the years between 1953 and 1991, approximately 700 warplanes, 120 helicopters, and 158 missile complexes have been supplied to North Vietnam by the USSR and PR China (primarily the MiG-19 (J6 series). Even today, three-quarters of Vietnamese weaponry has been made in post-Cold-War Russia.
Today the VPAF is in the midst of modernization. It still operates late model MiG-21s, Su-22s, aircraft of the Cold War era. However, it has recently been modernizing its air force with models of the Su-27-SK air superiority fighter following closer military ties, and an array of arms deals with Russia. To date, Vietnam has ordered and received 12 of these aircraft. In 2004, it also acquired 4 modified variants of the Su-30 MK2V, newer models of the Su-27. In May 2009, they have inked a deal to procure additional 12 aircraft from the Russian to bolster their aging fleet. The Vietnamese air force has also acquired new advanced air defense systems, including two S-300 PMU1 (NATO designation: SA-20) short-to-high altitude SAM batteries in a deal worth $300 million with Russia.
A twin-engine light transport aircraft of the 918th Transport Regiment crashed into a field on the outskirts of the capital Hanoi (Thanh Tri District) on Tuesday morning 8 April 2008 during a training mission, killing five Vietnamese military pilots. The plane took off from Gia Lam Airport in Hanoi, Northern Vietnam, with five officers aboard for a training exercise. It crashed on its way back to the airport.
Fighter Pilots Aces
|Nguyễn Văn Cốc||Nine kills||MiG-21||921st Fighter Regiment||1967-69|
|Mai Văn Cường||Eight kills||MiG-21||921st Fighter Regiment||1966-68|
|Nguyễn Hồng Nhị||Eight kills||MiG-21||921st/927th Fighter Regiment||1966-72|
|Phạm Thanh Ngân||Eight kills||MiG-21||921st Fighter Regiment||1967-69|
|Đặng Ngọc Ngự||Seven kills||MiG-21||921st Fighter Regiment||1966-72|
|Nguyễn Văn Bảy||Seven kills||MiG-17||923rd Fighter Regiment||1966-72|
|Lê Hải||Six kills||MiG-17||923rd Fighter Regiment||1967-72|
|Lê Thanh Đạo||Six kills||MiG-21||927th Fighter Regiment||1971-72|
|Lưu Huy Chao||Six kills||MiG-17||923rd Fighter Regiment||1966-68|
|Nguyễn Đăng Kỉnh||Six kills||MiG-21||921st Fighter Regiment||1967-68|
|Nguyễn Đức Soát||Six kills||MiG-21||921st/927th Fighter Regiment||1969-72|
|Nguyễn Ngọc Độ||Six kills||MiG-21||921st Fighter Regiment||1967-68|
|Nguyễn Nhật Chiêu||Six Kills||MiG-17/MiG-21||921st Fighter Regiment||1965-67|
|Nguyễn Tiến Sâm||Six kills||MiG-21||921st/927th Fighter Regiment||1968-72|
|Vũ Ngọc Đỉnh||Six kills||MiG-21||921st Fighter Regiment||1966-70|
|Nguyễn Văn Nghĩa||Five kills||MiG-21||927th Fighter Regiment||1972|
About the other pilots, see Safarik's comprehensive list.
Air Force and Air Defense Divisions
Air Division and Regimental Names of the VPAF Recent base information is from the Vietnamese Wikipedia VPAF article.
|High Command of Air Defense and Air Force||371st Air Force Division
(Thăng Long Air Wing)
|921st Fighter||Red Star Squadron||Su-22M-4/UM-3K||Noi Bai International Airport|
|923rd Fighter-bomber||Yen The Squadron||Su-30MK2V||Tho Xuan|
|927th Fighter||Lam Son Squadron||MiG-21bis/UM||Képdisambiguation needed|
|931st Fighter||Yên Bái Squadron||Su-22M-4/UM-3K||Yên Bái|
|916th Helicopter||Ba Vi Squadron||Mi-6, Mi-8, Mi-24D, Mi-171||Hoa Lac|
|918th Air Transport||Hong Ha Squadron||An-2, An-26, An-30, M-28||Gia Lam|
|372nd Air Force Division
(Hai Van Air Wing)
|929th Fighter-Bomber||Son Tra Squadron||MiG-21bis/UM||Da Nang|
|930th Helicopter||Mi-8, Mi-171||Da Nang|
|940th Fighter/Air Training||Tây Sơn Squadron||Su-27SK/UBK/PU||Phu Cat|
|370th Air Force Division
(Lê Lợi Air Wing)
|937th Fighter-Bomber||Hậu Giang Squadron||Su-22M-4/UM-3K||Thanh Son|
|935th Fighter||Đồng Nai Squadron||Su-30MK2V||Bien Hoa|
|917th Mixed Air Transport||Đồng Tháp Squadron||UH-1H, Mi-8, Mi-171||Tan Son Nhat|
|Air Force Officer School||910th Air Training||L-39C||Dong Tac|
|920nd Air Training||Yak-52||Cam Ranh|
|361st Air Defense Division
(Ha Noi Air Defense Division)
|218th SA Artillery||Hoa Lư Regiment||ZSU-23-4, SA-2 Guideline, SA-3 Goa, SA-9 Gaskin, SA-13 Gopher, SA-20 Gargoyle||Ha Noi|
|280th SA Artillery||Hong Linh Regiment|
|236th SA Missile||Song Da Regiment|
|250th SA Missile||Thăng Longdisambiguation needed Regiment|
|257th SA Missile||Red Flag Regiment|
|363rd Air Defense Division
(Hai Phong Air Defense Division)
|240th AA Artillery||ZSU-23-4, SA-2 Guideline, SA-3 Goa, SA-9 Gaskin, SA-13 Gopher||Hai Phong|
|213th SA Missile|
|238th SA Missile||Hạ Long Regiment|
|285th SA Missile||Nam Trieu Regiment|
|365th Air Defense Division
(Bac Thai Air Defense Division)
|228th SA Artillery||Ham Rong Regiment||ZSU-23-4, SA-2 Guideline, SA-3 Goa, SA-9 Gaskin, SA-13 Gopher, SA-6 Gainful||Bắc Giang|
|267th SA Missile||Dien Bien Regiment|
|284th SA Missile||Song La Regiment|
|375th Air Defense Division
(Da Nang Air Defense Division)
|224th SA Artillery||To Vinh Dien Regiment||SA-2 Guideline, SA-3 Goa, SA-6 Gainful||Da Nang|
|275th SA Missile||Soc Son Regiment|
|282nd SA Missile||Tam Giang Regiment|
|377th Air Defense Division||591st SA Artillery||Truong Son Regiment||SA-2 Guideline, SA-3 Goa, SA-6 Gainful||Cam Ranh|
|274th SA Missile||Hung Vuong Regiment|
|367th Air Defense Division
(HCMC Air Defense Division)
|230th SA Artillery||Thong Nhat Regiment||SA-2 Guideline, SA-3 Goa, SA-6 Gainful, SA-20 Gargoyle||Ho Chi Minh city|
|261st SA Missile||Thanh Loa Regiment|
|263th SA Missile||Quang Trung Regiment|
|276th SA Missile|
Some airbases in the south were built by the French, Japanese* (World War II), United States Air Force or United States Navy for South Vietnam. The northern bases were likely built with assistance and/or use by the French, China or Soviet Union during the Vietnam War.
- Kép Airbase (VVKP)
- Bien Hoa Air Base (VVBH/VBH)
- Đồng Hới Airport (VVDH/VDH)
- Hoa Lac Airbase (VVHL/VHL)
- Gia Lam Airbase (VVGL/VGL)
- Anh Son Airfield
- Thanh Son Airbase (VVPR/VPR)
- Thanh Hóa Airbase - reside training school for Vietnam fighter pilot.
- Truong Sa Airfield (VVSA)
- Tan Son Nhut Air Base (VVTS)
- Yên Bái Airbase - (VVYB) training school for Vietnam fighter pilot.
- Cam Ranh Airport (VVCR/CXR) - open for commercial flights in 2005
- Vũng Tàu Airfield (VVVT) operates for offshore helicopter services
- Cần Thơ Airfield - (VVCT/VCA) open and upgrade for logistic support air group.
- Noi Bai International Airport - 921st Fighter Regiment
- Nha Trang Air Base
Air Force Museum
There are two Air Force museums in Vietnam: Vietnam People's Air Force Museum, Hanoi and Vietnam People's Air Force Museum, Ho Chi Minh City.
|Aircraft||Air Defense Missiles||Air Defense Artillery||Paratroops||Radar Surveillance|
Most of the VPAF's aircraft were supplied from the Soviet Union and PRC, but hundreds were left over by the United States via the Republic of Vietnam, most of which are no longer in service.
|Fighter aircraft 385 total|
|Sukhoi Su-30||Russia||Multi-role fighter||Su-30MK2V
||24||12 more on order.|
|Sukhoi Su-27||Russia||Air superiority fighter||Su-27SK/UBK||10||.|
|Mikoyan MiG-21||USSR||Fighter||MiG-21Bis "Fishbed-L/N/UM"||200+||250 aircraft were transferred to Vietnam from USSR during the Vietnam War.|
|Sukhoi Su-22||USSR||Ground attack||Su-22M3/4 "Fitter-J/K"||145||In 1976-1985, 40 Sukhoi Su-22Ms were given to Vietnam from Soviet Union . In 2005, Vietnam bought 40 used Sukhoi Su-22M4s from Poland .In 2006-2007, Vietnam bought few more used Sukhoi Su-22M4/UM3s from Ukraine and Czech Republic.|
|Attack helicopter Total 36|
|Mil Mi-24||USSR||Attack helicopter||Mi-24 "Hind"||36||unknown status|
|Trainer aircraft Total 62|
|Aero L-39 Albatros||Czechoslovakia||Trainer||L-39C||26||Subsonic jet trainer|
|Yakovlev Yak-130||Russia||Advanced trainer / Light attack||Yak-130||8 on order|
|Transport aircraft 61+ total|
|An-2 Colt||Poland||Light transport||An-2TD||15+|
|PZL M28 Skytruck||Poland||Light transport||M-28||11||In 2005, Vietnam bought 12 PZL M28-1Rs (M-28B) from Poland.In November 2005, 1 PZl M-28 of VPAF crashed in Gia Lam district, Hanoi. All three crewmembers died.|
|Transport helicopter Total 165|
|Mi-8 Hip||USSR||Transport helicopter||Mil Mi-8||69|
|Mi-17 Hip-H||Russia||Transport||Mil Mi-17/171||67|
|Eurocopter Dauphin||France||SAR helicopter||SA-365 N2||6||From the Ministry of Defence|
|Aérospatiale Super Puma||France||Civilian transport||AS-332L2||8||From the Ministry of Defence. 1 Super Puma operated by Southern Service Flight Company (SFC) was lost in sea transportation mission for offshore platform in 2007.|
|UH-1H Huey||United States||Utility||UH-1H||15+|
|M-400 UAV||Vietnam||UAV||M400-CT||Currently used for air defenses training purpose.|
|VNS-41||Vietnam||Amphibious||VNS-41||12||Domestic produced light plane type ULM with floatation devices.|
|Photo||Name||Origin||Type||Versions||Nọ of launchers||Nọ of missiles||Notes|
|Air Defence Missile|
|Russia||long range SAM system||S-300PMU-1||2 batteries, 12 launchers|
|USSR||surface-to-air missile||S-125 Pechora 2TM (modernized version of SA-3)||100 launchers||Unknown|
|USSR||surface-to-air missile||S-75 Volga 2MV||300 launchers||1000+ missiles|
|USSR||surface-to-air missile||SA-6 MV||36 launchers||1600 missiles|
|Russia||surface-to-air missile||Strela 10M3MV||20 launchers||200 missiles||Indigenously produced in Vietnam|
|Russia||Man portable surface-to-air missile launcher||Strela 2M||100 launchers||350 missiles|
|Russia||Man portable surface-to-air missile launcher||Igla-S||20 launchers||400 missiles||Indigenously produced in Vietnam|
|Air Defence Artillery|
|57 mm AZP S-60||USSR||AAA guns||S-60||250|
|37 mm automatic air defense gun M1939 (61-K)||USSR||AAA guns||Twin barrel version||260|
|ZPU-4||USSR||AA Machine gun||1300|
|Photo||Name||Origin||Type||Versions||Used||Nọ of missiles||Notes|
|AS-17 Krypton||Russia||anti-ship missile||Kh-31A
|Su-30MK2V||100 missiles||delivery in 2012|
|AS-14 Kedge||Russia||anti-ship missile||Kh-29T
|AA-10 Alamo||Russia||air-to-air missile||R 27||Su-30MK2V
|AA-11 Archer||Russia||air-to-air missile||R-73||Su-30MK2V
|AA-12 Adder||Russia||air-to-air missile||R-77||Su-30MK2V
|AS-10 Karen||Russia||anti-ship missile||Kh-25ML
|AS-9 Kyle||USSR||anti-ship missile||Kh-28E||Su-22M4|||
- Czechoslovakia Zlín Z-226 Trener - basic trainer (8)
- Czechoslovakia Aero Ae-45 - trainer (3)
- Czechoslovakia Aero L-29 Delfin - jet trainer (12)
- USSR Lisunov Li-2 Cab - transport (24)
- USSR Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle - medium bomber (16)
- USSR Ilyushin Il-14 Crate - transport (45)
- USSR Ilyushin Il-18 Coot - transport (7)
- USSR Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 Fagot - jet fighter (50)
- USSR Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17 Fresco - jet fighter (77)
- USSR Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19 Farmer - jet fighter (45)
- USSR Sukhoi Su-7 Fitter- fighter-bomber (30)
- USSR Yak-40 Codling - transport (15)
- Poland Mil Mi-2 Hoplite Hoplite - light helicopter (24)
- United States Douglas A-1 Skyraider - prop attack aircraft (21)
- United States Sikorsky CH-34 Choctaw - helicopter (34)
- United States Cessna A-37 Dragonfly - jet attack aircraft (95)
- United States Northrop F-5 Freedom Fighter - supersonic light fighter (8 that haven't been auctioned off)
- United States Northrop F-5E Tiger II - supersonic light fighter (1) - Lt. Nguyễn Thành Trung was pilot when he bombed the Republic South Vietnam Presidential Palace on morning of April 5, 1975 then fled to Phước Long airfield where he was received by North Vietnam Forces.
- United States Northrop F-5B Freedom Fighter - supersonic trainer (3)
- United States Douglas C-47 Skytrain - transport & gunship (16)
- United States Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar - medium transport (5) - 1 gunship lost with crews, in battle on April 29, 1975, Captain Trang văn Thắng was pilot
- United States Lockheed C-130 Hercules - medium transport (4)
- United States Boeing CH-47 Chinook - heavy-lift helicopter (23)
- United States Cessna O-1 Bird Dog - army co-operation/light recon (19)
- United States North American T-28 Trojan - basic trainer/light attack (14)
- United States Cessna T-37 Tweet - jet trainer (9)
- United States UH-1 Iroquois - helicopter (42) - except 15 UH-1H still in flight
Some jet fighters (F-5s and A-37s) were auctioned in 1998, and are currently owned by private companies, and individuals in America, Australia, New Zealand, and Europe.
The current procurement plan of the VPAF is to equip up to 3 regiments with 3 x 24 Sukhoi Su-30 "Flanker" until 2015. VPAF also intends to upgrade its air defense system with more effective missile system such as Buk missile system or Tor missile system. Vietnam may be the third customer to buy the S-400 Triumf missile system around 2017
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vietnam People's Air Force.|
- Battle of Phou Pha Thi, (Northeastern Laos, 12 January 1968)
- Republic of Vietnam Air Force
- Vietnam People's Air Force Museum, Hanoi
- Vietnam People's Air Force Museum, Ho Chi Minh City
- Colonel Nguyen Toon
- Ivanov, S.V. (2000). "Boyevoye primenenye MiG-17 i MiG-19 vo Vietnamye (Боевое применение МиГ-17 и МиГ-19 во Вьетнаме)".
- Sherman, Stephen (October 2002). "Randy Cunningham". Acepilots.com. http://www.acepilots.com/vietnam/cunningham.html.
- Hall, George (1987). Top Gun: The Navy's Fighter Weapons School. Presido Press.
- "Vạch nhiễu tìm thù hạ "ngáo ộp" B52". Tin nhanh Việt Nam ra thế giới (World News Vietnam) – Vietbao.vn. 23 December 2007. http://vietbao.vn/Phong-su/Vach-nhieu-tim-thu-ha-ngao-op-B52/70107581/262/.
- See "Published Government Documents" and "Secondary Sources" below.
- Migs over North Vietnam: The Vietnam People's Air Force in Combat, 1965-75, Stackpole Military History
- ACIG Team (16 September 2003). "Vietnamese Air-to-Air Victories, Part 1". Indochina Database. Air Combat Information Group. http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_245.shtml.
- ACIG Team (16 September 2003). "Vietnamese Air-to-Air Victories, Part 2". Indochina Database. Air Combat Information Group. http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_246.shtml.
- Blagov, Sergei (5 September 2003). "Russian missiles to guard skies over Vietnam". Moscow. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Central_Asia/EI05Ag02.html.
- "Su-17,-20,-22 FITTER (SUKHOI)". GlobalSecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/su-17-specs.htm.
- "MiG-21 FISHBED". GlobalSecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/mig-21-specs.htm.
- Bowers, Al; Lednicer, David (17 May 1999). "Fighter Pilot Aces List". The Air University. http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/aces/aces.htm#vietnam.
- ŠAFAŘÍK, Jan Josef (20 December 2010). "VIETNAM: War In Vietnam". http://aces.safarikovi.org/victories/vietnam.html.
- MiG-17 and MiG-19 Units of the Vietnam War by István Toperczer
- Russia to Deliver 12 Su-30 Fighter Jets to Vietnam – Source - Rian.ru, 21 August 2013
- "Ukraine to Repair Engines of Vietnamese Su-27 Aircraft". July 23, 2013. http://defense-studies.blogspot.com/2013/07/ukraine-to-repair-engines-of-vietnamese.html.
- "Vietnam opens new maintenance line for Sukhoi Su-27 and Su-30 fighters". November 2, 2013. http://www.airrecognition.com/index.php/archive-world-worldwide-news-air-force-aviation-aerospace-air-military-defence-industry/2013-global-news-worldwide-world-international-air-force-aviation-/november-2013-global-news-worldwide-world-international-air-force-aviation-aerospace-/858-china-opens-new-maintenance-line-for-sukhoi-su-27-and-su-30-fighters-.html.
- Flightglobal Insight | World Air Forces 2011/2012
- "Поставки Россией военной техники за рубеж". Russia's supply of military technology abroad. http://apsheronsk.bozo.ru/Navy/Contracts.html.
- "Vietnam Successfully Tests First Unmanned Aircraft". May 5, 2013. http://defense-studies.blogspot.com/2013/05/vietnam-successfully-tests-first.html.
- "Vietnam UAV Flying at Night, Facing the South China Sea". May 28, 2013. http://defense-studies.blogspot.com/2013/05/vietnam-uav-flying-at-night-facing.html.
- "ZSU-23-4". Jane's Information Group. 2008-10-30. http://www8.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata/yb/jlad/jlad0057.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-08.
- "Việt Nam mua tên lửa chống hạm siêu âm cho Su-30MK2". The Philippines bought supersonic anti-ship missile for Su-30MK2. 18 July 2008. http://vietnamdefence.com/Home/tintuc/vietnam/Viet-Nam-mua-ten-lua-chong-ham-sieu-am-cho-Su30MK2/20127/51833.vnd.
- "Soviet Missiles: Air-to-Surface Missiles". http://personal.inet.fi/cool/foxfour/sovmis/sovmis-as.html.
- "Vietnam Arranges Event for Media for the Su-30MK2 Missile". April 1, 2013. http://defense-studies.blogspot.com/2013/02/vietnam-arranges-event-for-media-for-su.html.
- Kopp, Dr Carlo (August 2009). "Soviet/Russian Tactical Air to Surface Missiles". Air Power Australia (http://www.ausairpower.net). http://www.ausairpower.net/APA-Rus-ASM.html.
- "Việt Nam là khách hàng mua S-400 thứ ba". Vietnam is the third S-400 buyer. Vietnam Press (baodatviet.vn). 24 March 2012. http://quocphong.baodatviet.vn/Home/QPCN/Viet-Nam-la-khach-hang-mua-S400-thu-ba/20123/191370.datviet.
Published Government Documents
- Boyne, Walter J. (May 1997). "Linebacker II". http://www.airforce-magazine.com/MagazineArchive/Pages/1997/November%201997/1197linebacker.aspx.
- Gilster, Herman L. The Air War in Southeast Asia: Case Studies of Selected Campaigns. Maxwell Air Force Base AL: Air University Press, 1993.
- Head, William P. War from Above the Clouds: B-52 Operations During the Second Indochina War and the Effects of the Air War on Theory and Doctrine. Maxwell AFB AL: Air University Press, 2002.
- McCarthy, Brig. Gen. James R. and LtCol. George B. Allison, Linebacker II: A View from the Rock. Maxwell Air Force Base AL: Air University Press, 1979.
- Nalty, Bernard C. Air War Over South Vietnam: 1969–1975. Washington, D.C.: Center of Air Force History, 1995.
- Schlight, John, A War Too Long. Washington, D.C.: Center of Air Force History, 1993.
- Tilford, Earl H. Setup: What the Air Force Did in Vietnam and Why. Maxwell Air Force Base AL: Air University Press, 1991.
- Thompson, Wayne, To Hanoi and Back: The U.S. Air Force and North Vietnam, 1966–1973. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2002.
- Asselin, Pierre, A Bitter Peace: Washington, Hanoi and the Making of the Paris Agreement, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.
- Ambrose, Stephen E., The Christmas Bombing in Robert Cowley, ed. The Cold War: A Military History, New York: Random House, 2005.
- Casey, Michael, Clark Dougan, Samuel Lipsman, Jack Sweetman, Stephen Weiss, et al., Flags Into Battle. Boston: Boston Publishing Company, 1987.
- Dorr, Robert. Boeing's Cold War Warrior: B-52 Stratofortress. Osprey Publishing, 2000. ISBN 978-1-84176-097-1
- Drendel, Lou, Air War over Southeast Asia: Vol. 3, 1971–1975. Carrollton TX: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1984.
- Hobson, Chris, "Vietnam Air Losses USAF/NAVY/MARINE, Fixed-wing aircraft losses Southeast Asia 1961–1973. 2001. ISBN 1-8578-1156
- Karnow, Stanley, Vietnam: A History. New York: Viking Books, 1983.
- Lipsman, Samuel, Stephen Weiss, et al., The False Peace: 1972–74. Boston: Boston Publishing Company, 1985.
- Littauer, Raphael and Norman Uphoff, The Air War in Indochina. Boston: Beacon Press, 1972.
- McCarthy, Donald J. Jr. MiG Killers: A Chronology of US Air Victories in Vietnam 1965–1973. North Branch, Minnesota: Speciality Press, 2009. ISBN 978-1-58007-136-9.
- Morocco, John, Rain of Fire: Air War, 1969–1973. Boston: Boston Publishing Company, 1985.
- Pribbenow, Merle L.(trans) Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the People's Army of Vietnam. University Press of Kansas, 2002. ISBN 0-7006-1175-4
- Zaloga, Steven J. Red SAM: The SA-2 Guideline Anti-Aircraft Missile. Osprey Publishing, 2007. ISBN 978-1-84603-062-8
- Vietnamese's Air-to-Air Victories
- Vietnamese Aces
- Vietnam Air Force Museum
- Ace Pilots North Vietnam Aces
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