SS Red Oak Victory, now a museum ship.
|Builders:||6 shipyards in the USA|
|Class & type:||Cargo ship|
|Tonnage:||7200 (gross), 4300 (net), 10,600 (deadweight)|
|Displacement:||15200 tons (at 28-foot draft)|
|Length:||455 feet (139 m)|
|Beam:||62 feet (19 m)|
|Draft:||28 feet (7.6 m)|
|Depth of hold:||38 feet (11.5 m)|
|Speed:||15 to 17 knots (28 to 31 km/h)|
The Victory ship was a type of cargo ship produced in large numbers by North American shipyards during World War II to replace losses caused by German submarines. Based on the earlier Liberty ship, but with more powerful engines, 531 Victory ships were built.
One of the first acts of the United States War Shipping Administration upon its formation in February 1942 was to commission the design of what came to be known as the Victory class. Initially designated EC2-S-AP1, where EC2 = Emergency Cargo, type 2 (Load Waterline Length between 400 and 450 feet), S = steam propulsion with one propeller (EC2-S-C1 had been the designation of the Liberty ship design), it was changed to VC2-S-AP1 before the name "Victory Ship" was officially adopted on 28 April 1943.
The design was an enhancement of the Liberty ship, which had been successfully produced in extraordinary numbers. Victory ships were slightly larger than Liberty ships, at 455 feet (139 m) long and 62 feet (19 m) wide with 28 feet (7.6 m) draft (loaded). With a fine raked bow and a 'cruiser' stern, to help achieve the higher speed, they had a quite different appearance from Liberty ships.
To make them less vulnerable to U-boat attacks, Victory ships made 15 to 17 knots (28 to 31 km/h), 4 to 6 knots faster than the Libertys, and had longer range. The extra speed was achieved through improved engines. Rather than the Libertys' 2,500 horsepower triple expansion steam engines, Victory ships were designed to use either Lentz type reciprocating steam engines, steam turbines or Diesel engines, variously putting out between 6000 and 8500 horsepower (4.5 and 6 MW). Most used steam turbines, which had been in short supply earlier in the war and reserved for warships. All were oil fired, but for a handful of Canadian vessels completed with both coal bunkers and oil tanks. Another improvement was electrically powered auxiliary equipment, rather than steam-driven machinery. .
To prevent hull fracture that dogged some Liberty ships, the spacing between frames were widened 6 inches to 36 inches (914 mm), making the ships less stiff.
The VC2-S-AP2,VC2-S-AP3, and VC2-M-AP4 were armed with a 5 inch (127 mm) stern gun for use against submarines and surface ships, and a bow-mounted 3"/50 caliber gun and eight 20 mm cannon for use against aircraft. These were manned by United States Navy Armed Guard personnel. The VC2-S-AP5 Haskell-class attack transports were armed with the 5 inch (127 mm) stern gun, one quad 40mm Bofors cannon, four dual 40mm Bofors cannon, and ten single 20mm cannon. The Haskells were operated and crewed exclusively by U.S. Navy personnel.
The first vessel was SS United Victory launched at Oregon Shipbuilding Corporation on 12 January 1944 and completed on 28 February 1944, and had her maiden voyage a month later. American vessels frequently had a name incorporating the word "Victory". The British and Canadians used "Fort" and "Park" respectively. After United Victory, the next 34 vessels were named after allied countries, the following 218 after American cities, the next 150 after educational institutions and the remainder given miscellaneous names. The AP5 type attack transports were named after United States counties, without "Victory" in their name, with the exception of USS Marvin H. McIntyre (APA-129), which was named after President Roosevelt's late personal secretary.
Although initial deliveries were slow — only 15 had been delivered by May 1944 — by the end of the war 531 had been constructed. The Commission cancelled orders for a further 132 vessels, although three were completed in 1946 for the Alcoa Steamship Company, making a total built in the United States of 534, made up of:
|272||VC2-S-AP2||6,000 hp (4.5 MW) general cargo vessels|
|141||VC2-S-AP3||8,500 hp (6.3 MW) vessels|
|117||VC2-S-AP5||Haskell-class attack transports|
|3||VC2-S-AP7||Post war completion|
Of the wartime construction, 414 of these were of the standard cargo variant and 117 were attack transports. Because the Atlantic battle had been won by the time that the first ships appeared, only two were sunk by U-boats. These were Fort Bellingham and Fort St. Nicholas. Three more were sunk by Japanese Kamikaze attack in April 1945, Logan Victory, Hobbs Victory and Canada Victory.
Many saw postwar conversion and various uses for years afterward. The single VC2-M-AP4 Diesel-powered Emory Victory operated in Alaskan waters for the Bureau of Indian Affairs as North Star III. AP3 types South Bend Victory and Tuskegee Victory were converted in 1957-58 to ocean hydrographic surveying ships USNS Bowditch (T-AGS-21) and Dutton (T-AGS-22), respectively. Dutton aided in locating the lost hydrogen bomb following the 1966 Palomares B-52 crash.
Starting in 1959, several were removed from the reserve fleet and refitted for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. One such ship was the SS Kingsport Victory, which was renamed USNS Kingsport and converted into the world's first satellite communications ship. Another was the former Haiti Victory, which recovered the first man-made object to return from space, the nose cone of Discoverer 13, on 11 August 1960. USS Sherburne (APA-205) was converted in 1969-1970 to the range instrumentation ship USNS Range Sentinel (T-AGM-22) for downrange tracking of ballistic missile tests.
- USNS Norwalk (T-AK-279)
- USNS Furman (T-AK-280)
- USNS Victoria (T-AK-281)
- USNS Marshfield (T-AK-282)
In the 1960s two Victory ships were reactivated and converted to technical research ships by the U.S. Navy with the hull type AGTR. SS Iran Victory became the USS Belmont (AGTR-4) and SS Simmons Victory became the USS Liberty (AGTR-5). The Liberty was attacked and severely damaged by Israeli forces in June 1967 and subsequently decommissioned and stricken from the Naval Register. The Belmont was decommissioned and stricken in 1970. Baton Rouge Victory was sunk in the Mekong delta by a Viet Cong mine in August 1966 and temporarily blocked the channel to Saigon.
The Victory ship were constructed in six West Coast and one Baltimore emergency shipyard that sprang up in World War II to build Liberty, Victory, and other ships. The Victory ship was designed to be assembled by the smallest capacity crane at these shipyards. In addition to the American construction, some ships were also built in British yards, and three hundred hulls in Canadian.
|MCV Hull Numbers||Notes|
|Bethlehem Fairfield||Baltimore, Maryland||94||VC2-S-AP2||93||602-653, 816-856||23 more cancelled|
|VC2-M-AP4||1||654||Diesel engine variant|
|California Shipbuilding||Wilmington, California||131||VC2-S-AP3||32||1-24, 27, 29, 31-33, 37, 41, 42|
|VC2-S-AP5||30||25, 26, 28, 30, 34-36, 38-40, 43-62||63-66 Transferred to Vancouver as 812-815|
|VC2-S-AP2||69||67-84, 767-811, 885-890||10 more cancelled|
|Kaiser Shipbuilding||Vancouver, Washington||31||VC2-S-AP5||31||655-681, 812-815||17 more cancelled|
|Oregon Shipbuilding||Portland, Oregon||136||VC2-S-AP3||99||85-116, 147-189, 682-701, 872-875||19 more cancelled|
|VC2-S-AP5||34||117-146, 860-863||12 more cancelled|
|VC2-S1-AP7||2||876, 877||Originally AP3|
|Permanente/Kaiser Yard #1||Richmond, California||53||VC2-S-AP3||10||525-534|
|VC2-S-AP2||43||535-550, 581-596, 702-711|
|Permanente/Kaiser Yard #2||89||VC2-S-AP5||22||552-573|
|VC2-S-AP2||67||574-580, 597-601, 712-766|
Status of remaining Victory ships
Three are now open for tours as museum ships:
- SS American Victory (Tampa, Florida)
- SS Lane Victory (Los Angeles, California)
- SS Red Oak Victory (Richmond, California)
One is laid up in the National Defense Reserve Fleet.
- Status indicated is as of 2010-3-31 MARAD inventory.
One is at Sparrows Point, Maryland undergoing scrapping:
- USS Range Sentinel (AGM-22) - Hull Number 553, type VC2-S-AP5, status: being scrapped at Sparrows Point Shipyard (former USS Sherburne (APA-205))
Four are at Brownsville, Texas undergoing scrapping:
- Status indicated is as of 2010-3-31 MARAD inventory.
- SS Earlham Victory - Hull Number 763, type VC2-S-AP2, status: being scrapped at All Star Metals
- SS Pan American Victory - Hull Number 746, type VC2-S-AP2, status: being scrapped at All Star Metals
- SS Rider Victory - Hull Number 777, type VC2-S-AP2, status: being scrapped at ESCO Marine, Brownsville, Tx.
- SS Winthrop Victory - Hull Number 790, type VC2-S-AP2, status: being scrapped at ESCO Marine, Brownsville, Tx.
- Empire ships
- Liberty ship
- List of Victory ships
- Park ships
- Port Chicago disaster
- T2 tanker
- Type C1 ship
- Type C2 ship
- Type C3 ship
- U.S. Merchant Marine Academy
- Culver, John A., CAPT USNR "A time for Victories" United States Naval Institute Proceedings February 1977 pp. 50-56
- Jaffee, Capt. Walter W., The Lane Victory: The Last Victory Ship in War and in Peace, 2nd ed., p. 14, The Glencannon Press, Palo Alto, CA, 1997.
- Melson, Lewis B., CAPT USN "Contact 261" United States Naval Institute Proceedings June 1967
- "WWII Construction Records - Private-Sector Shipyards that Built Ships for the U.S. Maritime Commission". Archived from the original on 2006-10-23. http://web.archive.org/web/20061023011524/http://www.coltoncompany.com/shipbldg/ussbldrs/wwii/merchantsbldg.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-03.
- "Victory Ships built by the United States Maritime Commission during World War II - Listed by Shipyard". http://www.usmm.org/victoryard.html. Retrieved 2006-11-04.
- "BB Metals Awarded Naval Shipbreaking Contract". http://dundalk.patch.com/articles/bb-metals-awarded-naval-shipbreaking-contract. Retrieved 20012-11-17.
- SS American Victory Web site
- SS Lane Victory Web site
- U-Boat net
- United States National Park Service document on historical significance of SS Red Oak Victory
- Ships for Victory: A History of Shipbuilding under the U.S. Maritime Commission in World War II, by Frederic C. Lane. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8018-6752-5
- Victory Ships and Tankers; the history of the "Victory" type cargo ships and of the tankers built in the United States of America during World War II, by L. A. Sawyer and W. H. Mitchell. Cambridge, Maryland: Cornell Maritime Press, 1974
A Great Fleet of Ships—the Canadian Forts and Park Victory ship. SC Heal. Vanwell, 1993.
- Liberty Ships and Victory Ships, America's Lifeline in War - a lesson on Liberty ships and Victory ships from the National Park Service's Teaching with Historic Places
- "Victory Ship Makes 15 knots, Outstrips Liberty" Popular Mechanics, December 1943
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