|USS Dorado (SS-248)|
|Career (United States)|
|Builder:||General Dynamics Electric Boat, Groton, Connecticut|
|Laid down:||27 August 1942|
|Launched:||23 May 1943|
|Sponsored by:||Mrs. Ezra G. Allen|
|Commissioned:||28 August 1943|
|Fate:||Sunk, off Panama on 12 October 1943|
|Class & type:||Gato-class diesel-electric submarine|
|Displacement:||1,525 long tons (1,549 t) surfaced, 2,424 long tons (2,463 t) submerged|
|Length:||311 ft 9 in (95.02 m)|
|Beam:||27 ft 3 in (8.31 m)|
|Draft:||17 ft (5.2 m) maximum|
|Speed:||21 kn (39 km/h) surfaced, 9 kn (17 km/h) submerged|
|Range:||11,000 nmi (20,000 km) surfaced @ 10 kn (19 km/h)|
|Endurance:||48 hours @ 2 kn (3.7 km/h) submerged, 75 days on patrol|
|Test depth:||300 ft (91 m)|
|Complement:||6 officers, 54 enlisted|
Her keel was laid down on 27 August 1942 by the Electric Boat Company of Groton, Connecticut. She was launched on 23 May 1943 (sponsored by Mrs. Ezra G. Allen), and commissioned on 28 August 1943, Lieutenant Commander Earle Caffrey Schneider in command.
Dorado's sea trials proved the readiness of the crew, and she sailed from New London, Connecticut, on 6 October 1943 for the Panama Canal Zone. She did not arrive.
The standard practice of imposing bombing restrictions within an area 50 nmi (93 km) ahead, 100 nmi (190 km) astern, and 15 nmi (28 km) on each side of the scheduled position of an unescorted submarine making passage in friendly waters had been carried out and all concerned had been notified. However, the crew of a PBM Mariner of Patrol Squadron 210 out of Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, assigned to provide air coverage on the evening of 12 October had received an incorrect description of the restriction area, 11 nmi (20 km) out of place.
At 2049 local time, under a moon-lit but stormy sky, that plane attacked an unidentified submarine that it believed was outside the restriction area with three Mark-47 depth charges and a 100 lb (45 kg) Mark-4 Mod-4 demolition bomb. About two hours later, the plane sighted a second submarine with which it attempted to exchange recognition signals. This second submarine fired upon the plane.
A convoy scheduled to pass through the restricted area surrounding Dorado on the evening of 12 October reported no contact.
Air searches were begun immediately after 14 October, her scheduled date of arrival. Widely scattered oil slicks with occasional debris were found. Subsequently the Board of Investigation held in Guantánamo Bay, and the more formal Naval Board of Inquiry held at the Washington Navy Yard, found that the "widely scattered oil slicks" were actually oleous in nature and not bunker oil or fuel - most probably rotting vegetation like seaweed. All of the "occasional debris" was determined not to have come from Dorado.
At both the Board of Investigation and the Court of Inquiry, the aircrew testified that they were certain that both submarines they had attacked were U-boats. Despite the circumstantial evidence, there are reasons to doubt that Dorado was sunk by the Mariner. Because the crew knew that Dorado was operating in the area, they carefully observed their two targets before attacking. Prior to the first attack, the four crewmen of the aircraft observed the surfaced submarine for 12 minutes, noting:
- it was 48 nmi (89 km) from where they had been told to expect Dorado to be and 34 nmi (63 km) from where Dorado really was supposed to be
- it was heading almost 90 degrees off from Dorado’s base course
- it had no guns on the fore deck where Dorado carried a five-inch (127 mm) gun
- it had an entirely grooved deck where Dorado's deck was grooved only near the conning tower
- it had a "knob-like" object on the front of the conning tower, almost certainly the Biscay Cross radar detector installed on Type IX U-boats
Post-war examination of Kriegsmarine records indicate that the submarine first attacked by the Mariner may have been U-518, though that boat's logs do not record the attack. It is possible that the attack went unnoticed by the boat; of the three depth charges and one 100 pound bomb that were dropped, one depth charge was a confirmed dud, one was dropped too low to arm, and neither the third depth charge nor the bomb were seen to explode. After the attack, the Mariner searched the area for 20 minutes, but saw no explosions, bubbles, or debris.
Syneca Research Group
The Syneca Research Group describes an unusual possible fate for Dorado: they assert the boat's sea trials were marred by a fire, a submerged grounding, and difficulties in diving the boat and keeping her submerged. They also believe they have evidence that aircraft pilots in the early 1970s were familiar with the remains of a submarine conning tower that stuck up out of the sandy bottom just off the Mexican coast—a handy reference point, especially easy to spot when the rising or setting sun threw the sail's silhouette across the white sand. However, since the 1970s, drifting sand has covered the site. Dorado's buoyancy problems are cited to support the possibility that the bombing killed her crew, but left the boat in a buoyant condition so that she did not sink to the ocean floor, but rather drifted some 900 nmi (1,700 km) in the currents of the Caribbean Sea until she grounded in the shallow water near the coast.
A memorial to Dorado has been constructed in the Veterans Memorial Park in Wichita, Kansas on the Arkansas River.
A 614-page book entitled "USS DORADO (SS-248): On Eternal Patrol" was published by Douglas E. Campbell in November 2011. ISBN 978-1-257-95155-0
- Friedman, Norman (1995). U.S. Submarines Through 1945: An Illustrated Design History. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute. pp. 285–304. ISBN 1-55750-263-3.
- Bauer, K. Jack; Roberts, Stephen S. (1991). Register of Ships of the U.S. Navy, 1775-1990: Major Combatants. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. pp. 271–273. ISBN 0-313-26202-0.
- Bauer, K. Jack; Roberts, Stephen S. (1991). Register of Ships of the U.S. Navy, 1775–1990: Major Combatants. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. pp. 275–280. ISBN 978-0-313-26202-9.
- U.S. Submarines Through 1945 p. 261
- U.S. Submarines Through 1945 pp. 305–311
- U.S. Submarines Through 1945 pp. 305-311
- www.lostsubs.com - USS Dorado (SS-248)
- "Patrol of U-boat U-214 from 22 Aug 1943 to 30 Nov 1943 - U-boat patrols - uboat.net". uboat.net. http://uboat.net/boats/patrols/patrol_4223.html. Retrieved 2009-12-14.
- "USS Dorado (SS-248) - American Vessels lost to U-boats - uboat.net". uboat.net. http://www.uboat.net/allies/merchants/ships/3108.html. Retrieved 2011-09-08.
- This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here.
- The Syneca Research Group's discussion of Dorado is published at http://www.ussdorado.com
- On Eternal Patrol: USS Dorado
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