Truce/Treaty of Vilna or Truce/Treaty of Niemieża (Polish language: Rozejm w Niemieży ) was a treaty signed at Niemieża (modern Nemėžis) near Vilnius (also known as Vilna) on 3 November 1656 between Tsardom of Russia and Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, introducing a truce during the Russo-Polish War (1654–67) and an anti-Swedish alliance in the contemporaneous Second Northern War. In return for ceasing hostilities and fighting Sweden alongside Poland–Lithuania, the treaty promised Alexis of Russia succession in Poland after John II Casimir Vasa's death. The cossacks under Bohdan Khmelnytsky were excluded from the negotiations, and subsequently supported the Transylvanian invasion on the Swedish side.
After a series of successes for the Russian forces, with an even more successful Swedish invasion of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Russian tsar decided that total defeat of the Commonwealth and Swedish victory leading to major strengthening of Sweden (a threat to Russia) would not be in the best interests of Russia.
The negotiations began in Autumn of 1655, between Field Hetman of Lithuania Wincenty Korwin Gosiewski and Russian commander Afanasy Ordin-Nashchokin, and led to a quick ceasefire along the Polish-Russian front, allowing the Commonwealth to concentrate on the Swedish incursion. In the light of its successes, the Commonwealth's stance in the negotiations intensified, and it has rejected Russian territorial demands; however both Poland and Russia agreed to continue engaging Sweden. There were also negotiations about the Russian tsar or his descendant ascending to the Commonwealth's throne (see Polish–Lithuanian–Muscovite Commonwealth). Russian forces marched on Swedish Livonia and besieged Riga in the Russo-Swedish War (1656–58). The Russian ally, Zaporozhian Cossack hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky was informed about the Russian plans; he was not against a temporary armistice with Poland as such; but he was afraid of an alliance between Muscovy and Poland aimed at crushing Cossack rebellion as a possible consequence of the treaty. In 1658 the Russo-Polish war would resume, with another Russian invasion of the Commonwealth territories.
Notes and references
- Robert I. Frost, After the deluge: Poland-Lithuania and the Second Northern War, 1655-1660, Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-521-54402-5, Google Print, p. 81-82
- Charles Knight, Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 1841, Google Print, p.260
- As used in various publications
- As used in various publications
- Edward Henry Lewinski Corwin, The Political History of Poland, Polish Book Importing Co, 1917, p. 253-254
- Frost, Robert I (2000). The Northern Wars. War, State and Society in Northeastern Europe 1558-1721. Longman. pp. 173–174, 183. ISBN 978-0-582-06429-4.
- Frost, Robert I (2000). The Northern Wars. War, State and Society in Northeastern Europe 1558-1721. Longman. pp. 173–174. ISBN 978-0-582-06429-4.
- Frost, Robert I (2000). The Northern Wars. War, State and Society in Northeastern Europe 1558-1721. Longman. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-582-06429-4.
- Zbigniew Wojcik, Russian Endeavors for the Polish Crown in the Seventeenth Century', Slavic Review, Vol. 41, No. 1 (Spring, 1982), pp. 59-72 (article consists of 14 pages), JSTOR
- Грамоты из переписки царя Алексея Михайловича с Богданом Хмельницким в 1656 г.
- М. Грушевский. История Украины-Руси. Том IX. Глава XI. С. 4
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