The Treaty of Schönbrunn (French language: Traité de Schönbrunn; German language: Friede von Schönbrunn), sometimes known as the Treaty of Vienna, was signed between France and Austria at the Schönbrunn Palace of Vienna on 14 October 1809. This treaty ended the Fifth Coalition during the Napoleonic Wars. Austria had been defeated, and France imposed harsh peace terms.
Austria ceded Salzburg to Bavaria, West Galicia to the Duchy of Warsaw, Tarnopol district to the Russian Empire and Trieste and Croatia south of the Sava River to France (see Illyrian provinces).
Austria recognized Napoleon's previous conquests from other nations as well as recognizing Napoleon's brother Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain. Austria also paid to France a large indemnity and the Austrian army was reduced to 150,000 men - a promise not fulfilled.
Britain remained at war with France, one contemporary British view on the treaty was:
|“||This Treaty is certainly one of the most singular documents in the annals of diplomacy. We see a Christian King, calling himself the father of his people, disposing of 400,000 of his subjects, like swine in a market. We see a great and powerful Prince condescending to treat with his adversary for the brushwood of his own forests. We see the hereditary claimant of the Imperial Sceptre of Germany not only condescending to the past innovations on his own dominions, but assenting to any future alterations which the caprice or tyranny of his enemy may dictate with respect to his allies in Spain and Portugal, or to his neighbours in Italy.—We see through the whole of this instrument the humiliation of the weak and unfortunate Francis, who has preferred the resignation of his fairest territories to restoring to his vassals their liberties, and giving them that interest in the public cause which their valour would have known how to protect.—O, the brave and loyal, but, we fear, lost Tyrolese!||”|
—The Gentleman's Magazine (1809).
During the negotiations at Schönbrunn, Napoleon narrowly escaped an attempt on his life. On 12 October the emperor exited the palace with a large entourage to observe a military parade. A 17-year-old German patriot, Friedrich Staps, demanded an audience with Napoleon to present a petition, but was refused by the emperor's aide Jean Rapp. Shortly thereafter, Rapp observed Staps approaching Napoleon from a different direction, and had him arrested. Taken to the palace, Staps was found to be carrying a kitchen knife inside his coat, concealed inside the petition. Staps then admitted his plans to kill the emperor. Napoleon asked whether Staps would thank him if he was pardoned, to which Staps replied: "I would kill you none the less."
Staps soon came to be seen as a martyr of the burgeoning German nationalism. He was the subject of a poem by Christian Friedrich Hebbel and a play by Walter von Molo.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- See Article 1.5
- See Article 1.1
- See Article 15
- The Gentleman's Magazine,volume 79 part 2, F. Jefferies, 1809 p. 1065
- Stammbaum der Familien Wislicenus: Friedrich Staps
- L'attentat de Staps
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