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The Treaty of Safar put a formal end to the extended collapse of the Hamdanid Dynasty. It was signed in early 970 between the Byzantine stratopedarches Petros and the former minister of the Hamdanids and rebel, Qarquya. Following the death of Sayf al-Dawla in 967 rebellion quickly enveloped the Hamdanids and the dynasty quickly disintegrated into chaos and disorder. The Byzantines saw this as an opportunity to finally take control of Aleppo and bring stability to the region. The Byzantine stratopedarches Petros soon approached Aleppo, probably without orders from Constantinople, and took the city in January 970.

Terms and Aftermath

The treaty was signed in early 970 between Petros and Qarquya. It established a new, independent Emirate based on Aleppo as a Byzantine tribute. As part of the terms of the treaty, a defensive alliance was established between Byzantium and Aleppo; religious converts would not be persecuted on either side; Muslim armies would not be allowed to pass through Aleppo; taxes would be sent to Constantinople; and the emperor would nominate future Emirs. The treaty proved to have a lasting influence for a relatively long period of time.[1] It was generally respected, and provided a great deal of much need stability to the region. With the direct control of Aleppo now secured, the Byzantines also directly benefited from a new influx of trade in the region. The defense of Antioch was also now greatly enforced.


  1. Kaldellis, Anthony. Streams of Gold, Rivers of Blood: The Rise and Fall of Byzantium, 955 A.D. to the First Crusade. Oxford University Press. pp. 74–75. ISBN 0190253223. 

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