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The Treaty of Constantinople also known as Treaty of Ferhat Pasha[1] (Turkish language: Ferhat Paşa Antlaşması) was a treaty between Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia ending the Ottoman–Safavid War (1578–1590) and was signed on May 21, 1590.


The war began in Southern Caucasus. At the Battle of Çıldır, the Ottoman army defeated the Persian army and invaded most of South Caucasus . After Ottoman army returned to its main base in Constantinople, however, Persians began to regain some of their former territories. During the next phase, another Ottoman army (mostly composed of Crimean Tatars) arrived and Ottomans were able to attack once more. In 1583 after the battle named Battle of Torches (Ottoman Turkish:مشللر محاربسی), so called because the battle continued during night, Ottomans were able to reconquer South Caucasus. During the next six years the only important event was the conquest of Tabriz by the Ottomans. Confronted by other problems (i.e., civil wars and the war against Uzbeks), Abbas I, the shah of Persia agreed to sign a treaty with unfavorable terms.[2]


The treaty is known as the Treaty of Constantinople or the treaty of Ferhat pasha. (Ferhat Pasha was the commander (Turkish language: serdar) of Ottoman army). According to the treaty, Ottoman Empire kept its gains in the war. These included most of Caucasus (present day Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan) as well as Tabriz and north-west Iran.[3] Persians also agreed to pay obeisance to religious leaders of Sunni faith.


This treaty was a big success for Ottoman empire, for vast areas had been annexed. However, it was not long lasting. Abbas I after solving problems at home, waited for a suitable moment to regain his former possessions. When Ottoman Empire was engaged in Jelali revolts he was able to regain most of his loses which Ottoman Empire had to accept in the treaty of Nasuh Pasha, 22 years after the treaty of Ferhat Pasha.

See also


  1. Alexander Mikaberidze, Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, 2011, p. 698.
  2. Prof. Yaşar Yücel-Prof. Ali Sevim:Türkiye Tarihi III, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp. 21-23, 43-44
  3. Nicolae Iorga: Geschichte des Osmanischen Reichs Vol. III, (trans: Nilüfer Epçeli) Yeditepe Yayınları, 2009, ISBN 975-6480-20-3 ,p. 213

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