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Treaty of Córdoba
Tratados de Córdoba.JPG
Signed 24 August 1821
Location Córdoba, Veracruz, Mexico
Condition The treaty was rejected by Spain
Signatories Mexico First Mexican Empire
Spain Kingdom of Spain
Ratifiers Agustín de Iturbide, Regent of the Mexican Empire
Juan O'Donojú, High Political Head of Spanish government in Mexico
Language Spanish

The Treaty of Córdoba established Mexican independence from Spain at the conclusion of the Mexican War of Independence. It was signed on August 24, 1821 in Córdoba, Veracruz, Mexico. The signatories were the head of the Army of the Three Guarantees, Agustín de Iturbide, and, acting on behalf of the Spanish government, Jefe Político Superior Juan O'Donojú. The treaty has 17 articles, which developed the proposals of the Plan of Iguala.[1] The Treaty is the first document in which Spanish (without authorization) and Mexican officials accept the liberty of what will become the First Mexican Empire, but it is not today recognized as the foundational moment, since these ideas are often attributed to the Grito de Dolores (September 16, 1810). The treaty was rejected by the Spanish government.[2] Spain did not recognize Mexico's independence until December 1836.


In the treaty, New Spain is recognized as an independent empire, which is defined as "monarchical, constitutional and moderate." The crown of the Mexican Empire was offered first to Ferdinand VII of Spain. Should he not present himself in Mexico within the time to be determined by the Mexican Cortes (parliament) to take the oath of office, the crown would then be offered in sequence to his brothers, the Infantes Carlos and Francisco, and cousin, Archduke Charles[3] or another individual of a royal house, whom the Cortes would determine. In the case that none of these accept the crown (as indeed did happen), the treaty then established that Cortes could designate a new king without specifying if the person needed to belong to a European royal house.

The idea in this last clause had not been considered in the Plan of Iguala, and was added by Iturbide to leave open the possibility of his taking the crown. At the same time, O'Donojú, as captain general and jefe político superior, had no authority to sign such a treaty, but was interested in preserving Mexico for the Spanish royal family, and probably signed without considering that Iturbide might have designs on the crown.[4]

Signing and consequences[]

On September 27, 1821, the Army of the Three Guarantees entered triumphantly into Mexico City and on the following day, the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire was widely known. The Spanish Cortes refused to accept the validity of the Plan of Iguala or the Treaty of Córdoba. Spain did not recognize Mexico's independence until December 1836.[5] Therefore, the Mexican Congress elected a Mexican monarch the following year. Iturbide was proclaimed emperor of Mexico on May 18, 1822.[6] The monarchy lasted three years, and after the republican revolution of Casa Mata, the Congress no longer considered the Plan of Iguala or Treaty of Córdoba in effect.[7]

See also[]


  1. Muñoz Saldaña, Rafael (2009) México Independiente: el despertar de una nación. Volume I. Mexico City, Televisa, pp. 140-1. ISBN 978-968-5963-25-1
  2. Arias, Op.cit., tomo IV, p. 94 nota 1
  3. "Tratados de Córdoba". Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas de la UNAM. Retrieved 12 October 2009. 
  4. Riva Palacio, Vicente (1880) México a través de los siglos, Volume III, La guerra de independencia p. 740.
  5. /See references in Mexican War of Independence.
  6. Álvarez Cuartero, Izaskun (2005) Visiones y revisiones de la independencia americana: México, Centroamérica y Haití, Series Aquilafuente volumen 84. Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, p. 266. ISBN 978-84-7800-535-2
  7. Muñoz Saldaña, Rafael, p. 162

External links[]

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