|Chair of the Senate Health Committee|
September 9, 2009 – January 3, 2015
|Preceded by||Chris Dodd (Acting)|
|Succeeded by||Lamar Alexander|
|Chair of the Senate Agriculture Committee|
January 3, 2007 – September 9, 2009
|Preceded by||Saxby Chambliss|
|Succeeded by||Blanche Lincoln|
June 6, 2001 – January 3, 2003
|Preceded by||Richard Lugar|
|Succeeded by||Thad Cochran|
|United States Senator|
January 3, 1985 – January 3, 2015
|Preceded by||Roger Jepsen|
|Succeeded by||Joni Ernst|
|Member of the United States House of Representatives|
January 3, 1975 – January 3, 1985
|Preceded by||William J. Scherle|
|Succeeded by||Jim Ross Lightfoot|
|Born||Thomas Richard Harkin|
November 19, 1939 (age 83)
Cumming, Iowa, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Ruth Raduenz (m. 1968)|
|Service/branch||United States Navy|
• United States Naval Reserve
|Years of service||1962–1967 (Active)|
|Unit||Naval Air Facility Atsugi|
Guantanamo Bay Naval Base
Thomas Richard Harkin (born November 19, 1939) is an American politician, lawyer, and author who served as a United States Senator from Iowa from 1985 to 2015. A member of the Democratic Party, he previously served in the United States House of Representatives from 1975 to 1985.
Born in Cumming, Iowa, Harkin graduated from Iowa State University and The Catholic University of America's Columbus School of Law. He served in the United States Navy as an active-duty jet pilot (1962–1967). After serving as a congressional aide for several years, he made two runs for the U.S. House of Representatives, losing in 1972 but winning in 1974. He went on to serve five terms in the House.
Harkin won a race for U.S. Senate in 1984 by a wide margin. He was an early frontrunner for his party's presidential nomination in 1992, but he dropped out in support of eventual winner Bill Clinton. He served five senate terms and at the end of his time in the senate served as chair of the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. He authored the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and was its chief sponsor in the Senate. Harkin delivered part of his introduction speech in sign language, saying it was so his deaf brother could understand.
On January 26, 2013 Harkin announced that he would not seek reelection in 2014.
- 1 Early life, education, and early political career
- 2 U.S. House of Representatives
- 3 U.S. Senate
- 4 1992 presidential election
- 5 Electoral history
- 6 Personal life
- 7 Published works
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Early life, education, and early political career
Harkin was born in Cumming, Iowa. His father, Patrick Francis Harkin, an Irish American, was a coal miner, and his mother, Franciska Frances Valentine (née Berčič), was a Slovene immigrant who died when he was ten. Tom has 3 half-siblings on his mother's side from her first marriage in Iowa to fellow Slovenian Valentine Brelih. Frances was born in Suha, Slovenia to Jakob and Marija (born Jugovec). He still maintains his childhood house, where he and his five siblings were raised without hot running water or a furnace. He attended Dowling Catholic High School which is currently located in West Des Moines, Iowa. Harkin attended Iowa State University on a Navy R.O.T.C. scholarship and became a member of Delta Sigma Phi fraternity. He graduated with a degree in government and economics in 1962, and served in the United States Navy as an active-duty jet pilot from 1962 to 1967. Harkin was stationed at Naval Air Facility Atsugi in Japan, where he ferried aircraft to and from the airbase that had been damaged in the Vietnam War and in operational and training accidents. He was also stationed for a time at Guantanamo Bay, where he flew missions in support of U-2 planes reconnoitering Cuba. After leaving active duty in 1967, he spent three years in the Ready Reserves, and transitioned into the Naval Reserves in 1970. He retired in 1989 with the rank of commander.
In 1969, Harkin moved to Washington, D.C., and began work as an aide to Democratic U.S. Congressman Neal Smith. During his work for Smith, he accompanied a congressional delegation that went to South Vietnam in 1970. Harkin published photographs he took during the trip and a detailed account of the "tiger cages" at Con Son Island prison in Life Magazine on July 17, 1970. The account exposed shocking, inhumane conditions and treatment to which prisoners were subjected. He received his Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree from The Catholic University of America's Columbus School of Law in 1972.
U.S. House of Representatives
In 1972, the same year that he graduated from law school, Harkin returned to Iowa and immediately ran against an incumbent Republican Congressman, William J. Scherle. Scherle represented the southwestern portion of Iowa, which (with one brief exception) had not elected a Democrat to Congress since the end of the Great Depression. While winning a higher percentage of votes than any of Scherle's previous opponents, Harkin nevertheless lost the race.
After his 1972 defeat, Harkin practiced law in Ames before seeking a rematch against Scherle in 1974. In what was generally a bad year for Republicans due to the Watergate scandal, Harkin defeated Scherle by only 3,500 votes. He was re-elected four more times from Iowa's 5th congressional district without serious difficulty.
In 1984, Harkin won the Democratic nomination for the United States Senate and defeated freshman Republican Roger Jepsen by a surprisingly wide 11.8-point margin. He was re-elected in 1990, 1996, 2002, and 2008.
Harkin served in the Senate longer than any Democrat in Iowa's history. In 2009, he passed Neal Edward Smith as the longest-serving Democrat in either chamber from Iowa. Notably, he spent his entire tenure as Iowa's junior Senator, due to his colleague Chuck Grassley having served in the chamber since 1981. He and Grassley had a fairly good relationship, despite their ideological differences, and their seniority made Iowa influential in national politics. Indeed, during his tribute to Harkin shortly before his departure, Grassley got notably choked up as Harkin entered the chamber.
Harkin (in addition to U.S. Senators Dick Lugar, Tim Johnson, Byron Dorgan, Joe Biden and Norm Coleman), introduced the BioFuels Security Act (S. 2817/109th) on March 16, 2006.
Harkin came out in favor of the Fairness Doctrine during an interview with Bill Press. (February 11, 2009)
Harkin has been influential in increasing research funding for alternative medicine. He was instrumental in the creation of the U.S. Office of Alternative Medicine in 1992, which later became the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. His efforts and the Center's results, however, have been criticized.
On July 16, 2013, Harkin introduced the Cooperative and Small Employer Charity Pension Flexibility Act (S. 1302; 113th Congress) into the Senate. The bill would make changes to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to alter the funding requirements of certain private pension plans that are maintained by more than one employer where the employers are either cooperatives or charities. The bill would make permanent an existing exemption from the Pension Protection Act of 2006 for a few small groups.
On November 19, 2013, Harkin introduced the Minimum Wage Fairness Act (S. 1737; 113th Congress). The bill would amend the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA) to increase the federal minimum wage for employees to $10.10 per hour over the course of a two-year period. The bill was strongly supported by President Barack Obama and many of the Democratic Senators, but strongly opposed by Republicans in the Senate and House.
Harkin introduced the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) into the Senate. Harkin delivered part of a speech in sign language so his deaf brother could understand.
Harkin has taken issue with the Supreme Court's handling of a number of cases related to ADA, concerned that the judgments severely limited the scope of the legislation's effectiveness:
"Together, these cases, as handled by the nation's highest court, have created a supreme absurdity: The more successful a person is at coping with a disability, the more likely it is for a court to find that he or she is no longer sufficiently disabled to be protected by the ADA. If that is the ruling, then these individuals may find that their requests for reasonable accommodations at work can be denied. Or that they can be fired—without recourse."
In order to address these issues Harkin proposed the ADA Amendments Act, which in his words "will restore the proper balance and application of the ADA by clarifying and broadening the definition of disability, while increasing eligibility for ADA protections."
Harkin has also been a vocal critic of what he describes as the biased nature of the Medicaid program: "The current Medicaid system is unacceptably biased in favor of institutional care. Two-thirds of Medicaid long-term care dollars are spent on institutional services, with only one-third going to community-based care. It's time to rebalance the system."
During his political career, Harkin has generally supported the Supreme Court ruling Roe v. Wade, which decided that a right to privacy under the due process clause in the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution extends to a woman's decision to have an abortion. He has opposed most efforts to place legal restrictions on Roe v. Wade, including voting against a ban on late term abortion, while supporting contraception and education to reduce teen pregnancy. As of 2015[update], Harkin received a 100 percent rating from NARAL, the pro-choice advocacy organization. He was very critical of the Stupak-Pitts Amendment, which places limits on taxpayer-funded abortions in the context of the November 2009 Affordable Health Care for America Act.
Harkin has come out in favor of embryonic stem cell research. In July 2006, Harkin made a speech from the Senate floor in response to George W. Bush's veto of the embryonic stem cell research federal funding bill.
In May 2009, Harkin announced he opposed any effort to overturn an Iowa Supreme Court decision in April 2009 that legalized same-sex marriage in Iowa. "We all grow as we get older; we learn things, we become more sensitive to people and people's lives," said Harkin. "The more I've looked at that, I've grown to think differently about how we should live. I guess I've got to the point of live and let live."
Harkin has also been active in combating the worst forms of child labor. The Trade Development Act of 2000 "contains important child labor protections authored by Senator Harkin." After reports of child trafficking and child slavery associated with cocoa plantations in West Africa surfaced in the media, Harkin, along with U.S. Representative Eliot Engel and with the support of U.S. Senator Herbert Kohl, sponsored a voluntary agreement by major players in the cocoa and chocolate industry signed in 2001 and often referred to as the Harkin-Engel Protocol. The purpose of this "Protocol for the growing and processing of cocoa beans and their derivative products" was to bring practices in West Africa into line with Convention 182 of the International Labour Organization concerning the prohibition and immediate action for the elimination of the worst forms of child labor. (Some difficulties in meeting the deadlines set in this Protocol have been encountered.) Harkin has worked in other ways to combat the import of child labor-made products.
Harkin believes America faces a retirement crisis, saying "Pensions have gone by the wayside. Savings are down as people are just scraping by, so the only thing left is Social Security."
Harkin supported President Barack Obama's health reform legislation; he voted for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in December 2009, and he voted for the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. PolitiFact rated Harkin's 2009 claim regarding the number of Americans losing health insurance coverage "false."
However, in 2014 Harkin expressed some second thoughts. He criticized health reform as being too complex and convoluted. "All the prevention stuff is good but it's just really complicated. It doesn't have to be that complicated," he said of the Affordable Care Act. He also believes the new legislation rewards the insurance industry. He said important reforms such as preventing insurance companies from discriminating against people with pre-existing conditions and keeping young adults on their parents' health insurance plans until age 26 were laudable, but he believed that Democrats should not have settled for a solution he believed was inferior to government-provided health insurance. In retrospect he believes the Democratic-controlled Senate and House should have enacted a single-payer healthcare system or a public option to give the uninsured access to government-run health plans that compete with private insurance companies. 
His comments about Cuban healthcare have been criticized as misrepresenting the availability of quality care.
Harkin has been a staunch supporter of Israel as a member of the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Foreign Operations, which appropriates about $2 billion annually for military financing for Israel. As of 2010[update] he was the third-largest career recipient of pro-Israel Political Action Committee contributions in the Senate.
In May 2006 Harkin voted in favor of Senate Bill 2611, also known as the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act. Among the bill's many provisions, it would increase the number of H1B visas, increase security along the southern United States border with Mexico, allow long-time illegal immigrants to gain citizenship with some restrictions, and increase the number of guest workers over and above those already present in the U.S. through a new "blue card" visa program. The bill ultimately failed to pass.
- Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry
- Subcommittee on Hunger, Nutrition, and Family Farms
- Subcommittee on Production, Income Protection and Price Support
- Subcommittee on Rural Revitalization, Conservation, Forestry and Credit
- Committee on Appropriations
- Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies
- Subcommittee on Defense
- Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development
- Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies (Chairman)
- Subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs
- Subcommittee on Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies
- Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions (Chairman)
- As Chair of the full committee, Harkin may serve as an ex officio member of all subcommittees.
- Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship
1992 presidential election
Harkin ran for President in 1992 as a populist with labor union support. He criticized George H. W. Bush for being out of touch with working-class Americans. Harkin was an early favorite in a small field of five candidates. Harkin won the Iowa caucus and those in Idaho and Minnesota (with help from Senator Paul Wellstone), but he ran poorly in New Hampshire and other primaries and ultimately lost the Democratic Party nomination to Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas. Harkin was the first Democratic primary contender to drop out and throw his support behind Clinton — a favor that led to a close relationship throughout the Clinton presidency.
- Senator Paul Wellstone (D-Minnesota)
- Commissioner of Agriculture Jim Hightower (D-Texas)
- Representative Lane Evans (D-Illinois)
Considered as running mate
Harkin figured in running mate searches multiple times after his 1992 presidential campaign. Clinton considered Harkin in 1992 because of his ties to labor and strong support for Clinton after withdrawing from the presidential race. In 2000, Harkin was considered by Al Gore before Gore selected Joe Lieberman. In 2004, presidential nominee John Kerry considered Harkin as a running mate, though Harkin worked to promote the candidacy of then-Governor Tom Vilsack. In 2008, Barack Obama considered Harkin for vice president because of his senior statesman status within the party and his personal closeness to both Bill Clinton and Hillary Rodham Clinton. Harkin endorsed Obama's choice of Joe Biden for the nomination, and campaigned for the Obama-Biden ticket.
Tom Harkin electoral history
Iowa's 5th congressional district, 1972
Iowa's 5th congressional district, 1974
Iowa's 5th congressional district, 1976
Iowa's 5th congressional district, 1978
Iowa's 5th congressional district, 1980
Iowa's 5th congressional district, 1982
United States Senate election in Iowa, 1984
United States Senate election in Iowa, 1990
Democratic Iowa caucuses, 1992
1992 United States (Democratic primaries)
Iowa United States Senate election, 1996 (Democratic primary)
United States Senate election in Iowa, 1996
Iowa United States Senate election, 2002 (Democratic primary)
United States Senate election in Iowa, 2002
United States Senate election in Iowa, 2008
On July 6, 1968, Harkin, then aged 28, married the former Ruth Raduenz, who was 23. The couple has two children: Amy (born 1976), and Jenny (born 1981). Ruth Harkin is an attorney and was one of the first women in the United States to be elected as a prosecutor when, in 1972, she was elected to the office of county attorney of Story County, Iowa. She served as a deputy counsel for the U.S. Department of Agriculture before joining the Washington law firm of Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld in 1983. In 1993, President Bill Clinton named her chairman and chief executive officer of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC). Ruth Harkin left the government and became United Technologies' senior vice president for international affairs and government relations in April 1997, leading their Washington DC office. In 2002, Mrs. Harkin became a director of ConocoPhillips. Mrs. Harkin sat on the Iowa Board of Regents, the body responsible for overseeing the state's public universities.
Senator Harkin made a brief cameo appearance as himself in the political satire Dave (1993), as did his fellow senators Christopher Dodd, Howard Metzenbaum, Paul Simon and Alan K. Simpson.
The Harkins' daughter Amy appeared on the NBC daytime reality series Starting Over from 2003 to 2004, and his voice was heard in several episodes when his daughter spoke to him on the phone. She is a 2004 graduate of Princeton University, and received her master of business administration degree from the UCLA Anderson School of Management in 2007.
In 2015 New York City held its first Disability Pride Parade, and Tom Harkin was its grand marshal. He was also the grand marshal for the Chicago Disability Pride Parade that same year.
- Harkin, Tom and Thomas, C. E. Five Minutes to Midnight: Why the Nuclear Threat Is Growing Faster Than Ever, Carol Publishing Corporation, 1990. ISBN 1-55972-042-5
- 21st Century Democrats
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- "Senator Tom Harkin: "Disappointed" that NCCAM hasn't "validated" more CAM". Science-Based Medicine. http://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org/?p=394. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- "S. 1302 - All Actions". United States Congress. http://beta.congress.gov/bill/113th-congress/senate-bill/1302/all-actions/. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
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- "Ability Magazine: Senator Harkin - Updating the ADA" (2009)". http://abilitymagazine.com/senator-harkin-ada.html. Retrieved 2012-04-03.
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- "Tom Harkin on the Issues". Issues2000.org. http://www.issues2000.org/Senate/Tom_Harkin.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- Harkin: Stupak's abortion amendment is slippery slope Archived 2009-11-12 at the Wayback Machine.
- "5 Questions: Harkin on the stem cell bill". Stanford University. https://news.stanford.edu/news/2005/june1/med-harkin-060105.html. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
- Hines, Cragg. "AGE-OLD CONFLICT BETWEEN IDEOLOGY AND SCIENCE". SOUTH FLORIDA SUN-SENTINEL. https://www.sun-sentinel.com/news/fl-xpm-2006-07-21-0607200658-story.html. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
- "Iowa Senator changes view, opposes banning same-sex marriage". 14 May 2009. Archived from the original on 22 May 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090522015802/http://www.gaylesbiantimes.com/?id=14639. Retrieved 17 May 2009.
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- Bill Clinton, "Remarks on Signing the Trade and Development Act of 2000", May 8, 2000|http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2889/is_20_36/ai_63693089
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- Ericson, Jon. "WCF Courier - Harkin seeks supplement program for retirees". WCF Courier. WCF Courier. http://wcfcourier.com/news/local/govt-and-politics/harkin-seeks-supplement-program-for-retirees/article_67df4691-205b-5dee-b270-5500c03cc8f7.html?comment_form=true. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
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- "Harkin repeats claim that 14,000 people lose health insurance daily". Tampa Bay Times Politifact. 13 December 2009. http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/2009/dec/15/tom-harkin/harkin-repeats-claim-14000-people-lose-health-insu/. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
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- Jacobson, Louis (31 January 2014). "Sen. Tom Harkin says Cuba has lower child mortality, longer life expectancy than U.S.". Politifact. http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/2014/jan/31/tom-harkin/sen-tom-harkin-says-cuba-has-lower-child-mortality/. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
- Janet McMahon (November 2014). "Nov 2, A chance to "Just say no" to Congressional Israel Firsters". The Washington Report for Middle East Affairs. American Educational Trust. p. 33. http://www.wrmea.com/pdf/2010election_watch.pdf.
- "U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home > Votes > Roll Call Vote". Senate.gov. https://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=109&session=2&vote=00157. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- Miller, Judith: "Tom Harkin's Old-Time Religion", New York Times Magazine, February 9, 1992
- "Our Campaigns - US President - D Primaries Race - Feb 01, 1992". http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=55212. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- "Our Campaigns - IL US President - D Primary Race - Mar 17, 1992". http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=212671. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- GWEN IFILLPublished: May 13, 1992 (1992-05-13). "THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Front-Runner; Clinton Begins Search To Pick Running Mate - New York Times". Nytimes.com. https://www.nytimes.com/1992/05/13/us/the-1992-campaign-front-runner-clinton-begins-search-to-pick-running-mate.html. Retrieved 2014-01-06.
- KATHARINE Q. SEELYEPublished: August 04, 2000 (2000-08-04). "Gore's List for a Running Mate Drops to 7 Names, Mostly Senators - New York Times". Nytimes.com. https://www.nytimes.com/2000/08/04/us/gore-s-list-for-a-running-mate-drops-to-7-names-mostly-senators.html. Retrieved 2014-01-06.
- Barabak, Mark Z. (2004-04-28). "Running Mate Rumors Fly - Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. https://articles.latimes.com/2004/apr/28/nation/na-veep28. Retrieved 2014-01-06.
- "Barack Obama: How an 'Unknown' Senator Became President of the USA". http://www.e-ir.info/2014/12/12/barack-obama-how-an-unknown-senator-became-president-of-the-usa/. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
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-  Archived November 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Ruth R. Harkin, JD". https://humanrights.iowa.gov/ruth-r-harkin-jd.
- "Ruth Harkin reflects on 50 years of marriage: 'Maybe the beginning was never as fragile as it seemed'" (in en). https://www.desmoinesregister.com/story/opinion/columnists/iowa-view/2018/11/15/ruth-harkin-reflects-50-years-marriage-tom-harkin-hie-shinto-shrine-anniversary/2016151002/.
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- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Profile at Project Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Legislation sponsored at The Library of Congress
- Profile at SourceWatch
- Appearances on C-SPAN
|United States House of Representatives|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Iowa's 5th congressional district
|Party political offices|
Les AuCoin, Joe Biden, Bill Bradley, Robert Byrd, Tom Daschle, Bill Hefner, Barbara B. Kennelly, George Miller, Tip O'Neill, Paul Tsongas, Tim Wirth
|Response to the State of the Union address
Served alongside: Max Baucus, Joe Biden, David L. Boren, Barbara Boxer, Robert Byrd, Dante Fascell, Bill Gray, Dee Huddleston, Carl Levin, Tip O'Neill, Claiborne Pell
|Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Iowa
1984, 1990, 1996, 2002, 2008
|United States Senate|
|U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Iowa
Served alongside: Chuck Grassley
|Chair of the Senate Agriculture Committee
|Chair of the Senate Agriculture Committee
|Chair of the Senate Health Committee
|Iowa's delegation(s) to the 94th–113th United States Congresses (ordered by seniority)|
|94th||Senate: D. Clark • J. Culver||House: N.E. Smith • E. Mezvinsky • B. Bedell • M. Blouin • C. Grassley • T. Harkin|
|95th||Senate: D. Clark • J. Culver||House: N.E. Smith • B. Bedell • M. Blouin • C. Grassley • T. Harkin • J. Leach|
|96th||Senate: J. Culver • R. Jepsen||House: N.E. Smith • B. Bedell • C. Grassley • T. Harkin • J. Leach • T. Tauke|
|97th||Senate: R. Jepsen • C. Grassley||House: N.E. Smith • B. Bedell • T. Harkin • J. Leach • T. Tauke • T.C. Evans|
|98th||Senate: R. Jepsen • C. Grassley||House: N.E. Smith • B. Bedell • T. Harkin • J. Leach • T. Tauke • T.C. Evans|
|99th||Senate: C. Grassley • T. Harkin||House: N.E. Smith • B. Bedell • J. Leach • T. Tauke • T.C. Evans • J.R. Lightfoot|
|100th||Senate: C. Grassley • T. Harkin||House: N.E. Smith • J. Leach • T. Tauke • J.R. Lightfoot • D.R. Nagle • F. Grandy|
|101st||Senate: C. Grassley • T. Harkin||House: N.E. Smith • J. Leach • T. Tauke • J.R. Lightfoot • D.R. Nagle • F. Grandy|
|102nd||Senate: C. Grassley • T. Harkin||House: N.E. Smith • J. Leach • J.R. Lightfoot • D.R. Nagle • F. Grandy • J. Nussle|
|103rd||Senate: C. Grassley • T. Harkin||House: N.E. Smith • J. Leach • J.R. Lightfoot • F. Grandy • J. Nussle|
|104th||Senate: C. Grassley • T. Harkin||House: J. Leach • J.R. Lightfoot • J. Nussle • T. Latham • G. Ganske|
|105th||Senate: C. Grassley • T. Harkin||House: J. Leach • J. Nussle • T. Latham • G. Ganske • L. Boswell|
|106th||Senate: C. Grassley • T. Harkin||House: J. Leach • J. Nussle • T. Latham • G. Ganske • L. Boswell|
|107th||Senate: C. Grassley • T. Harkin||House: J. Leach • J. Nussle • T. Latham • G. Ganske • L. Boswell|
|108th||Senate: C. Grassley • T. Harkin||House: J. Leach • J. Nussle • T. Latham • L. Boswell • S. King|
|109th||Senate: C. Grassley • T. Harkin||House: J. Leach • J. Nussle • T. Latham • L. Boswell • S. King|
|110th||Senate: C. Grassley • T. Harkin||House: T. Latham • L. Boswell • S. King • B. Braley • D. Loebsack|
|111th||Senate: C. Grassley • T. Harkin||House: T. Latham • L. Boswell • S. King • B. Braley • D. Loebsack|
|112th||Senate: C. Grassley • T. Harkin||House: T. Latham • L. Boswell • S. King • B. Braley • D. Loebsack|
|113th||Senate: C. Grassley • T. Harkin||House: T. Latham • S. King • B. Braley • D. Loebsack|
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