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Thomas S. Hinde
A rough sketch of Thomas S. Hinde done by his son. It is the only known portrait of him.
Born Thomas Spottswood Hinde
(1785-04-19)April 19, 1785
Hanover County, Virginia
Died February 9, 1846(1846-02-09) (aged 60)
Mount Carmel, Illinois
Place of burial Sandhill Cemetery
Mount Carmel, Illinois
Nationality American
Occupation Real Estate Entrepreneur
Methodist Minister
Political party Whig
Religion Methodist
Spouse(s) Belinda Bradford Hinde(1809-1827)
Sarah Doughty Cavileer Neal(1827-1846)
Children James B. Hinde
John M. Hinde
Martha Hinde
Edmund C. Hinde
Charles T. Hinde
Belinda Bradford Hinde
Relatives Dr. Thomas Hinde(father)
Mary Todd Hubbard(mother)
Frederick Hinde Zimmerman (grandson)
Harry Hinde (grandson)
Charles H. Constable (son-in-law)
Jacob Zimmerman (son-in-law)

Thomas Spottswood Hinde (April 19, 1785 – February 9, 1846) was an American newspaper editor, opponent of slavery, author, historian, real estate investor, Methodist minister and a founder of the city of Mount Carmel, Illinois. Members of the Hinde family were prominent in Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Illinois. Hinde was the father of shipping magnate Charles T. Hinde, adventurer Edmund C. Hinde, and was the father-in-law to judge Charles H. Constable.

Hinde was an active businessman, pursuing real estate, construction and publishing opportunities in Illinois, Ohio and Kentucky. In his early years Hinde publicly opposed slavery, played a role in Indian treaties, the conspiracy of Aaron Burr through his newspaper, The Fredonian, in Chillicothe, Ohio between 1806-1808, and fought in the War of 1812. In later years he was a pioneer in the settlement of Illinois and Indiana, the advance of the Methodist Church, the Madoc Tradition and was a noted historian and biographer. In addition to founding Mount Carmel, Hinde cofounded the Wabash Navigation Company, which engaged in real estate speculation and dam construction. The company dammed the Wabash River next to Hinde's property, creating the Grand Rapids Dam. The dam was abandoned by the Federal Government in 1931.

Hinde was an ordained Methodist minister who traveled extensively during his life to advance the interests of the church. He was a pioneering circuit rider in the early 1800s in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, and Missouri. Hinde wrote and published religious articles throughout his life in many leading publications. Francis Asbury, one of the first two bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States, considered Hinde important to the church and frequently met with him and mentioned him in his journals. Lyman Draper spent more than twenty years collecting documents by and about the Hinde family. The Draper Manuscript Collection at the Wisconsin Historical Society holds 47 volumes of Hinde's personal papers, donated by his family after his death.

Early years

Thomas S. Hinde was born April 19, 1785 in Hanover County, Virginia, to Dr. Thomas Hinde (1737–1828) and Mary Todd Hubbard (1734–1830), and was the seventh of eight children.[1] His father was an English doctor who served as a physician to Patrick Henry and General James Wolfe.[2] Little is known about his early years except that the family moved from Virginia to Newport, Kentucky, in 1797 when his father was awarded a land grant of 10,000 acres (40 km2) for his services in the American Revolutionary War.[3] The Hinde family had many notable members including Hinde's brother-in-law Richard Southgate and his nephews William Wright Southgate and William Taylor who were prominent politicians and lawyers. In a letter to President James Madison many years later, Hinde related that while walking to school in the wilderness of Kentucky, he once fought off a wolf and a panther successfully.[4] Daniel Boone [5] and Simon Kenton were neighbors of the Hinde family while they lived in Kentucky.[6]

After a conversion with his mother and older sister Susannah in 1798, Hinde's entire family, including his father Dr. Thomas Hinde, converted to the Methodist religion and shortly thereafter became close friends with Francis Asbury.[7] Hinde later described the conversion of his youngest sister, Martha Harrison Hinde, in an 1827 article written in the Methodist Review under his pen name, Theophilus Arminius.[8] Hinde’s recollection of events had bishop Asbury visiting his father's home in 1803 and telling the Martha that she had better find God, because before he could meet her again she would be dead. The bishop’s prophecy came true when she died in 1811 without again seeing the bishop.[9] However, Hinde insisted that she had converted before she died.[10] He described how on her deathbed she tried to convert the nonbelievers in the room.[11] He further shared a rambling letter in which his sister had tried to convert her close friends.[11] Hinde named his first daughter after his sister Martha.[12] Hinde himself did not immediately convert but was exposed to the Methodist camp meetings of the period, and his writings during his life frequently discussed the importance of the camp meeting in bringing Christianity and Democracy to the west.[13]

In 1801, Hinde got a job as deputy clerk for the Kentucky Court of Appeals. William Kavanaugh, the husband of Hinde's older sister Hannah, put him under the care of Achilles Sneed of Frankfort, Kentucky, where he received a good legal education in the clerk’s office of the Court of Appeals.[14] During this time Hinde became acquainted with many of the state's leading men, and acquired a knowledge of the law at the Kentucky Court of Appeals. He developed a reputation as one of Kentucky's most efficient businessmen. In a letter to Henry Clay, Hinde wrote that Clay was the first lawyer he ever heard address a Court. Hinde resided in a boarding house with many of the leading judges and politicians of the day, strengthening his personal and political contacts.[15]

Newspaper publisher

From an early age Hinde opposed slavery. Even though he grew up with slaves in his household, he and his siblings repudiated slavery on religious grounds. Hinde's opposition continued to grow and eventually he and other friends became outspoken critics of the practice in Kentucky where slavery was commonplace. While in Kentucky, Hinde joined other Methodist ministers in the abolitionist movement.[13]

In his letter to President Madison Hinde's opposition to slavery was largely attributed to his mother. He wrote:

"In 1805, Messrs. Wood and Street, from Richmond, Va., found their way to Kentucky. Friendly considerations led me to patronize them. This was done through the solicitations of a young friend from Virginia. They commenced a paper, published in 1806, called the Western World. Imbibing strong prejudices against slavery, perhaps from my mother’s repeating, in my infancy, the nurse’s songs composed by Cowper, designed to make such impressions. In June 1806, to the great astonishment of my friends, I left Kentucky, with all the flattering prospects a youth could have, and hastened to Ohio. Connecting circumstances, and from hints that fell from Wood and others, a deep impression had been made on my mind, that an eventful period was fast approaching."[4]

Aaron Burr

Because of the slavery issue, Hinde's native state became so repugnant to him that he moved to Chillicothe, Ohio in 1806. In partnership with R.D. Richardson, his brother-in-law, he edited and published a newspaper titled the Fredonian. Fredonian, was a sonorous name for 'a citizen of the United States' and in later years was the name of a rebellion to cede Texas from Mexico called the Fredonian Rebellion. From early in his career Hinde fought the projects of Aaron Burr, publishing material in The Fredonian. He collected information in support of what he claimed was Burr's conspiracy to overthrow the United States government and published that information in the The Fredonian. He sent the evidence to Henry Clay, later secretary of state and longtime friend of the Hinde family, but the papers disappeared. While working at the Kentucky Court of Appeals, Hinde had developed a close relationship with George Madison and his nephew John Madison. In 1829 Hinde wrote to their relation President James Madison to provide him with information about the Burr conspiracy for inclusion in a political history Hinde had heard Madison was writing. In response, Madison denied the project, but nevertheless asked Hinde to send copies of The Fredonian to include in his papers. The copies of the newspaper that were sent dealt with the Burr Conspiracy. Hinde complied and the copies of the newspaper were filed with the President’s papers.[13] By 1806, he had started his own newspaper called The Fredonian with his brother in law R.D. Richardson.[16]

After moving to Ohio, Hinde was unanimously elected by the Ohio House of Representatives to the position of clerk protempore.[17] He held the position for three years before shifting to focus on his successful speculation in military lands.[18]

On October 19, 1809, with minister William Lynes officiating, Hinde married in Hamilton County, Ohio Belinda Bradford, the daughter of James Bradford.[19] Bradford was a descendant of William Bradford, was killed in St. Clair's Defeat, and buried in Fort Recovery.[12] They had three children: James B., John Madison and Martha. Hinde named his son John Madison after his close friend Dr. John Madison who was George Madison's nephew and a relative of James Madison.[4] Martha married Charles H. Constable who became a prominent Illinois politician and is commonly remembered for his decision as judge to allow four Union deserters to go free during the Civil War.[20] After Belinda died in 1827, Hinde married Sarah Neal Daugherty Cavileer in 1828. They had three children: Edmund C., Charles T. and Belinda. Edmund was a pioneer who participated in the California Gold Rush and after his death his journals were published which detailed his experiences.[21] Charles was a business tycoon who played a pivotal role in the development of southern California through his shipping expertise.[22] Belinda married Jacob Zimmerman who was a successful newspaper editor and owner who in later years held a number of political offices in Illinois.[23]

Conversion to Methodism

An engraving of a Methodist camp meeting in 1819 (Library of Congress).

Hinde was only involved with the newspaper for less than two years. The following year, he converted from Deism to Methodism and decided that operating a political journal conflicted with his new religious views. After retiring from the newspaper business, he engaged in locating military lands and in land speculation. For the rest of his life Hinde published editorials in newspapers and religious publications.[1] He organized several camp meetings with other preachers and stated that he thought that the camp meeting could unite the different Protestant denominations.[24]

At times, Francis Asbury ventured into the wilderness to visit Hinde. One account states,

“In 1810 Bishop Asbury visited an obscure part of the western country (Kanawha) which was then a wilderness, and pleasantly told the Rev. Thomas S. Hinde that he had visited the region in order that the people might see and know their superintendant; remarking, “The shepherd ought to know the flock, and the flock the shepherd: they ought to know what man it is that governs them, and I have come nearly one hundred miles out of my way to see them.” No wonder the writer exclaims, “O Asbury, the inhabitants of these hills and mountains will long make mention of thee!”[25]

Asbury frequently mentioned Hinde in his journals.[1]

It is thought Hinde received his license to preach sometime around 1810. His first sermon was in Chillicothe in either 1807 or 1808 and people were so eager the church was full. The sermon was described as having " coherence in his discourse." During the sermon, Hinde repeatedly stated, "My bowels, my bowels!"[1]

Methodist circuit rider on horseback

As a preacher, he was rather eccentric. He was not very fluent and gifted as a speaker, but had the power of engaging the attention of his hearers, and was very successful and useful in a revival of religion. He entertained rather singular views on the subject of the orders in the ministry, objecting to the order of deacons, and holding that the eldership is the only true order. In consequence of these peculiar views, he would never consent to be ordained a deacon, and therefore never entered into orders at all.[26]

Hinde became a circuit rider in the early 1800s. While his circuit varied over the years, he was responsible for large portions of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky and Missouri.[1] Much of the territory he covered was generally lawless, violent and dangerous. Circuit riders rode on horseback and were responsible for each church in their circuit and for establishing new churches.

An avid writer, Hinde's topics mostly related to Methodism and church songs. One popular example was entitled "The Pilgrams' songster; or, A choice collection of spiritual songs," which was thought to have sold over 10,000 copies.[27] Rev. Thomas S. Hinde was said to be, "...exceedingly earnest, and very zealous in promoting the interests of the Church and of religion and morality. His zeal, however, was rather of the ascetic kind; and he usually took prominent part in the arraignment and trial of brethren accused of offenses." He was quoted as saying that he was,"...doing God service." [1]

Indian affairs

At Vincennes in 1810, Tecumseh loses his temper when William Henry Harrison refuses to rescind the Treaty of Fort Wayne.

Growing up in Kentucky in the late 1790s Hinde knew of the danger of Indian attacks. After moving to Chillicothe, Hinde seems to have taken an interest in prehistoric Indians sites. In his letter to President James Madison, he claimed to have taken his “comrades” to Windship’s mound, now called the Hopewell Culture National Historical Park to call,

“their attention to the surrounding scenery, my former pursuits, my friends, my country, my prospects--all these had been abandoned for the pride of opinion, against the entailment and perpetuation of slavery upon the rising generation! I remember their looks when I remarked, that after all, (pointing to the sun eclipsed,) I spoke of the gloom that overshadowed my future prospects! [4]

One portion of Hinde's property, that he purchased from William Mc'Intosh, near the Wabash River had been a Piankashaw Indian campground and contained a large number of Indian mounds that predated the Piankashaw.[28]

Hinde met Tecumseh multiple times, once in Chillicothe and another time in Vincennes, Indiana. The Vinncenes meeting was either the 1810 or the 1811 meeting between Tecumseh and William Henry Harrison at Grouseland.[29] Hinde also met Shawnee Blue Jacket and reported on him for the local newspapers.[30] Although the sources do not comment on his role specifically, one source states that Hinde played a crucial role in the early Indian treaties signed with the United States government.[31]

War of 1812

Oliver Hazard Perry

Hinde was a member of the U.S. Army in the War of 1812 under William Henry Harrison. Hinde was responsible for prisoners taken during the war starting in 1813 when Hinde was about 27 or 28 years old. He was made responsible for prisoners taken at the Battle of Lake Erie on September 10, 1813.[16] His participation was motivated by his association with Harrison, who was then the Governor of the Indiana Territory located in Vincennes near Mount Carmel.[32] Both Hinde and Harrison originated from well-known Virginian families and were close in age.[1][33]

At Lake Erie, Hinde served under Captain Oliver Hazard Perry who was the commander at the Battle of Lake Erie. Captain Perry's decisive victory ensured American control of the lake, improved American morale after a series of defeats and compelled the British to fall back from Detroit. In 1813, Hinde was placed in charge of prisoners captured at the Battle of Lake Erie.[16]

Founding Mount Carmel

Market St. in Mount Carmel, Illinois

In the early 1800s, Hinde purchased large land holdings in what would become Wabash County, Illinois. It is not known how large his land holdings were. In 1817, he, William McDowell and William Beauchamp collectively founded the city of Mount Carmel, Illinois in 1817. All three men were ministers, and they chose the name "Mount Carmel", because it was a Biblical name that meant "the garden of the Lord" and was also a city in Israel. According to one source:

The site chosen for the town was a point on the west bank of the Wabash opposite the mouth of the White River, and twenty-four miles southwest of Vincennes. This point was selected because of the available water power and of the likelihood that main roads from east to west would pass here. The town became a railroad and manufacturing center and justified the wisdom of its founders. An elaborate circular, called the "Articles of Association for the City of Mount Carmel," was issued at Chillicothe in 1817. The purpose of the association was announced to be "to build a city on liberal and advantageous principles, and to constitute funds for the establishment of seminaries of learning and for religious purposes." The proprietors reserved for themselves one-fourth of the lots, these being called "proprietors' lots;" one-fourth were called "private donation lots." The plan of survey and sale was described as follows: "The in-lots are six poles in front, and eleven and a half in back; containing each sixty-eight perches, nearly half an acre. The most of the out-lots contain four acres and eight square poles; some of them more, (five and six acres on the back range); and a few of them less. There are 748 in-lots, and 331 out-lots --1079 in the whole.[13]

Hinde donated the majority of the land for the city, and shortly after it was incorporated, he gave permission for city residents to use part of his land near the Wabash River as a "commons" for livestock. In addition to founding the city, Hinde, Beauchamp and McDowell were granted permission by the legislature to establish a ferry on Hinde's land at the Wabash River. During this time Hinde did the primary survey work for the Grand Rapids Dam on the Wabash River. According to a local history published in 1883, it is thought that Hinde resided in a house located on the "bluff" in Mount Carmel, although in his letters to Congress written in the 1820s, Hinde stated that he resided near the Grand Rapids Dam.[34] He wrote a poem about Mount Carmel and had it published in Ohio.[35]

Originally, Mount Carmel was located in Edwards County. However, a drought in 1820 killed a majority of the settlers and the county seat was moved from Palmyra, Illinois to Albion, Illinois. At that time Albion was primarily an English settlement. The Americans from Mount Carmel and surrounding settlements were resentful and attempted to move the county seat to Mount Carmel by force. During the bickering and maneuvering for the county seat location Hinde, ran for county commissioner in 1821 against John Buckles. Hinde received 2 votes and Buckles received 151. In 1822 Hinde ran for the office of Illinois House of Representatives and this time narrowly lost to Gilbert T. Pell. On December 24, 1824 the Illinois Legislature resolved the long standing dispute over where the county seat should be located by creating Wabash County from the eastern half of Edwards County.[36] Based on newspaper accounts the lots did not sell quickly. More than 27 years after they developed their plan for the town, Hinde was still advertising Mount Carmel lots for sale in national newspapers. In one advertisement Hinde claimed, "The place I offer is midway between St. Louis and Louisville and the next improvement will be the completion of the railroad connecting the two places, and a dam across the Great Wabash, at the Grand Rapids, at the junction of the White, Patoka, and Wabash, giving the greatest water power in the great West."[37]

Another source states that, "...they may have been over zealous and puritanical in the construction of their laws... no theater or play-house shall ever be built within the boundary of the city; no person shall be guilty of drunkenness, profanity, sabbath-breaking, and many other offenses of greater magnitude, etc., he shall be subject to trial by the court of Mayor and on conviction, was disqualified from holding any office in the city, or the bank; was disqualified to vote; ostracism was to continue for three years after the commission of the so-called crimes." [38]

Around 1825, Hinde settled in Mount Carmel, leaving the circuit to focus on religious and historical writing and business. He founded one of the first churches in Mount Carmel and occasionally held Methodist gatherings at his home. On September 20, 1827 more than 27 Methodist ministers met in the upper room of his house . It was one of the largest gatherings of the time.[39]

Real estate disputes

After the death of his father in 1828, Hinde inherited real estate in Kentucky.[40] Shortly thereafter, he began investing in real estate in Ohio.[1] Several of his Ohio property disputes reached the Supreme Court of the United States, including Hinde v. Vattier[41] and Mallow v. Hinde.[42]

Johnson v. M’Intosh

William M'Intosh was a former Revolutionary War Veteran who had become a fur trader and investor in military lands along the Wabash River.[43] Hinde and M’Intosh lived next to each on adjoining tracts of land near what would become the site of the Grand Rapids Dam.[44] M'Intosh became famous for the Supreme Court Case of Johnson v. M'Intosh.[43] Chief Justice John Marshall, an acquaintance of Hinde and of Hinde’s father,[45] used the case to establish the “Discovery Doctrine,” which stated that the discovering people gain title over the indigenous peoples in respect to land title.,[46] Hinde also knew Associate Justice Thomas Todd, who was a justice on the Kentucky Court of Appeals when Hinde served as the court's clerk.[14] In the case the Supreme Court ruled that private citizens could not purchase land from Native Americans and therefore the plaintiff Johnson's land purchases were invalid and M'Intosh's land purchases from the Federal government were legal. Johnson and M'Intosh were claiming title to the same property.[46] Hinde purchased a portion of M’Intosh's litigated property not long after the litigation. Correspondence between Hinde and M'Intosh discussing land sales form part of the Hinde documents at the Lyman Draper Manuscripts Collection in the Wisconsin Historical Society.[16] Due to the favorable ruling in the case Hinde greatly benefited because of his large land holdings in the area. After the ruling had settled ownership issues between the Indians and settlers Hinde founded the towns of Mt. Carmel, Powhaten, and Selima in the Illinois territory.[13]

Hinde v. Vattier

One of Hinde's real estate disputes centered on a piece of property he owned in Cincinnati. The dispute was between the Hinde family and Charles Vattier. Vattier was a known scam artist and underworld giant in Cincinnati. One source described Vattier as owning, "...a gambling empire, including grog shops, Bawdy houses and taverns." Moreover, Vattier was involved in a number of other fraudulent real estate schemes with other people in Ohio.[47] In 1807 Vattier was convicted of burglary and larceny for stealing large sums of money from the Office of Receiver of Public Monies for the District of Cincinnati, James Findlay.[48] Hinde knew Findlay since they were both involved in exposing the Burr conspiracy and both were prominent in Ohio.[41][49]

Allegedly, Vattier had tried to fraudulently take title to a piece of property in Cincinnati that the Hinde family owned. Hinde, after his marriage to Belinda, challenged Vattier in court. Henry Clay represented Hinde in the State Court proceedings in Ohio. Hinde claimed that Vattier tried to use the lot to pay Findlay by claiming to have a bill of sale and title that was superior to the Hinde family. After more the fifteeen years, the case reached the United States Supreme Court in 1833. The Court ruled that Vattier took title to the property illegally and that the property belonged to Hinde and his children. The property was originally owned by Hinde's father-in-law, James Bradford, and after his death the property passed to Hinde's wife Belinda Bradford Hinde.[41]

Wabash Navigation Company

Grand Rapids Dam
Dr. John Jacob Lescher

In 1825, Hinde joined the Wabash Navigation Company. Seventeen members of the company came from prominent families in Illinois and Indiana. The company had capital of over $1 million. Hinde was one of the company's first nine directors and remained active until his death. The company charter was eventually approved by both the Illinois and Indiana legislatures. The dam was built next to land Hinde owned.[13]

In a letter to Congress in 1842, Hinde stated that his goal was to connect the Wabash River with the Maumee River of Lake Erie. He cited the opinion of unnamed hunters and traders and George Washington’s hope of connecting the waters of the east with the Ohio and Mississippi rivers as support for his goal. Hinde also declared, “...I have seen the whole wilderness of the West subdued and savages and wild beasts or prey receding before civilization and enterprise.” He went on the state that on the Wabash from the Grand Rapids to Terre Haute steamboats could navigate almost all year and therefore it was essential to connect the river to the Ohio. He further stated that next to the proposed dam an armory should be built by the U.S. Government.[44]

Dr. John Lescher was a business partner and friend of Thomas S. Hinde. Both men invested in the Wabash Navigation Company and Lescher later joined Hinde's children in a lawsuit against the company. Not long after the death of Hinde his son James and his son-in-law Charles H. Constable joined with Lescher and sued the Company for entering their land and taking timber and other materials for the construction of dam. However, the company's charter permitted them to enter the land and take construction material without the owner's consent, forcing the owner to seek legal redress. The court did order compensation.[50]

A letter written by Jacob Lescher in 1841 and submitted to Congress in support of the Grand Rapids Dam project and the building of a U.S. Armory, stated that he and Hinde owned more than 1,200 acres (4.9 km2) acres of land around the proposed dam site. Additional information submitted to Congress stated that the town of Powhatan was owned by Hinde and Lescher and was a "river addition" to Mount Carmel. The location of the town of Selima was not clearly stated, but was near the dam.[13]

On September 19, 1890, money was appropriated by the Federal Government for the construction of a new dam to replace the wooden timber original. The report stated that the old dam had partially washed away and that the new dam would raise the water level by 11.5 feet.[51] According to an annual report to the Secretary of War in 1908, the original lock and dam built by Hinde and his fellow investors were "...not of a substantial character....," and "...rapidly deteriorated and became useless." The same report went on the state that by March 31, 1881 expenditures for the dam were $317,845.44 and the government was forced to pay the Wabash Navigation Company an additional $7,000 to extinguish their franchise and purchase their property.[52]

Later life and legacy

Sons of Thomas S. Hinde

Edmund C. Hinde, 4th child of Thomas S. Hinde
Charles T. Hinde, 5th child of Thomas S. Hinde, with President William Howard Taft

Hinde settled in Mount Carmel towards the end of his life. During Hinde's final years, he was an active letter writer and watched over his many business and real estate interests.[13] Hinde was prominent in church and Illinois society and compiled many documents and interviews. During his later years, he shared much of this information with various writers and publications.[53]

In his later writings, Hinde espoused some questionable theories such as the Hollow Earth theory and the Madoc tradition. Hinde was published in the Methodist Magazine, the "Short Sketches of Revivals of Religion in the Western Country" (incomplete), the Advocate and Journal (New York) and the Western Christian Advocate (Cincinnati). His writings have been described as, "...abound[ing] in vague philosphical and religious reflections-- this is especially true of his diaries-- thus making them of slight value...."[16]

Hinde dedicated a substantial amount of time to investigating the Madoc Tradition in North America. Madoc or Madog ab Owain Gwynedd was, according to folklore, a Welsh prince who sailed to America in 1170, over three hundred years before Christopher Columbus's voyage in 1492. Hinde interviewed hundreds of individuals on the topic. In 1824, Hinde wrote a letter to John S. Williams, editor of The American Pioneer regarding the Madoc Tradition. He claimed to have testimony from numerous sources that stated Welsh people under Owen Ap Zuinch had come to America in the twelfth century, over 300 years before Christopher Columbus. Hinde even claimed that in 1799 six soldiers had been dug up near Jeffersonville, Indiana with breastplates that contained Welsh coats of arms. In 1799, John Sevier, the first governor of Tennessee, also wrote of the alleged discovery of six skeletons in brass armor bearing Welsh coat-of-arms. Hinde also claimed to have heard from M'Intosh that American Indians and Welshmen living on the Mississippi River conversing in Welsh in the late 1700s.[53]

In an 1842 letter Hinde stated, “I have just returned from the East, having visited the Atlantic cities generally for the first time, after forty-five years pioneering in the wilderness of the West. I have been three time a citizen of Kentucky, twice of Ohio, and twice of Illinois.” After returning from the visit Hinde claimed that eastern ministers were unsuccessful because they underrated the people of the West. He stated,

“If we expect to find on crossing the mountains a people either illiterate or ignorant as a body, we will assuredly, in many instances be disappointed. It too often happens, that one puffed up with self-importance, and possesses a conceited and heated imagination, will form wild conjectures as to men and things. We have been amused at the bewildered minds of such, with the ‘whys’ and ‘wherefores’; and one of the most ridiculous whims of some, is to endeavor to press every thing into their own mould; and shape it, be it what it may, if possible, after their own manner, custom, or operation, forgetting that ‘we have to take the world as it is, and not as we would have it to be.’”[13]

A large collection of Hinde's diaries are housed among the Lyman Draper Manuscripts in the Wisconsin Historical Society.[16] In his diaries Hinde stated that he supported the Hollow Earth theory.[54] Throughout his life Hinde maintained correspondence with many of the prominent men of the day. His correspondents included James Madison, George Madison, Thomas Jefferson, Henry Clay, Simon Kenton, Daniel Boone, and John Marshall.[16]


File:Thomas S. Hinde Tombstone.jpg

Tombstone of Thomas S. Hinde in Mount Carmel, Illinois.

Hinde was sick only a few days and died from winter fever.[14] Hinde is buried in Sandhill Cemetery in Mount Carmel next to his daughter Belinda and his second wife, Sarah Doughty Cavileer Neal. The wrought iron fence surrounding their graves was paid for by his son Charles in the early 1900s.[55] Since he died at a relatively early age and his wife died shortly after him, his children were forced to live with other relatives or fend for themselves. Martha married Judge Charles H. Constable and together they looked after many of her siblings until they married or found work. Thomas S. Hinde's son Charles became a successful businessman and riverboat captain. One of Captain Hinde's accomplishments was investing in the Hotel del Coronado. Additionally, Hinde's grandson, Frederick Zimmerman built the Grand Rapids Hotel on the Hinde family farm in Mount Carmel near the Grand Rapids Dam and Hanging Rock. Hinde did the original surveying for Grand Rapids Dam.[56]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Methodist Episcopal Church. General Conference 1852, pp. 458–459
  2. Drake 1829, pp. 625–634
  3. Redford 1884, p. 24
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 *Hinde, Thomas S.. "Hinde to James Madison, 27 Aug. 1829". 
  5. Hartley 1902, p. 309
  6. Williams 1882, p. 35
  7. Coles 1857, pp. 157–159
  8. Arminius 1827, pp. 410
  9. Arminius 1827, pp. 410–411
  10. Arminius 1827, pp. 411
  11. 11.0 11.1 Arminius 1827, pp. 412
  12. 12.0 12.1 *Hinde, Thomas S.. "Reminiscences of Thomas S. Hinde [microform, 1845 Apr. 1."]. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 Boggess 1908, pp. 196–203
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Redford 1870, p. 89
  15. Hay 1991, pp. 234–235
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Library 1906, pp. 31–33
  17. Ohio. General Assembly. Senate 1808, p. 5
  18. Redford 1870, pp. 86–87
  19. Pioneer Marriage Records Hamilton County Ohio 1791-1820 Copied by John Day Caldwell, Secretary of the Cincinnati Pioneer Association, before the Cincinnati Courthouse fire in 1884
  20. Towne 2006, pp. 53–62
  21. Hinde 1850–1909
  22. Smythe 1913, pp. 18–22
  23. Risley 1911, pp. 827–828
  24. Williams 2010, pp. 110–114
  25. Wakeley 1856, p. 39
  26. Redford 1870, p. 87
  27. Hinde 1828
  28. Risley 1911, pp. 675
  29. Sugden 1999, pp. 412–416
  30. Sugden 2000, p. 311
  31. Haines 1892, p. 39
  32. Harper 1983
  33. Greene 2007, pp. 10–11
  34. "1883 History of Edwards, Lawrence and Wabash Counties, Illinois"
  35. Hinde 1818
  36. Wood 1992, pp. 143–160
  37. Hinde 1845
  38. Harvey 1918, p. 22
  39. Leaton 1883, pp. 157–164
  40. *Hinde, Thomas. "Dr. Thomas Hinde Will, 25 November 1828". 
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 Vattier v. Hinde, 32 U.S. 252 (1833).
  42. Mallow v. Hinde, 25 U.S. 193 (1827).
  43. 43.0 43.1 Robertson 2007, pp. 51–55
  44. 44.0 44.1 United States House of Representatives 1869, pp. 239–249
  45. Marshall 2002, p. 62
  46. 46.0 46.1 Watson 2012
  47. Wade 1996, pp. 122–124
  48. Thompson 1880, p. 347
  49. Heiser 1955, pp. 88–92
  50. Hinde et al. v. The Wabash Navigation Co., November term 1853
  51. United States Army Corps of Engineers 1891, p. 2405
  52. United States War Department 1908, pp. 618–619
  53. 53.0 53.1 Williams 1842, pp. 327–329
  54. Dougherty 1998, p. 117
  55. Unsigned 1915
  56. Nolan 2011, pp. 1–20


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Position Created
Clerk of the Ohio House of Representatives
Succeeded by

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