Theodore Ayrault Dodge (May 28, 1842 – 1909) was an American officer and military historian. He fought as a Union officer in the American Civil War; as a writer, he was devoted to both the Civil War and the great generals of ancient and European history.
Born in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, he received a military education in Berlin and attended University College London and the University of Heidelberg. Returning to the United States in 1861, he promptly enlisted as a private in the New York volunteer infantry. Over the course of the Civil War, he rose to the rank of brevet lieutenant-colonel, losing his right leg at the Battle of Gettysburg. He served at the War Department from 1864 and was commissioned in the regular army in 1866. In 1870 he retired with the rank of major. Following retirement he lived in Boston until moving to Paris, where he died. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
His works on the Civil War include The Campaign of Chancellorsville (1881) and Bird's Eye View of the Civil War (1883). From 1890 to 1907 he also published twelve volumes of his History of the Art of War: Alexander, Hannibal, Caesar, Gustavus Adolphus, Frederick the Great, Napoleon, although the volumes on Frederick the Great were not completed before his death. The work has been broken up into individual biographies for modern publication. In addition, his military journal, covering his time with the Army of the Potomac from the Seven Days Battles to Gettysburg, has recently been compiled and published by noted historian Stephen W. Sears under the title On Campaign with the Army of the Potomac: The Civil War Journal of Theodore Ayrault Dodge.
- Napoleon: A history of the art of war, from the beginning of the peninsular war to the end of the Russian campaign, with a detailed account of the Napoleonic Wars. Riverside Press. 1907. OCLC 779980020.
- Alexander: a history of the origin and growth of the art of war from the earliest times to the Battle of Ipsus, 301 BC, with a detailed account of the campaigns of the great Macedonian. Stackpole Books. 1994. ISBN 1-853-67178-9. OCLC 30155995. Originally published: Boston : Houghton, Mifflin, 1890.
- Caesar: a history of the art of war among the Romans down to the end of the Roman empire, with a detailed account of the campaigns of Caius Julius Caesar. Stackpole Books. 1995. ISBN 1-853-67216-5. OCLC 32391132. Originally published: New York : Houghton, Mifflin and company, 1892.
- Gustavus Adolphus: a history of the art of war from its revival after the Middle Ages to the end of the Spanish Succession War, with a detailed account of the campaigns of the great Swede, and of the most famous campaigns of Turenne, Condé, Eugene and Marlborough. Stackpole Books. 1996. ISBN 1-853-67234-3. OCLC 33899011. Originally published: Boston : Houghton, Mifflin, 1895.
- A list of Theodore Ayrault Dodge's works on bookfinder.com
- Theodore Ayrault Dodge's entry on the Arlington National Cemetery website, featuring a photograph of his grave
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