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2A19 (T-12) 100mm anti-tank gun
100-мм противотанковая пушка Т-12 Рапира (2).jpg
T-12 displayed in the Artillery Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Type Anti-tank gun
Place of origin  Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1955 – present
Used by See Operators
Wars Gulf War

Invasion of Dagestan

Weight 2,750 kg (6,060 lb)
Length 9.48 m (31 ft 1 in)
Barrel length 63 calibers
Width 1.795 m (5 ft 11 in)
Height 1.565 m (5 ft 2 in)

Shell See Ammunition
Caliber 100 millimetres (3.9 in)
Carriage Transport: Ural-375D (6x6)
On road: 60 km/h (37 mph)
Off road: 15 km/h (9 mph)
Elevation −6° to +20°
Traverse 27° left or right
Rate of fire 14 rpm (max possible)
10 rpm (max likely)
4 to 6 rpm (typical)
Muzzle velocity See Ammunition
Maximum range See Ammunition

T-12, rear view.

2A19 or T-12 is a Soviet smoothbore 100-mm anti-tank gun, which served as the main Eastern Bloc towed anti-tank gun from 1955 until the late 1980s.


The T-12 entered service in 1955, replacing the BS-3 100 mm field gun. It was typically deployed in anti-tank units of armoured and motor rifle regiments to protect flanks against counter-attacks during rapid advances.

In 1970 it was replaced in production by the T-12A or MT-12 "Rapira" which features a new smooth bore gun, the 100 mm 2A29 gun, as well as a redesigned carriage and gun-shield to protect the crew from machine gun fire and shell splinters. Thanks to the redesigned carriage with bigger wheel base, the MT-12 can be towed by the MT-LB, at speeds up to 60 km/h on road or 25 km/h cross-country.

The 2A29R "Ruta" or MT-12R is a version with a RLPK-1 radar for engaging targets in a poor visibility environment (smoke/fog). From 1981 the gun could fire laser beam-riding guided missiles 9M117 Kastet (weapon system 9K116) and carried the new designator 2A29K "Kastet" or MT-12K.

The weapon was planned to be superseded by the 2A45 Sprut-B 125 mm smooth bore anti-tank gun. Modern western tanks' frontal armour protection is in excess of what can be penetrated by a 100 mm gun from anything but point-blank range – even using the most modern APFSDS round. For a tank that can manoeuvre to take advantage of the enemy's weaknesses this is less of a problem – but for a weapon that is primarily defensive this is a serious problem. Today the T-12 is applied mostly in the role of ordinary artillery, using FRAG-HE shells.


The gun requires a crew of six: commander, driver of the towing vehicle, gun layer, loader, and two ammunition crewmen. When the MT-LB is used as the transporter, twenty rounds are typically carried (10 APFSDS, 4 HE-Frag, 6 HEAT). Since the weapon is a smoothbore, all the ammunition is finned for accuracy during flight.

The standard equipment consists of the panoramic sight PG-1M for indirect fire, and an OP4M-40U telescope for direct fire. The APN-5-40 or APN-6-40 are used for direct fire by night.

The gun can be fitted with the LO-7 ski gear for travel across snow or swampy ground.


According to Jane's Armour and Artillery,[1] the following countries have or had the T-12 and/or MT-12 in service:

  •  Algeria - 12
  •  Armenia - 36
  •  Azerbaijan - 30
  •  Belarus - 40
  •  Bosnia-Herzegovina - 90
  •  Bulgaria - 200
  •  Croatia - 133
  •  Cuba
  •  Georgia - 50
  •  Hungary - 106
  •  Kazakhstan - 125
  •  Kyrgyzstan - 15
  •  Moldova - 26
  •  Mongolia - 25+
  •  Russia - est. 6,000
  •  Turkmenistan - 48
  •  Ukraine - 400
  •  Uzbekistan - 39

Former operators

  •  Soviet Union - passed onto successor states.
  •  Yugoslavia - 138, passed onto successor states.
  •  Iraq - most destroyed in 1991 Gulf War or 2003 Invasion, none remain in service after 2003.


Note: penetration numbers for RHA at 90 degrees.


BM-2 APFSDS projectile.


APFSDS-T Tungsten

  • Round weight: 19.34 kg (42.6 lb)
  • Projectile weight: 5.65 kg (12.5 lb)
  • Muzzle velocity: 1,575 m/s (5,170 ft/s)
  • Maximum range: 3,000 m (3,300 yd)
  • Penetration:
    • 230 mm at 500 m (9 in at 550 yd)
    • 180 mm at 2,000 m (7 in at 2,200 yd)
    • 140 mm at 3,000 m (5.5 in at 3,300 yd)


  • Round weight: 19.9 kg (44 lb)
  • Projectile weight: 10 lb (4.5 kg)
  • Muzzle velocity: 1,548 m/s (5,080 ft/s)


  • Round weight: 23.1 kg (51 lb)
  • Projectile weight: 9.5 kg (21 lb)
  • Muzzle velocity: 975 m/s (3,200 ft/s)
  • Penetration: 350 mm (14 in)


  • Round weight: 28.9 kg (64 lb)
  • Projectile weight: 16.7 kg (37 lb)
  • Muzzle velocity: 700 m/s (2,300 ft/s)
  • Maximum range (indirect): 8,200 m (9,000 yd)

Guided projectile

9K117 Kastet 3UBK10/3UBK10M

Beam riding laser guided projectile.

  • Round weight: 24.5 kg (54 lb)
  • Projectile weight: 17.6 kg (39 lb)
  • Average speed: 300 m/s (980 ft/s)
  • Range: 100–5,000 m (110–5,470 yd)
  • Penetration: 550–600 mm (22–24 in)



  • A407 - This artillery system was designed by Arsenal-Resita and is very similar to the MT-12. It can fire the same range of ammunition as the T-54/55 tank and has a maximum range of 2,200 m (HEAT) or 4,000 m (APC-T). Subversions are the A407M1 and the A407M2. In Romanian Army service, the A407 is known as the 100 mm anti-tank gun M1977 (Romanian language: Tun antitanc calibrul 100-mm Model 1977

) and is normally towed by the DAC 887R truck.[2] It can also be towed with the DAC 665T truck. The Model 2002 is an improved version, fitted with the automatic fire control system TAT-100.[3]

People's Republic of China

  • Type 73 - This appears to be a copy of the Soviet T-12.[4]
  • Type 86 - This is a 100mm smoothbore anti-tank gun that has some similarities with the 85mm Type 56 (D-44). It fires ammunition of the fixed type, including the Type 73 HE, Type 73 HEAT, Type 73 APFSDS and Type 86 APFSDS to a maximum range of 1,800 m.[5]

See also


  1. Jane's Armour and Artillery, 2003-2004
  2. Janes Armour and Artillery 2003-2004
  4. Jane's Armour and Artillery 2003-2004
  5. Janes Armour and Artillery 2003-2004

External links

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