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Until the advent of [[Nuclear submarine|nuclear power]], submarines were designed to operate on the surface most of the time and submerge only for evasion or for daylight attacks. In 1940, at night, a [[U-boat]] was safer on the surface than submerged because [[ASDIC]] sonar could detect boats underwater but was almost useless against a surface vessel. However, with continued improvement in methods of radar detection as the war progressed, the U-boat was forced to spend more time underwater running on electric motors that gave speeds of only a few knots and with very limited endurance.
 
Until the advent of [[Nuclear submarine|nuclear power]], submarines were designed to operate on the surface most of the time and submerge only for evasion or for daylight attacks. In 1940, at night, a [[U-boat]] was safer on the surface than submerged because [[ASDIC]] sonar could detect boats underwater but was almost useless against a surface vessel. However, with continued improvement in methods of radar detection as the war progressed, the U-boat was forced to spend more time underwater running on electric motors that gave speeds of only a few knots and with very limited endurance.
   
An early submarine snorkel was designed by James Richardson, an Assistant Manager at Scotts Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, Greenock, Scotland as early as 1916, during [[World War I]]. Although the company received a British Patent for the design,<ref>[http://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?FT=D&date=19170521&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP&CC=GB&NR=106330A&KC=A "GB 106330 (A) - Improvements in or relating to Submarine or Submersible Boats"]. Scott's Shipbuilding & Engineering Co., and Richardson, James. May 19, 1916.</ref> no further use was made of it—the British Admiralty did not accept it for use in [[Royal Navy]] submarines.<ref>J F Robb, ''Scotts of Greenock: A Family Enterprise, 1820–1920'', p. 424</ref>
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An early submarine snorkel was designed by James Richardson, an Assistant Manager at [[Scotts Shipbuilding and Engineering Company]], Greenock, Scotland as early as 1916, during [[World War I]]. Although the company received a British Patent for the design,<ref>[http://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?FT=D&date=19170521&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP&CC=GB&NR=106330A&KC=A "GB 106330 (A) - Improvements in or relating to Submarine or Submersible Boats"]. Scott's Shipbuilding & Engineering Co., and Richardson, James. May 19, 1916.</ref> no further use was made of it—the British Admiralty did not accept it for use in [[Royal Navy]] submarines.<ref>J F Robb, ''Scotts of Greenock: A Family Enterprise, 1820–1920'', p. 424</ref>
 
In November 1926 Capt. Pericle Ferretti of the technical corps of the [[Regia Marina|Italian Navy]] ran tests with a ventilation pipe installed on the submarine ''H 3''. The tests were largely successful and a similar system was designed for the ''Sirena'' class, but was eventually scrapped; the following snorkel systems were not based on Ferretti's design.<ref>''U.S. Submarines through 1945'' by Norman Friedman, ISBN 1-55750-263-3, p. 336</ref><ref>''Il sottomarino italiano: storia di un'evoluzione non conclusa, 1909–1958'' by Enrico Cernuschi (Italian), attached to "Rivista Marittima" April 1999, pp. 20–23.</ref>
 
In November 1926 Capt. Pericle Ferretti of the technical corps of the [[Regia Marina|Italian Navy]] ran tests with a ventilation pipe installed on the submarine ''H 3''. The tests were largely successful and a similar system was designed for the ''Sirena'' class, but was eventually scrapped; the following snorkel systems were not based on Ferretti's design.<ref>''U.S. Submarines through 1945'' by Norman Friedman, ISBN 1-55750-263-3, p. 336</ref><ref>''Il sottomarino italiano: storia di un'evoluzione non conclusa, 1909–1958'' by Enrico Cernuschi (Italian), attached to "Rivista Marittima" April 1999, pp. 20–23.</ref>
   

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