Sistan and Baluchestan insurgency, part of Balochistan conflict, began approximately in 2004 and is an ongoing low-intensity asymmetric conflict in Sistan and Baluchestan Province between Iran and several Baloch Sunni militiant organizations which are designated as terrorist by Iran.
- Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution, responsible for both military and security actions
- Ministry of Intelligence, doing intelligence operations
- Border Guard Command, engaging border conflicts with insurgent groups
Sunni Baloch rebels
- Jundallah: founded in 2002, was active since 2005, carrying out armed assaults against Iranian armed forces as well as civilians. Since arrest and execution of its leader Abdolmalek Rigi in 2010, they were responsible for a few bombings in 2011 under command of Muhammad Dhahir Baluch.
- Harakat Ansar Iran: founded in 2012, they “rised up against the Iranian regime with the support of their Wahhabi friends” and claimed responsibility for attacks on the IRGC Personnel and civillians. The group was disbanded in December 2013 due to a merger.
- Jaish ul-Adl: founded in 2012 by former Jundallah members, there is very little known about the group. They are led by Salahuddin Farooqui who has opposed Iranian support for Syria in the Syrian Civil War. They have claimed for dozens of opertions since 2013.
- Ansar Al-Furqan: founded by December 2013 merger of Harakat Ansar and Pashton group Hizb Al-Furqan. They are linked to Al-Nusra Front and are led by Sheikh Abu-Hafs al-Baloochi.
Role of Pakistan
Pakistan is Iran's neighbour, sharing borders of its Balochistan which is base of Baloch nationalist separatist groups. These Pakistani Baloch militia groups are allied with Iranian groups. Iran and Pakistan historically have a strategic alliance fighting these groups. However, Iran has accused Pakistan of supporting insurgency in Iran several times. In February 2014 the two states signed a pact sharing responsibility for combating militants operating across the border.
Motivations of the groups
Analysts belive that aim of insurgents may differ from seperatism to religious motivations, but they are not entirely clear. The leaders of the groups have maintainted different positions.
Allegations of foreign involvement
Iran has long accused foreign states supporting insurgency in Sistan and Baluchestan. Several sources such as the ABC News, The New York Times, Daily Telegraph and Seymour Hersh have reported that Jundallah has received support from the United States. Israel, Saudi Arabia, United Kingdom and Sweden are other states allegedly sponsering the group.
Mashregh News which has close ties to the IRGC, has accused Qatar for supporting both Jaish ul-Adl and Harakat Ansar Iran, alongside Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Taliban. Harakat Ansar Iran has made an appeal on Saudi Arabian websites for funding. Thh conflict has also interpreted as part of Iran–Israel proxy conflict.
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