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Siege of Smolensk
Part of the Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars
DateJune–October 1502
LocationSmolensk
54°47′N 32°03′E / 54.783°N 32.05°E / 54.783; 32.05Coordinates: 54°47′N 32°03′E / 54.783°N 32.05°E / 54.783; 32.05
Result Lithuanian victory
Belligerents
Grand Duchy of Lithuania Grand Duchy of Moscow
Commanders and leaders
Stanisław Kiszka Template:Interlanguage link

The Siege of Smolensk was an unsuccessful attempt to capture Smolensk by the forces of the Grand Duchy of Moscow in summer 1502. It was the last major military engagement during the Muscovite–Lithuanian War (1500–1503). Smolensk, a strong and strategically important fortress, was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania since 1404. Ivan III of Russia launched the second Muscovite–Lithuanian War in 1500 and Lithuanians suffered a great defeat in the Battle of Vedrosha. Stanisław Kiszka became regent of Smolensk in 1499 and ordered improvements to Smolensk Kremlin.[1] By the time the Russian army, commanded by Ivan's son Template:Interlanguage link, reached Smolensk in June 1502, Smolensk was well prepared for the siege.[2]

The Russian army plundered Orsha and Vitebsk and attacked Smolensk with artillery. Their assault on 16 September was not only repelled but the defense grew into a counterattack.[2] The indecisive but bloody Battle of Lake Smolino in September[3] as well as Lithuanian reinforcements brought by Great Hetman (commander of the army) Stanislovas Kęsgaila,[4] forced the Russians to retreat.

Peace negotiations began while the army was still at Smolensk.[2] A six-year truce was concluded on the Feast of the Annunciation (March 25) in 1503.[5] The Grand Duchy of Lithuania lost approximately 210,000 square kilometres (81,000 sq mi),[6] or a third of its territory: Chernihiv, Novhorod-Siverskyi, Starodub, and lands around the upper Oka River.[7] In recognition of his defense of Smolensk, Kiszka was promoted to Great Hetman in 1503.[2] Ivan III succeeded in capturing Smolensk in 1514.

References

  1. Asadauskienė, Nelė (2011). "Kiška, Stanislovas" (in lt). Lietuvos istorija. Enciklopedinis žinynas. I. Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos centras. pp. 834–835. ISBN 978-5-420-01689-3. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Asadauskienė, Nijolė (2008). "Stanislovas Kiška". In Surgailis, Gintautas (in lt). Lietuvos krašto apsaugos ministrai ir kariuomenės vadai. I. Lietuvos Respublikos krašto apsaugos ministerija. pp. 57–58. ISBN 978-9986-738-96-1. 
  3. Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges. F-O. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 564. ISBN 978-0-313-33538-9. https://books.google.com/books?id=Dh6jydKXikoC&pg=PA564. 
  4. Jankauskas, Vytas (2008). "Stanislovas Jonaitis Kęsgaila". In Surgailis, Gintautas (in lt). Lietuvos krašto apsaugos ministrai ir kariuomenės vadai. I. Lietuvos Respublikos krašto apsaugos ministerija. p. 52. ISBN 978-9986-738-96-1. 
  5. Nowakowska, Natalia (2007). Church, State and Dynasty in Renaissance Poland: The Career of Cardinal Fryderyk Jagiellon (1468–1503). Ashgate Publishing. pp. 135–136. ISBN 9780754656449. https://books.google.com/books?id=7pU0SSK4fTIC&pg=PA135. 
  6. Norkus, Zenonas (2009). "Kada senoji Lietuvos valstybė tapo imperija ir nustojo ja būti? Atsakymas į lietuvišką klausimą, naudojantis estišku metodu". p. 61. ISSN 1392-0448. http://etalpykla.lituanistikadb.lt/fedora/get/LT-LDB-0001:J.04~2009~1367166547475/DS.002.0.01.ARTIC. 
  7. Kiaupa, Zigmantas; Kiaupienė, Jūratė; Kunevičius, Albinas (2000) [1995]. The History of Lithuania Before 1795. Vilnius: Lithuanian Institute of History. p. 221. ISBN 9986-810-13-2. 

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