|Second Battle of Amba Alagi|
|Part of the East African Campaign of World War II|
|Kingdom of Italy||United Kingdom|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta||
Sir Alan Cunningham |
The Battle of Amba Alagi was fought in May 1941, during World War II, part of the East African Campaign. After the Italian defeat at Keren in April 1941, the Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta withdrew his forces to the mountain stronghold at Amba Alagi. The mountain had galleries carved into the rock to protect the defending troops and hold ample ammunition and stores and the Italian troops thought themselves to be impregnable. The initial attacks on the approaches to Amba Alagi by British troops under Major-General Mayne from the north, commenced on May 4 with a pincer from the eastern and western sides.
There was hard fighting in the jagged mountainous terrain but Mayne's troops were joined on May 12 by Brigadier Dan Pienaar's 1st South African Brigade, which had captured the Italian garrison of Dessie (April 20) located 200 miles south of Amba Alagi, and by May 14 Amba Alagi was completely surrounded. A final assault was planned for the next day but a lucky strike by an artillery shell hit an Italian fuel dump, sending a stream of oil into their last remaining drinking water forcing the Italians to end any resistance.
The Italian commander began ceasefire negotiations on 16 May 1941. The Duke of Aosta and his garrison surrendered to British commander, Sir Alan Cunningham on 19 May 1941. This capitulation marked the end of any significant Italian resistance in East Africa, although some garrisons would continue to fight until November.
The film La Pattuglia dell'Amba Alagi, shot in 1953 by Flavio Calzavara, glorifies the Italian defense against the British.
- Jaques, 2007, p. 1796.
- Compton Mackenzie, Eastern Epic, pp. 67-70
- Shinn et al., 2004, p. 109.
- Diamond, 2012.
- MacKenzie, Compton. Eastern Epic. Chatto & Windus, London, 1951
- Diamond, John. Archibald Wavell. Osprey Pub, 2012.
- Jaques, Tony. Dictionary of Battles and Sieges. Westport, Conn. Greenwood, 2007
- Shinn, David Hamilton., Thomas P. Ofcansky, and Chris Prouty. Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2004.
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