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AL-31 / 41F
Saturn AL-31 FN turbofan engine

The Saturn AL-31 is a family of military turbofan engines. It was developed by Lyulka, now NPO Saturn, of Soviet Union, originally for the Sukhoi Su-27 air superiority fighter. It produces a thrust of 123 kN (27,600 lb) with afterburning in the AL-31F, 137 kN (30,800 lb) in the AL-31FM (AL-35F) and 145 kN (32,000 lb) in the AL-37FU variants. Currently it powers all Su-27 derivatives and the Chengdu J-10 multirole jet fighter which has been developed by China.



Name Description Builder Year Thrust Thrust vectoring Aircraft Status
AL-31F[1][2][3] The basic engine developed to power the Su-27 fighter Salyut, UMPO 1981 123 kN (27,700 lbf) No Su-27, Shenyang J-11, Sukhoi Su-30MKK, Sukhoi Su-30 (Salyut) In service/production
AL-31F3 Improved variant for the naval version Su-33 Saturn Lyul'ka 125.57 kN (28,200 lbf) No Su-33 In service/production
AL-31FP Improved variant for the Indian Su-30MKI with thrust vectoring Salyut, HAL 2000 123 kN (27,700 lbf) Yes Su-30 MKI, Sukhoi Su-30MKM In service/production
AL-31FN[4] Improved variant for the Chengdu J-10 Salyut 2002 124.5 kN (28,000 lbf) No Chengdu J-10 In service/production
AL-31FN Series 3[5] Improved variant for the Chengdu J-10B Salyut 2013 134.3 kN (30,200 lbf) No Chengdu J-10 In service/production[6]
AL-31F M1[7] Improved version for the Russian Air Force Salyut 2007 135 kN (30,300 lbf) Yes Su-27SM, Su-30, Su-34 In service/production
AL-31F M2[8] Improved version for the Russian Air Force Salyut 2012 145 kN (32,600 lbf) Yes Su-27SM, Su-30, Su-34 In tests
AL-37FU Advanced derivative for the Su-37 UMPO 145 kN (32,600 lbf) Yes Su-37 Experimental derivative for Su-37
AL-41F-1S (117S)[9] Advanced derivative for the Su-35 UMPO 2010 142 kN (31,900 lbf) Yes Su-35 In service/production
AL-41F1 (117) Advanced derivative for the Sukhoi Su-57 UMPO 2010 147 kN (33,000 lbf) Yes Su-57 prototype In service/early production
AL-41F3/FU (30) Advanced and enhanced variant for the Sukhoi Su-57 NPO Saturn After 2013 or 2015 93/108 kN (24000 lbf) to 180 kN (40000 lbf) Yes Su-57 serial Development/early production

The AL-31FP and AL-37FU variants have thrust vectoring. The former is used in the Su-30MKI export version of the Su-30 for India & Sukhoi Su-30MKM for Malaysia . The AL-31FP can deflect its nozzle to a maximum of ±15° at a rate of 30°/sec. The vectoring nozzle is utilized primarily in the pitch plane. The AL-31FP is built in India by HAL at the Koraput facility under a deep technology transfer agreement.

It can tolerate severely distorted air flow from the intake. In the twin-engined Su-27, left and right engines are interchangeable. The Mean Time Between Overhaul (MTBO) for the AL-31F is 1000 hours with a full-life of 3000 hours. Some reports suggested that Russia was offering AL-31F to Iran to re-engine its F-14 Tomcat air fleet in the late 1990s.

According to Saturn`s Victor Mihailovic Chepkin, chief designer of the 117 and 117S engines, the Chinese WS-10 was developed with the aid of the AL-31`s maintenance technical documentation.,[10] this was recently confirmed by AVIC [11] China can domestically produce most AL-31 parts for its own jet engine programs, but still import turbine blades from Russia.[12]


Intended to power the Su-35BM, the izdeliye 117S (AL-41F1S) is an upgrade of the AL-31F that uses technology from the AL-41F. The engine produces 142 kN (32,000 lb) of thrust in afterburner and 86.3 kN (19,400 lb) dry.[13] It features a fan 3% larger in diameter (932 millimetres (36.7 in) versus 905 millimetres (35.6 in)), advanced high- and low-pressure turbines, an all-new digital control system, and provisions for thrust-vectoring nozzles similar to the AL-31FP. This engine will have an assigned life of 4,000 hours and an MTBO of 1,000 hours.[14] The first flight of this engine was completed in an Su-35BM on 20 February 2008.[15] On 9 August 2010, Ufa-based company UMPO started supplying 117S engines (AL-41F1S) intended for Su-35S fighters.[16]


Related to the 117S is the izdeliye 117 (AL-41F1), a highly improved AL-31F derivative designed for the Sukhoi Su-57 fighter. The engine features an increased diameter fan, new high and low pressure turbines, and a digital control system (FADEC). According to Sukhoi director Mikhail Pogosyan, the 117 is a new fifth generation engine built specifically for the Su-57. Though the specifics of the 117 engine remain classified, the engine's thrust was increased by 24.5 kN (5,500 lbs) over the AL-31 while the engine weight was reduced by 150 kg (330 lb). The new engine produces 147 kN (33,067 lbf) of thrust in afterburner and has a dry weight of 1,420 kg (3,130 lb) and thrust-to-weight ratio of 10.5:1.[17] Like the AL-31F, the 117 has 4 low-pressure compressor (fan) and 9 high-pressure compressor stages.[18] Mikhail Pogosyan further mentioned that the 117 engine meets the Russian Air Force requirements and will be installed in production Su-57 fighter which will be supplied to the Russian Air Force and prospective foreign clients.[19]

The 117 is an interim engine meant for prototype and initial production batches of the T-50. The definitive second stage for the aircraft is designated izdeliye 30 and will eventually replace the 117 after 2020. The new engine has increased thrust and fuel efficiency as well as improved reliability and lower costs. Bench testing of the new engine will start in 2014 according to the general designer-director of the NPO Saturn Eugeny Marchuk.[20]

Produced in Ufa.[21]


Around 98 to 108 (or 118) kN supercruise or afterburning up to 178 (or more) kN of thrust force. Built at NPO Saturn (Rybinsk) and NPC Salyut plants.

Specifications AL-41F-1S (117S)[]

Data from Rosobornexport[22]

General characteristics
  • Type: Two-shaft afterburning turbofan
  • Length: 494.2 cm (194.6 in)
  • Diameter: 93.2 cm (36.7 in) inlet
  • Dry weight: 1,636 kg (3,607 lb)
  • Compressor: axial, 4 stage fan, 9 stage compressor
  • Combustors: annular
  • Turbine: 2 single stage turbines
  • Maximum thrust:
    • 84.6 kN (19,000 lbf) dry
    • 134.6 kN (30,300 lbf) with afterburner
  • Turbine inlet temperature: 1,471.8 °C (2,681.2 °F), 1,745 Kelvin
  • Fuel consumption:
    • 6,813 kg / h
    • 24,969 kg / h with afterburner
  • Specific fuel consumption:
    • 22.37 g / (kN·s) dry
    • 51.53 g / (kN·s) with afterburner
  • Thrust-to-weight ratio: 5.27:1 (dry), 8.39:1 with afterburner

Specifications (AL-31F)[]

Data from [23]

General characteristics
  • Type: Two-shaft afterburning turbofan
  • Length: 4,990 millimetres (196 in)
  • Diameter: 905 millimetres (35.6 in) inlet; 1,280 millimetres (50 in) maximum external
  • Dry weight: 1,570 kilograms (3,460 lb)[24]
  • Compressor: 4 fan and 9 compressor stages
  • Combustors: annular
  • Turbine: 2 single-staged turbines
  • Maximum thrust:
    • 74.5 kilonewtons (16,700 lbf) dry thrust
    • 122.58 kilonewtons (27,560 lbf) with afterburner
  • Overall pressure ratio: 23
  • Bypass ratio: 0.59:1
  • Turbine inlet temperature: 1685 K (1,412 °C (2,574 °F))
  • Specific fuel consumption:

Dry thrust: 24.6 g/(kN·s)
Full afterburner: 54.3 g/(kN·s)

  • Thrust-to-weight ratio: 4.77:1 (dry), 7.87:1 (afterburning)

See also[]


  1. UMPO page on AL-31F
  2. Salyut page on AL-31F
  3. [1]
  4. Salyut page on AL-31FN
  5. Salyut page on AL-31FN Series 3
  7. Salyut page on AL-31FM1
  8. Salyut page on AL-31FM2
  9. UMPO press release
  12. "Is China About to Get Its Military Jet Engine Program Off the Ground?" WSJ, 14 May 2012.
  13. Sukhoi Su-35 (Su-27BM) "4++ Generation Flanker"
  14. NPO Saturn finishes endurance tests for S-117 Engine meant for Su-35
  15. Новый истребитель Су-35 полностью выполнил программу первого полета
  16. УМПО начало поставку двигателей 117С для истребителя Су-35С
  17. PAK-FA is flying with new engine already installed Archived July 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  18. Butowski, Piotr. "Is Russia’s fifth-generation PAK FA fighter programme still on track?". Air International, June 2015, pp. 76–81. Stamford, UK: Key Publishing.
  19. PAK-FA is flying with new engine already installed Archived July 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  21. "УМПО начало поставку двигателей 117С для истребителя Су-35С", Interfax, 09.08.10
  22. Republic of Égyptien Q42 user:mgbtrust0 ®™✓©§∆∆∆€¢£. "AL-41F-1S". Rosobornexport. 
  23. AL=31F specification.
  24. specification

External links[]

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