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Sam Manekshaw
File:Sam Manekshaw.jpg
Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw
8th Chief of Army Staff
(Pictured wearing General's insignia ca. 1970)
Nickname Sam Bahadur
Born (1914-04-03)3 April 1914
Died 27 June 2008(2008-06-27) (aged 94)
Place of birth Amritsar, Punjab
Place of death Wellington, Tamil Nadu
Buried at Ooty, Tamil Nadu
Allegiance  British India (till 1947)
 India (after 1947)
Service/branch  British Indian Army
 Indian Army
Years of service 1934–2008[1]
Rank US-O11 insignia.svg Field Marshal
Battles/wars World War II
Indo-Pakistan War of 1947
Sino-Indian War
Indo-Pakistan War of 1965
Bangladesh Liberation War 1971
Awards Padma Vibhushan
Padma Bhushan
Military Cross

Sam Hormusji Framji Jamshedji Manekshaw MC (Gujarati language: સામ હોરમૂસજી ફરામજી જમશેદજી માણેકશા; 3 April 1914 – 27 June 2008), also known as Sam Bahadur ("Sam the Brave"), was an Indian military leader who was the first Indian Army officer to be promoted to the rank of Field Marshal. His distinguished military career spanned four decades and five wars, beginning with service in the British Indian Army in World War II. Manekshaw rose to be the 8th chief of staff of the Indian Army in 1969 and under his command, Indian forces conducted victorious campaigns against Pakistan in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 that led to the liberation of Bangladesh in December 1971.[2][3]

Early life and education

Manekshaw was born in Amritsar to Parsi parents, Hormusji Manekshaw, a doctor, and his wife Heerabai, who moved to the Punjab from the small town of Valsad on the Gujarat coast. After completing his schooling in Punjab and Sherwood College (Nainital), with distinction in the School Certificate examination of the Cambridge Board, he asked his father to send him to London to study medicine. When his father refused to send him till he was older, in an act of rebellion Manekshaw appeared for and qualified in the entrance examination for enrolment into the Indian Military Academy (IMA), Dehradun and as a result became part of the first intake of 40 cadets on 1 October 1932. He graduated from the IMA on 4 February 1934 and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the British Indian Army(later which became Indian Army after Independence).[4]

Manekshaw recalled at a function on 8 June 1969 on the centenary of Sherwood College after taking over as COAS, that his years at the College had prepared him for war in World War II as he had learnt here to live alone and independently, to fight without relent, tolerate hunger for long periods and to hate his enemy.

Military career

Manekshaw's military career spanned four decades, from the British era and World War II, to the three wars against Pakistan and China after India's independence in 1947. He held several regimental, staff and command assignments. Manekshaw went on to become the eighth Chief of the Army Staff, led the Indian Army successfully in a war with Pakistan and become India's First Field Marshal.[4][5]

On commissioning Manekshaw was first attached to the 2nd Bn The Royal Scots, a British battalion as per the practices of that time, and later to the 4th Battalion, 12th Frontier Force Regiment.

World War II

Indian Army
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History and traditions
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During World War II, Manekshaw saw action in Burma in the 1942 campaign on the Sittang River as a captain with the 4/12 Frontier Force Regiment,[6] and had the rare distinction of being honoured for his bravery on the battle front itself. He was commanding his battalion's 'A' Company in a counter-attack against the invading Japanese Army and despite suffering 50% casualties the company achieved its objective, Pagoda Hill, which was a key position on the left of the Sittang bridgehead. After capturing the hill, he was hit by a burst of LMG bullets and was severely wounded in the stomach.[7] Major General D.T. Cowan spotted Manekshaw holding on to life and was aware of his valour in face of stiff resistance from the Japanese. Fearing the worst, Major General Cowan quickly pinned his own Military Cross ribbon to Manekshaw saying, "A dead person cannot be awarded a Military Cross."[6] The official recommendation for the MC states that the success of the attack "was largely due to the excellent leadership and bearing of Captain Manekshaw". This award was made official with the publication of the notification in a supplement to the London Gazette of 21 April 1942 (dated 23 April 1942).[8] [9]

Manekshaw was almost pronounced dead when brought to Rangoon hospital with nine bullets in the lung, liver and kidneys. The military surgeon was reluctant to operate, seeing his hopeless condition, though Manekshaw was conscious. When the surgeon asked what had happened to him, he replied that he was "kicked by a donkey".[10][11]

Having recovered from those near-fatal wounds in Burma, Manekshaw attended the 8th Staff Course at Staff College, Quetta from 23 August to 22 December 1943, and was posted as Brigade Major of the Razmak brigade till 22 October 1944 before being sent to join the 9th Battalion, 12 Frontier Force Regiment in Burma under General (later Field Marshal) Slim's 14th Army. Towards the end of World War II, Manekshaw was sent as staff officer to General Daisy in Indo-China where, after the Japanese surrender, he helped rehabilitate over 10,000 POWs. He then went on a six-month lecture tour to Australia in 1946, and after his return was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel and served as a first grade staff officer in the Military Operations Directorate.[4]

Upon partition, his parent unit 4/12 FFR became part of the Pakistan Army, so Manekshaw was first empanelled with the 16th Punjab Regiment and later to the 3rd Battalion 5th Gorkha Rifles which he was detailed to command. The tumultous events of partition required Manekshaw's retention in Army Headquarters as a Lt Colonel in the Military Operations directorate because of which he missed his chance to command an infantry battalion, subsequently being promoted to Brigadier and becoming the first Indian Director of Military Operations.[4]


Manekshaw showed acumen for planning and administration while handling the issues relating to Partition of British India in 1947, and later put his battle skills to use during the 1947–48 Jammu & Kashmir Operations.[12] After command of an Infantry Brigade, he was posted as the commandant of the Infantry School Mhow and also became the colonel of 8 Gorkha Rifles (which became his new regiment, since his original parent regiment the 12th Frontier Force Regiment went on to join the new Pakistan Army at partition) and 61 Cavalry. He commanded a division in Jammu & Kashmir and a corps in the North East, with a tenure as commandant of Defence Services Staff College (DSSC) in between. As GOC-in-C Eastern Command, he handled the tricky problem of insurgency in Nagaland and the grateful nation honoured him with a Padma Bhushan in 1968.

Army Chief: Indo-Pakistani War of 1971

Manekshaw became the 8th chief of army staff when he succeeded General Kumaramangalam on 7 June 1969. His years of military experience were soon put to the test as India decided to help the Mukti Bahini rebels against West Pakistani forces. This resulted in break up of Pakistan and birth of Bangladesh.

Towards the end of April 1971, Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India at that time, asked Gen. Manekshaw if he was ready to go to war with Pakistan. Manekshaw refused saying his armoured division and two infantry divisions were deployed elsewhere, of whose 189 tanks, only 11 were fit to fight, and that they would be vying for rail carriage with grain harvest at that point of time. Besides, the Himalayan passes would soon open up, with the forthcoming monsoon in East Pakistan turning rivers into oceans.[10] When she asked the cabinet to leave the room and the chief to stay, he offered to resign. She declined to accept it, but sought his advice. He then said he could guarantee victory if she would allow him to prepare for the conflict on his terms, and set a date for it. These were acceded to by the Prime Minister.[13]

Manekshaw masterminded the rout of the Pakistan Army in one of the easiest and quickest victories in recent military history. The war, lasting under a fortnight, saw more than 45,000 Pakistani soldiers and 45,000 civilian personnel being taken as POWs. It ended with Pakistan's unconditional surrender of its eastern half, resulting in the birth of Bangladesh as a new nation.

Rank Promotions


Honours and post-retirement

A statue of Sam Manekshaw in Pune Cantonment

For his distinguished service to the country, the President of India awarded him a Padma Vibhushan in 1972 and conferred upon him the rank of Field Marshal on 1 January 1973. Manekshaw became one of the only two Indian Army Generals to be awarded this prestigious rank; the other being Kodandera Madappa Cariappa. Manekshaw moved out of active service a fortnight later on 15 January 1973 after completing nearly four decades of military service, and settled down with his wife Silloo in Coonoor, the civilian town next to Wellington Military Cantonment where he had served as Commandant of the Defence Services Staff College, at an earlier time in his career. A beloved of Gorkha soldiers, Nepal feted him as an Honorary General of their army in 1972.[15]

In May 2007, Gohar Ayub, son of Pakistani Field Marshal Ayub Khan, claimed that Manekshaw had sold Indian Army secrets to Pakistan during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 for 20,000 rupees, but his accusations were dismissed by the Indian defence establishment.[16][17]

Following his time in active service in the Indian Army, Manekshaw successfully served as an independent director on the board of several companies, and the Chairman as well, of a few of them.[18] Outspoken that he was, and hardly politically correct, once the government retorted by changing the entire board of a company, a Mr Naik replacing him. "This is the first time in history when a Naik(corporal) has replaced a Field Marshal," he quipped.[15]


He died of complications from pneumonia at the Military Hospital in Wellington, Tamil Nadu on 0030 hours, 27 June 2008 at the age of 94.[19] He kept asking for one Ranchordas Pagi, a civilian hero of 1965 war in kutch sector.

He was laid to rest in Ootacamund, Tamil Nadu, with military honours, adjacent to his wife's grave. He is survived by two daughters and three grandchildren.

Reportedly, his last words were "I'm okay!"[10]

That year on 16 December, celebrated each year as "Vijay Diwas" in memory of the victory achieved under Manekshaw's leadership in 1971, a postage stamp depicting Manekshaw in his field marshal's uniform was released by President Pratibha Patil.[20] However, she, the PM or other leaders from the political class did not turn up at his funeral,[21][22] nor was a national mourning declared.[23]

Famous quotations

  • On the military knowledge of politicians: "I wonder whether those of our political masters who have been put in charge of the defence of the country can distinguish a mortar from a motor; a gun from a howitzer; a guerrilla from a gorilla, although a great many resemble the latter." [22]

  • On being asked what would have happened had he opted for Pakistan at the time of the Partition in 1947, he quipped, "then I guess Pakistan would have won (the 1971 war)"[24]

  • On being placed in command of the retreating 4 Corps during the Sino-Indian War of 1962: "There will be no withdrawal without written orders and these orders shall never be issued."[25]

  • About the Gurkha: "If a man says he is not afraid of dying, he is either lying or is a Gurkha."[4]


  1. Indian military officers of five-star rank hold their rank for life, and are considered to be serving officers until their deaths.
  2. Obituary—Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw
  3. Vijay, Tarun (30 June 2008). "Saluting Sam Bahadur". Times of India website.,curpg-1.cms. Retrieved 8 July 2008. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Sood, S.D. (2006). Leadership : Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw. Noida, Delhi: SDS Publishers. ISBN 81-902828-4-0. 
  5. Singh, Depinder (2002). Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw, M.C. – Soldiering with Dignity. Dehradun: Natraj. pp. 237–259. ISBN 81-85019-02-9. .
  6. 6.0 6.1 Compton Mackenzie (1951), Eastern Epic, Chatto & Windus, London, pp. 440–1
  7. Sam Bahadur: A soldier's general, Times of India, 27 June 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2008.
  8. London Gazette, Issue 35532, pg 1797 (date 21 April 1942). Accessed on 3 June 2011.
  9. Recommendations for Honours and Awards (Army)—Image details—Manekshaw, Sam Hormuzji Franji Jamshadji, Documents online, The National Archives (fee required to view pdf of original citation). Retrieved 30 June 2008.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 "Obituary: Sam Manekshaw". pp. p. 107. Retrieved 7 July 2008. 
  11. Tarun (2008), p. 2
  12. Jha, Prem Shankar . (2006). "'Jawaharlal, do you want Kashmir, or do you want to give it away?". Noida, Delhi: ISBN 81-902828-4-0. Retrieved 22 May 2011. 
  13. Manekshaw, SHFJ. (11 Nov 1998). "Lecture at Defence Services Staff College on Leadership and Discipline" (Appendix V) in Singh (2002)Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw, M.C. – Soldiering with Dignity.
  14. Upon independence in 1947, India became a Dominion within the British Commonwealth of Nations. As a result, the rank insignia of the British Army, incorporating the Tudor Crown, was maintained, as George VI remained Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Armed Forces. After 26 January 1950, when India became a republic, the President of India became Commander-in-Chief, and the Ashoka Lion replaced the crown.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Mehta, Ashok (27 Jan 2003). "Play It Again, Sam : A tribute to the man whose wit was as astounding as his military skill". Outlook. Retrieved 15 Aug 2012. 
  16. PTI (3 June 2005). "1965 war-plan-seller a DGMO: Gohar Khan". The Times of India (website). Bennett, Coleman & Co. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  17. PTI (8 May 2007). "Military livid at Pak slur on Sam Bahadur". The Times of India (website). Bennett, Coleman & Co. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  18. Leadership: Sam Manekshaw, 2006, ISBN 81-902828-4-0, SDS Publishers
  19. Pandya, Haresh (30 June 2008). "Sam H.F.J. Manekshaw Dies at 94; Key to India's Victory in 1971 War". New York Times. Retrieved 30 June 2008. "Field Marshal Sam Hormusji Framji Jamshedji Manekshaw, India's best-known soldier and the architect of the country's victory in the 1971 war with Pakistan that gave birth to Bangladesh, died in Wellington, India, on Friday. He was 94. The cause was pneumonia, India's Defence Ministry said in a statement." 
  20. IANS (18 Dec 2008). "Stamp on Manekshaw released". The Hindu (website). The Hindu group. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  21. Pandit, Rajat (Jun 28, 2008). "Lone minister represents govt at Manekshaw's funeral". Times of India. Retrieved 15 Aug 2012. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 DNA – India – NRIs irked by poor Manekshaw farewell – Daily News & Analysis
  23. "No national mourning for Manekshaw". The Indian Express. Jun 29 2008. Retrieved 15 Aug 2012. 
  24. Lakshmi, Iyer (June 28, 2008). "A soldier’s general". Mumbai Mirror. Retrieved 13 Oct 2013. 
  25. "Sam Manekshaw, soldier, died on June 27th, aged 94". The Economist. 3 July 2008. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 

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Military offices
Preceded by
Paramasiva Prabhakar Kumaramangalam
Chief of Army Staff
Succeeded by
Gopal Gurunath Bewoor

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