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S-400 Triumf
NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler
S-400 Triumf SAM.png
S-400 Triumf launch vehicle
Type Mobile surface-to-air missile system
Place of origin  Russia
Service history
In service 28 April 2007[1]
Used by  Russia
Production history
Designer Almaz/Antei Concern of Air Defence (PVO Kontsern)
Manufacturer Fakel Machine-Building Design Bureau

400 km (40N6 missile)

250 km (48N6 missile)
120 km (9M96 missile)

Type Surface-to-air missile
Place of origin  Russia
Production history
Variants 9M96, 9M96E and 9M96E2
Specifications (9M96[2])

Propellant solid propellant rocket motor
40 kilometres (25 mi)[2]
Flight ceiling 30 km
Boost time cold launch ejection system
Speed Mach 5.0
inertial guidance with radio command corrections
gas dynamic flight control system
Type Surface-to-air missile
Place of origin  Russia
Production history
Variants 40N6
Specifications (40N6[2])

Propellant solid propellant rocket motor
400 kilometres (250 mi)
Flight ceiling 185 km[3]
Boost time cold launch ejection system
Speed Mach 12.0
inertial guidance with radio command corrections
gas dynamic flight control system

The S-400 Triumf (Russian: C-400 «Триумф»; NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler), previously known as S-300PMU-3, is a new generation anti-aircraft weapon system developed by Russia's Almaz Central Design Bureau as an upgrade of the S-300 family. It is currently in limited service with the Russian Armed Forces.

The S-400 uses three different missiles to cover its entire performance envelope. These are the extremely long range 40N6, long range 48N6 and medium range 9M96 missile. Each one has different capabilities.


The development of the S-400 system began in the late 1990s. The system was formally announced by the Russian Air Force in January 1999. On 12 February 1999, the first tests were performed at Kapustin Yar in Astrakhan which were reported successful. As a result of this, the S-400 was scheduled for deployment in the Russian army in 2001.[4]

In 2003 it first became apparent that the system was not ready for deployment, but in August two high-ranking military officials expressed concerns that the S-400 was being tested using 'obsolete' interceptors from the S-300P and concluded that it was not ready for production.[4]

Finally the completion of the project was announced in February 2004. In April, a ballistic missile was successfully intercepted in a test of the upgraded 48N6DM interceptor missile.[5][6]


  • Controls 30K6E:
    • command and control center 55K6E base on Ural-532301
  • panoramic radar detection 91N6E (range 600 km) have protection against jamming. Mounted on the MZKT-7930.
  • Anti-aircraft missile systems 98ZH6E (6 battalions) Consisting of:
    • Multi-function radar 92N2E (illumination distance of 400 km),[7] the radar can operate in the formulation of active noise
  • 5P85TE2 launchers and / or 5P85SE2 on the trailer in conjunction with a tractor-trailer BAZ-64022 or on the MAZ-543M (up to 12 launchers.)
  • allowed by the decree of Russian President:48N6E, 48N6E2, 48N6E3, 48N6DM, 9M96E, 9M96E2 and ultra distance 40N6E.[8]

Management tools 30К6Е are:[9]

to control the work of fire means:

98ZH6E system "Triumph"; THE s-300pmu2 ; THE s-300pmu1; and al s-300pmu2 through administration system 83М6Е2, s-300pmu1 through administration system 83М6Е; The Tor-M1 through a battery command post "Rankings-M"; Pantsir-S through the leading machine or through command post "Pantsir-S"; Triumph kets - when carrying out additional works in information technology pairing administration system 30К6Е; reception of the route information from the radar:

additionally integrated radar complex 91Н6Е; Radar route type output input 96L6E, "Opponent-GE", "Gamma-DE". Option - integrated radar complex 91Н6Е; ensure interaction:

with senior command posts Russian production type "Baikal-E" and others; with neighbouring administration system 30К6Е, 83М6Е, 83М6Е2; with interacting command post type "Polyana-Д4М1"; with interacting command post fighter aircraft of the Russian production. For export supply in coordination with by foreign customer, with the purpose of integration in the system of defence from the customer shall be additional works on improvement of the administration system 30К6Е for information technology pairing with anti-kets.

base stats

Main characteristics of the «Triumph» [10]
Max target speed, km/s 4,8[citation needed]
Target detection distance, km 600
Range of aerodynamic target km
  • maximum
  • minimum

Height defeats the purpose km
  • maximum
  • minimum

Range of tactical ballistic targets, km
  • maximum
  • minimum

The number of simultaneously engaged targets (full cast WRU) 36
The number of simultaneously guided missiles (full cast WRU) 72
Time of deployment from traveling to the state, min 5-10
Cast means of the system of combat readiness of the deployed state, min 3
Life means of the system to overhaul, h 10 000
Service life, years
  • ground facilities
  • anti-aircraft guided missiles

at least 20

-aircraft of the strategic aviation on the b-1B, FB-111, B-52; -specialized electronic warfare planes of type EF-111A, EA-6; -reconnaissance aircraft type TR-1; -planes early warning E-3A, E-2C; -aircraft tactical aviation-type F-15, F-16, F-22; -aircraft produced on Stealth technology», B-2, F-117A; -strategic cruise missiles of the type «Tomahawk», other types of; -aeroballistic missiles of different variants; -intermediate-range ballistic missiles; -operational-tactical ballistic missiles.

  • maximum speed any purpose 4800 meters per second, the minimum is zero.[9]


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  • The 40N6 very long range missile is capable of destroying airborne targets at ranges up to 400 km (250 mi). Active radar homing head. (expected in 2012)[13]
  • The 48N6E3/48N6DM long range missile is capable of destroying airborne targets at ranges up to 250 km (160 mi). Semi-active radar homing head.
  • The 9M96E2 extended range missile is capable of destroying airborne targets at ranges up to 120 km (75 mi). It has the highest hit probability against fast, manoeuvrable targets such as fighter aircraft. Active radar homing head.
  • The 9M96E medium range missile.
  • The ABM capabilities are near the maximum allowed under the (now void) Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
  • The new anti-ballistic missiles 77N6-N and 77N6-N1 to enter service in 2014 supposedly add inert/kinetic anti-ballistic capability to the system.[14] The same missiles will also be used by the S-500, which has a clearly stated anti-ICBM role.[15]


A regular S-400 battalion consists of at least eight launchers with 32 missiles and a mobile command post.[16] On May 21, 2007 the Russian Air Force announced that S-400 would be put on combat duty around Moscow and Central Russia by July 1, 2007.[17] The S-400 was also deployed near the town of Elektrostal.[18]

On August 6, 2007, the first regiment equipped with S-400 entered active service in Moscow Oblast' near the town of Elektrostal, according to Channel One Russia. This is the 606th Guards Anti-air Rocket Regiment, 9th PVO Division, 1st PVO Corps, of the Special Purpose Command.[19]

On February 8, 2008, Lt. Gen. Vladimir Sviridov announced that Russia will be replacing the S-300 systems in the Northwest of Russia with the more technologically advanced S-400. Russian military experts expect that Russia plans for this system to be in place and represent a major component of their ballistic missile defense system until 2020.[20]

In September 2006 Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov announced a new state program of armaments for 2007–2015. This program provides for the purchase of 18 missile battalions of S-400's.[21]

On March 17, 2009 Russia's defense minister announced that a second regiment equipped with advanced S-400 Triumf air defense missile systems has been put into combat service.[22]

On August 26, 2009, the General Staff said S-400 systems had been deployed in the Russian Far East to counter possible North Korean missile tests and prevent fragments from falling on Russian territory.[16]

In February 2011 a second unit of S-400 missile systems was deployed at Dubrovki, north of Moscow. The 210th Air Defence Regiment consists of two battalions, each consisting of eight launch points, each with four missiles.[23] In February 2011, it was also announced that the missile system will be deployed in southern Kuril Islands "to protect Russia's sovereignty in the Far East".[24]

The Baltic Fleet in Kaliningrad received S-400 SAM systems in February 2012 and these went into operational status in April 2012.[25][26] One S-400 division is deployed on combat duty in the Russian far east city Nakhodka.[27]

As of 2012, one system (in Electrostal) was operational, with three more S-400 battalions being deployed. All 56 battalions will be delivered by 2020.[28] Russia is also setting up two regiments of S-400 in Eastern Military district.[29]

As of September 2013, the Russian Army has five S-400 regiments: two in Moscow, one in the Pacific fleet, one in the Baltic Fleet, and one in the Southern Military District. Beginning in 2014, the army will receive two to three sets of regimental units of S-400 systems every year.[30] Another S-400 regiment will be put on combat duty around Moscow by the end of 2013. Russia plans to have 28 S-400 regiments by 2020, each comprising two or three battalions with four systems each, mainly in maritime and border areas.[31]

Foreign interest

On August 23, 2007 RIA Novosti reported that their sources indicated that Russia will not export the S-400 for the next few years.[32]

During the 2009 International Defence Industry Fair in Istanbul Turkey expressed interest in buying the system.[33]

Vice Chairman of Russia's State Duma Vladimir Zhirinovsky has urged the fast delivery of the S-400 anti-aircraft missile systems to Iran.[34]

On August 24, 2009, RIA Novosti reported that their sources indicated that Belarus had submitted a formal request for two battalions of S-400 systems.[35]

In September 2009, it was reported that the S-400 system is part of a two billion dollar arms deal being negotiated between Russia and Saudi Arabia. As of March 2010, this was still under negotiation. The Saudis want to buy twelve systems, each of eight launchers. The Saudis were trying to buy the more modern S-400, but the Russians reportedly only wanted to sell the older S-300.[36][37]

South Korea is developing a simplified version of the S-400 called M-SAM Cheolmae-2 with the help of Almaz. The prime contractor is Samsung Thales, a joint venture between Samsung and Thales.[38] The M-SAM will be composed of an X band multi-function radar vehicle built by Samsung Thales in technical cooperation with Almaz,[39] and fire-control vehicles and transporter erector launchers built by Doosan.[40] LIG Nex1 will provide the missiles.[41]

The Russian Ministry of Defence has stated that the S-400 is for the Russian Armed Forces only; it will not be exported.[28]



  •  Russia – 72 units (9 battalions)[27][42][43][44]
  • Moscow region
    • In Dmitrov 210th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment 2 battalions.[45]
    • In Electrostal 606th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment 2 battalions.[43]


  •  Algeria
  •  Egypt – Egypt has expressed its interest in buying S-400 systems[47]
  •  Kazakhstan – started planning creation of a joint air defense system that helped Astana buy S-400 complexes from Moscow after 2015 [48]
  •  Belarus – announced its intention to purchase S-400 systems in September, 2011 [48]
  •  Vietnam – Vietnam will buy 4-6 S-400 complexes after 2015 when Russia exports this system [49][50]
  •  Armenia – Armenia showed interest to Russian S-400 in 2011[51]
  •  China – China has in the past shown interests in the S-400 systems[52]
  •  Saudi Arabia – has expressed its interest in buying 12 unit S-400 systems .
  •  Turkey – has expressed interest in S-400 system instead of Russian offered S-300 system [52] However, Turkey bought Chinese HQ-9, and the S-300PMU2 was first to be eliminated from the competition.
  •  Serbia – Serbia has shown interest to buy S-400 system to upgrade Serbian Air Defence capabilities.[53]

See also


  1. "ЗРС С-400 Триумф". Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "S-400 Triumf (SA-21 'Growler') (Russian Federation), Defensive weapons". Jane's Information Group. February 11, 2010. Retrieved December 9, 2010. 
  3. Армс-Тасс. "Армс-Тасс" (in ru). Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "S-400 (SA-20 Triumf)".,page.3/system_detail.asp. Retrieved December 10, 2010. 
  5. "Russia: New S-400 Air Defense System Coming Soon". April 4, 2001. 
  6. "Russia Trumpets New S-400 Missile System". BBC Monitoring. March 23, 2001. 
  8. "Частокол противовоздушной обороны / Вооружения / Независимая газета". 2008-02-29. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  9. 9.0 9.1
  11. New missile for the s-400 is already being prepared for serial production «Military parity» (March 18, 2010)
  13. "Ракету дальнего радиуса действия для С-400 создадут в 2012 году » Военное обозрение". Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  14. Andrei Kislyakov, specially for RIR (2012-12-18). "Russia to roll out new hypersonic missiles". Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  15. "S-500 Prometheus". Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Denisov, Anton (August 26, 2008). "Russia deploys S-400 air defense systems in Far East". RIA Novosti. Moscow, Russia. Retrieved December 9, 20102009-08-26. "A regular S-400 battalion comprises at least eight launchers with 32 missiles and a mobile command post." 
  17. "S-400 missile defense systems to start defending Moscow July 1". RIA Novosti. Moscow, Russia. May 21, 2007. Retrieved December 9, 2010. 
  18. "Systém S-400 připraven k obraně Moskvy" (in Czech). RIA Novosti. Moscow, Russia: The Internet Archive Wayback Machine. May 31, 2007. Archived from the original on July 3, 2007. Retrieved December 9, 2010. "...S-400 will be given to full combat readiness to defend Moscow and central Russia (near the town of Elektrostal in the Moscow region) on 1 July 2007." 
  19. "Russia to Belarus fearing of Ukraine". April 15, 2008. Retrieved December 10, 2010. "...sources report the regiment based at Elektrostal is the 606th Guards Anti-air Rocket Regiment, 9th PVO Division, 1st PVO Corps, of the Special Purpose Command" 
  20. "Russia moves to longer-range interceptors". United Press International. February 8, 2008. Retrieved December 9, 2010. "Russian military experts expect the S-400 to be the backbone of the country's missile defenses through at least 2020." 
  21. "Оружия не хватит – Для переоснащения армии нет средств" (in Russian). Vedomosti. August 8, 2008. Retrieved December 9, 2010. "LG-2015 provides for... the purchase of... 18 anti-aircraft missile battalions of S-400" 
  22. "Second S-400 air defense regiment put into service in Russia". RIA Novosti. March 17, 2009. Retrieved December 10, 2010. 
  23. Defense Russia's second S-400 missile unit enters service, 16 February 2011.
  24. Russia to deploy modern missile defense systems on disputed Kuril Islands, 15 February 2011
  25. "Baltic Fleet Receives S-400 Air Defense Missile Systems". 2012-04-06. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  26. Балтийский флот заменит ЗРК С-200 на "Триумфы" (The Baltic fleet will replace the S-200 with the "Triumf"). 11 December 2011
  27. 27.0 27.1 "SA-21 GROWLER / S400 Triumph Long Range TABM/SAM - Russian Military Analysis". Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  28. 28.0 28.1 "Russia to induct three S-400 battalions in 2012". Industry News. Air Force Technology. 19 March 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2012. 
  29. "Russia’s Eastern Military District Gets S-400 Missiles". Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  30. Russian army will receive two or three new regiments of S-400 defense missile systems every year -, 15 September 2013
  31. New regiment of S-400 air defense missile sytem will enter in service with the Russian army -, 8 October 2013
  32. "Russia unlikely to export S-400 SAM systems any time soon". RIA Novosti. August 23, 2007. Retrieved December 10, 2010. 
  33. "Turkey hopes to buy S-400 air defense systems from Russia". RIA Novosti. April 27, 2009. Retrieved December 9, 2010. 
  34. "Iran's army to be equipped with S-400". PressTV. September 5, 2007. Retrieved December 10, 2010. "Vice Chairman of Russia's State Duma Vladimir Zhirinovsky has urged the fast delivery of the magnificent S-400 anti-aircraft missile systems to Iran." 
  35. Belarus asks Russia for S-400 SAM systems by 2010 – source
  36. Defpro.Daily Saudi Arabia signs 2 billion dollar weapons deal with Russia, 1 Sep 2009.
  37. Riyadh mulls big Russian missile buy, 22 March 2010.
  38. New Contract: ALMAZ Corp. creates Multi-functional radar for South Korea
  39. "Defense & Security Intelligence & Analysis". Jane's Information Group. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  40. "Doosan Corporation Mottrol : Defence Weapon". Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  41. "True Dream Partner - LIG Nex1". Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  42. "Наука и техника: Западный военный округ получил дивизион комплексов С-400". Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 Беларусь. "210-й зенитно-ракетный полк ВВС и ПВО России, дислоцированный около поселка Морозки Дмитровского района Московской области, получил на вооружение два дивизиона новейшей зенитно-ракетной системы С-400. / Союзное вече / Приложения / Народная газета". Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  44. "ВВС РФ в 2010 году должны получить еще пять дивизионов С-400 | РИА Новости". 2009-11-26. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  45. "Наука и техника: Комплексы С-400 отправят на Дальний Восток". Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  46. "Зенитно-ракетный полк ЮВО ВВС России получил на вооружение комплекс С-400 "Триумф" - Телеканал "Звезда"". 2011-01-02. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  47. "Egypt wants S-400 to counter Iran". 2009-07-02. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  48. 48.0 48.1 "Kazakhstan to get first S-400 air defense systems after 2015". 2013-03-15. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  49. "VNTime - Viet-Nam-co-the-mua-S-400-cua-Nga". Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  50. [1][dead link]
  51. Sargis Harutyunyan եւ Emil Danielyan (2011-08-31). "Armenia Eyes More Sophisticated Russian Missiles". Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  52. 52.0 52.1 "China wants to buy S-400 ground to air defence missile system from Russia 1901121". Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  53. "RTS :: Vučić u poseti Rusiji" (in sr). 2012-08-20. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 

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