|Russian Space Forces|
Flag of the Russian Space Forces
1992 - 1997|
2001 - 2011
|Allegiance||Ministry of Defence|
|Size||Active: 100,000 active personnel|
|Anniversaries||4 October (Space Forces Day)|
|Maj. Gen. Oleg Ostapenko|
|Armed Forces of the
|Independent troops (rod)|
|Ranks of the Russian Military|
|History of the Russian military|
The Russian Space Forces (Russian: Космические войска России, romanized: Kosmicheskie Voyska Rossii) was the branch of the Russian military responsible for military space operations. Established on August 10, 1992, following the breakup of the Soviet Union and the creation of the Russian Armed Forces, the organisation shared control of the Baikonur Cosmodrome with the Russian Federal Space Agency. It also operated the Plesetsk and the Svobodny Cosmodromes. On 1 December 2011, it was replaced by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.
In 1967 the Troops of Anti-Missile and Anti-Space Defence was formed (Russian: войска противоракетной и противокосмической обороны [ПРО и ПКО], romanized: Voyska Protivoraketnoy i Protivokosmicheskoy Oborony [PRO i PKO]) under General-Lieutenant of the Artillery Yu. Votintsev. They were reorganised as the Ministry of Defence Space Units in 1982. In 1991 the Soviet Union was broken up. The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation were established on 7 May 1992, enabling the creation of Russian Space Forces later that year on 10 August.
In July 1997 the Space Force was dissolved as a separate service arm and incorporated to the Strategic Rocket Forces along with the Space Missile Defence Forces (Russian: Ракетно-космическая оборона), which previously were part of the Soviet Air Defence Forces. In the view of some experts, this was a mistake that prevented the Russian military from developing space-based capabilities. Russian Public TV said of the merger:
However, slightly over three years ago, it appeared to some-one, that, with a view to saving funds, it would be more sensible to strip the Military Space Forces of their independence and subordinate them to the Strategic Missile Troops -which has been done. In just the same way the country's air defence forces were made subordinate to the air force.
Under the slogan of "optimizing", but, essentially, reducing the officer corps of the armed forces, the Military Space Forces were simply merged with the Strategic Missile Troops. In this way the missilemen command remained in their places virtually in full and almost the entire elite of military engineers were dispersed from the space forces. The military base, too, was destroyed. In the building of the Military Space Forces headquarters on Kaluga Square [Kaluzhskaya ploshchad], the very expensive fibre optic cable necessary for communicating with space facilities was ripped out. Afterwards, this decision was deemed to have been erroneous.
The Russian Space Forces were officially reborn on June 1, 2001 as an independent section of the Russian military. They regained independence under one of the many military reorganisation plans of the mid-late 1990s. Colonel General Anatoly Perminov was appointed to lead the new Space Forces. He was succeeded by General Vladimir Popovkin in 2004 and General Oleg Ostapenko in 2008 until dissolution in 2011.
The main tasks of the Russian Space Forces are informing the higher political leaders and military commanders of missile attacks as soon as possible, ballistic missile defence, and the creation, deployment, maintenance and control of in-orbit space vehicles, like the new Persona reconnaissance satellite. For example, the Space Forces operate the GLONASS global positioning system; commander of the Space Forces Colonel General Vladimir Popovkin said in January 2006 that 18 GLONASS satellites would be in orbit by 2008, In October 2010 the system became fully operational.
Formations of the Space Forces included the 3rd Missile-Space Defence Army, and a Division of Warning of Missile Attack, both with their headquarters at Solnechnogorsk near Moscow. Installations include the Qabala Radar in Azerbaijan, along with a number of other large warning radars, and the A-135 anti-ballistic missile system which protects Moscow.
There is also an optical tracking facility, the Okno (Window) complex near the town of Nurek in central Tajikistan that is intended to monitor objects in space. The Okno is capable of tracking objects 40,000 kilometers (25,000 mi) from Earth, the space forces said when it was put on duty in 2002. The facility involves telescope-like equipment housed in several large spheres, similar to the U.S. GEODSS system.
3rd Missile-Space Defence Army, status in 2002
- 1st Division of Warning of Missile Attack - HQ: Solnechnogorsk 
- East Oko Headquarters - Komsomolsk-na-Amure (Pivan-1)
- West Oko Headquarters – Kurilovo (Serpukhov-15)
- Radar Site (ORTU) RO-1 Olenegorsk - Radar Dnepr (Hen House)
- Radar Site RO-5 - Beregovo, Ukraine - Radar Dnepr (Hen House, under Ukrainian control, all Ukrainian personnel)
- Radar Site RO-4 - Sevastopol area, Ukraine - Radar Dnepr (Hen House, under Ukrainian control, all Ukrainian personnel)
- Radar Site OS-2 - Balkhash , Kazakhstan - Radar Dnepr (Hen House)
- Radar Site OS-1 - Mishelevka, Irkutsk - Radar Dnepr (Hen House)
- Radar Site RO-30 - Pechora - Radar Daryal (Pechora)
- Radar Site RO-7 - Gabala, Azerbaijan - Radar Daryal (Pechora)
- Radar Site Gantcevichi, Belarus - Radar Volga
- Radar Site - Komsomolsk-na-Amure - Radar Duga-2 (Steel Yard)
- Radar Site Sofrino, in common with PRO - Radar Don-2 (Pill Box)
- 9th Division of Defence Against Missiles - HQ: Sofrino  (A-135 anti-ballistic missile system)
- Missile Site - Novopetrovska - 51Т6
- Missile Site - Klin - 51Т6
- Missile Site - Shodna - 53Т6
- Missile Site - Turakovo (Aleksandrov) - 51Т6
- Missile Site - Korolev - 53Т6
- Missile Site - Litkarino - 53Т6
- Missile Site - Vnukovo - 53Т6
- Missile Site - Kolodkino - 51Т6
- Radar Site - Sofrino - Radar Don-2N (Pill Box)
- Radar Site - Stremilovo (Chekhov-7) - Radar Dunay-3U (Cat House)
- Radar Site - Kubinka – Radar Dunay-M (Dog House)
- 45th Division of Space Control - HQ: Noginsk area
- The Military Balance 2009. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies. 2009. p. 217.
- Lindborg, Christina (1997). "VKS". World Space Guide. Federation of American Scientists. http://www.fas.org/spp/guide/russia/agency/vks.htm. Retrieved March 24, 2012.
- "Russia’s Aerospace Defense Forces go on duty to stave off missile threats". RIA Novosti. 1 December 2011. http://en.ria.ru/mlitary_news/20111201/169208932.html. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- "4 октября - День военно-космических сил России" (in Russian). October 4 - Day of Military Space Forces in Russia. Prazdnuem. undated. http://www.prazdnuem.ru/calendar/cosmos/.
- Russian Public TV (ORT), Moscow, in Russian 1700 gmt 28 March 2001, via BBC Summary of World Broadcasts
- ITAR-Tass news agency, via http://www.flug-revue.rotor.com/FRNews1/FRNews01/FR010603.htm[dead link]
- "Oleg Ostapenko". Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. undated. http://eng.mil.ru/en/structure/forces/cosmic/management.htm. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
- "Sourcebook on the Okno (в/ч 52168), Krona (в/ч 20096) and Krona-N (в/ч 20776) Space Surveillance Sites". Federation of American Scientists. 2008-12-30. http://www.fas.org/spp/military/program/track/okno.pdf. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
- Kommersant-Vlast, 14 May 2002, www.brinkster.net[dead link]
- Podvig, Pavel (2002). "History and the Current Status of the Russian Early-Warning System" (pdf). pp. 21–60. Digital object identifier:10.1080/08929880212328. ISSN 0892-9882. http://iis-db.stanford.edu/pubs/20734/Podvig-S&GS.pdf.
- Petrov, Nikita (5 February 2008). "Kiev Radar Row Set to Inflame Tensions Part One". Space Mart/RIA Novosti. http://www.spacemart.com/reports/Kiev_Radar_Row_Set_To_Inflame_Tensions_Part_One_999.html. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
- "9 ДИВИЗИЯ ПРОТИВОРАКЕТНОЙ ОБОРОНЫ" (in Russian). 9 DIVISION MISSILE DEFENCE. Warfare.Ru. Undated. http://warfare.be/rus/?lang=rus&catid=239&linkid=2243&base=1148. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
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