Military Wiki
Grand Ayatollah
Ruhollah Khomeini
1st Supreme Leader of Iran

In office
3 December 1979 – 3 June 1989
President Abolhassan Banisadr
Mohammad-Ali Rajai
Ali Khamenei
Prime Minister Mehdi Bazargan
Mohammad-Ali Rajai
Mohammad-Javad Bahonar
Mahdavi Kani
Mir-Hossein Mousavi
Deputy Hussein-Ali Montazeri
Preceded by Mohammed Reza Pahlavi
As Shah of Iran
Succeeded by Ali Khamenei
Personal details
Born Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini
(1902-09-24)24 September 1902[1][2][3][4][5]
Khomeyn, Persia
Died 3 June 1989(1989-06-03) (aged 86)
Tehran, Iran
Nationality Persian
Spouse(s) Khadijeh Saqafi (m.1929 – will.1989)
Children Mostafa
Religion Usuli Twelver Shia Islam

Ruhollah Mostafavi Musavi Khomeini (Persian سید روح‌اللّه مصطفوی موسوی خمینی, Persian pronunciation: [ruːholˈlɑːhe muːsæˈviːje χomeiˈniː], 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the West as Ayatollah Khomeini,[6] was an Iranian religious leader and politician, and leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution as the highest ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death.

Khomeini was a marja ("source of emulation") in Twelver Shi'a Islam, author of more than forty books, but is primarily known for his political activities. He spent more than 15 years in exile for his opposition to the last Shah. In his writings and preachings he expanded the Shi'a Usuli theory of velayat-e faqih, the "guardianship of the jurisconsult (clerical authority)" to include theocratic political rule by the Islamic jurists. This principle (though not known to the wider public before the revolution[7][8]) was installed in the new Iranian constitution[9] after being put to a referendum.[10]

He was named Man of the Year in 1979 by American newsmagazine TIME for his international influence,[11] and has been described as the "virtual face of Islam in Western popular culture"[12] where he remains a controversial figure. He was known for his support of the hostage takers during the Iran hostage crisis[13] and his fatwa calling for the death of British Indian novelist Salman Rushdie.[11][14]

Khomeini has been criticized for these acts and for human rights violations of Iranians (including his ordering of execution of thousands of political prisoners;[15][16][17]), but also lauded as a "charismatic leader of immense popularity",[18] and a "champion of Islamic revival" by Shia scholars.[12]

Khomeini held the title of Grand Ayatollah and is officially known as Imam Khomeini inside Iran and by his supporters internationally,[19] and generally referred to as Ayatollah Khomeini by others.[20]

Early life


Portrait of Saadat Ali Khan II, one of the Padishah-i-Awadh

The ancestors of Ruhollah Khomeini migrated from their original home in Nishapur, North-Eastern Iran, to the kingdom of Awadh, whose rulers were Twelver Shia Muslims of Persian origin.[21][22] During their rule they extensively invited, and received, a steady stream of Persian scholars, poets, jurists, architects, and painters.[23] The Khomeini family eventually settled in the small town of Kintoor, just outside of Lucknow, the capital.[24][25][26][27] Ayatollah Khomeini's paternal grandfather, Seyyed Ahmad Musavi Hindi, was born in Kintoor and was a contemporary and relative of the famous scholar Ayatollah Syed Mir Hamid Hussain Musavi.[25][27] He left Lucknow in 1830 on a pilgrimage to the tomb of Imam Ali in Najaf, Mesopotamia (now Iraq) and never returned.[24][27] According to Moin, this migration was to escape from the spread of British power in India.[28] In 1834 Seyyed Ahmad Musavi Hindi visited Persia, and in 1839 he settled down at Khomein.[25] Although he stayed and settled in Iran, he continued to be known as Hindi, indicating his stay in India, and Ruhollah Khomeini even used Hindi as a pen name in some of his ghazals.[24] There are also claims that Seyyed Ahmad Musavi Hindi was of Kashmiri origin.[29]


Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini, whose name means "inspired of God" was born on 22 or 24 September 1902 in Khomeyn, Markazi Province. He was raised by his mother Hajieh Agha Khanum and aunt Sahebeth following the murder of his father Seyed Mostafa Hindi 5 months after his birth in 1903.[30]

Ruhollah began to study the Qur'an and elementary Persian at the age of six.[31] The following year, he began to attend a local school, where he learned religion, "noheh khani" and other traditional subjects.[28] Throughout his childhood, he would continue his religious education with the assistance of his relatives, including his mother's cousin, Ja'far,[28] and his elder brother, Morteza Pasandideh.[32]

Education and lecturing

Khomeini as a student with his friends (second from right)

After World War I arrangements were made for him to study at the Islamic seminary in Esfahan, but he was attracted instead to the seminary in Arak. He was placed under the leadership of Ayatollah Abdul Karim Haeri Yazdi.[33] In 1920, Khomeini moved to Arak and commenced his studies.[34] The following year, Ayatollah Haeri Yazdi transferred to the Islamic seminary at the holy city of Qom, southwest of Tehran, and invited his students to follow. Khomeini accepted the invitation, moved,[32] and took up residence at the Dar al-Shafa school in Qom.[35] Khomeini's studies included Islamic law (sharia) and jurisprudence (fiqh),[31] but by that time, Khomeini had also acquired an interest in poetry and philosophy (irfan). So, upon arriving in Qom, Khomeini sought the guidance of Mirza Ali Akbar Yazdi, a scholar of philosophy and mysticism. Yazdi died in 1924, but Khomeini would continue to pursue his interest in philosophy with two other teachers, Javad Aqa Maleki Tabrizi and Rafi'i Qazvini.[36][37] However, perhaps Khomeini's biggest influences were yet another teacher, Mirza Muhammad 'Ali Shahabadi,[38] and a variety of historic Sufi mystics, including Mulla Sadra and Ibn Arabi.[37]

Khomeini studied Greek Philosophy and was influenced by both the philosophy of Aristotle, whom he regarded as the founder of logic,[39] and Plato, whose views "in the field of divinity" he regarded as "grave and solid".[40] Among Islamic philosophers, Khomeini was mainly influenced by Avicenna and Mulla Sadra.[39]

Apart from philosophy, Khomeini was also interested in literature and poetry. His poetry collection was released after his death. Beginning in his adolescent years, Khomeini composed mystic, political and social poetry. His poetry works were published in three collections The Confidant, The Decanter of Love and Turning Point and Divan.[41] Some of his poems are seen as criticizing spirituality and religion, such as one firstly dedicated to a commander in the Iran-Iraq war but later published by his son as a memorial to him. He claims the controversial "I am the Truth" of the Persian mystic Manṣūr al-Ḥallāj and uses the Ṣūfī terminology of wine.[42][Clarification needed]

Ruhollah Khomeini was a lecturer at Najaf and Qom seminaries for decades before he was known in the political scene. He soon became a leading scholar of Shia Islam.[43] He taught political philosophy,[44] Islamic history and ethics. Several of his students (e.g. Morteza Motahhari) later became leading Islamic philosophers and also marja. As a scholar and teacher, Khomeini produced numerous writings on Islamic philosophy, law, and ethics.[45] He showed an exceptional interest in subjects like philosophy and mysticism that not only were usually absent from the curriculum of seminaries but were often an object of hostility and suspicion.[46]

Political aspects

His seminary teaching often focused on the importance of religion to practical social and political issues of the day, and he worked against secularism in the 1940s. His first book, Kashf al-Asrar (Uncovering of Secrets)[47][48] published in 1942, was a point-by-point refutation of Asrar-e hazar salih (Secrets of a Thousand Years), a tract written by a disciple of Iran's leading anti-clerical historian, Ahmad Kasravi.[49] In addition, he went from Qom to Tehran to listen to Ayatullah Hasan Mudarris, the leader of the opposition majority in Iran's parliament during the 1920s. Khomeini became a marja in 1963, following the death of Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Husayn Borujerdi.

Early political activity


Khomeini's speech against the Shah in Qom, 1964

Most Iranians had a deep respect for the Shi'a clergy or Ulema,[50] and tended to be religious, traditional, and alienated from the process of Westernization pursued by the Shah. In the late 19th century the clergy had shown themselves to be a powerful political force in Iran initiating the Tobacco Protests against a concession to a foreign (British) interest.

At the age of 61, Khomeini found the arena of leadership open following the deaths of Ayatollah Sayyed Husayn Borujerdi (1961), the leading, although quiescent, Shi'ah religious leader; and Ayatollah Abol-Ghasem Kashani (1962), an activist cleric. The clerical class had been on the defensive ever since the 1920s when the secular, anti-clerical modernizer Reza Shah Pahlavi rose to power. Reza's son Muhammad Reza Shah, instituted a "White Revolution", which was a further challenge to the ulama.[51]

Opposition to the White Revolution

In January 1963, the Shah announced the "White Revolution", a six-point programme of reform calling for land reform, nationalization of the forests, the sale of state-owned enterprises to private interests, electoral changes to enfranchise women and allow non-Muslims to hold office, profit-sharing in industry, and a literacy campaign in the nation's schools. Some of these initiatives were regarded as dangerous, especially by the powerful and privileged Shi'a ulama (religious scholars), and as Westernizing trends by traditionalists .[52] Ayatollah Khomeini summoned a meeting of the other senior marjas of Qom and persuaded them to decree a boycott of the referendum on the White Revolution. On 22 January 1963 Khomeini issued a strongly worded declaration denouncing the Shah and his plans. Two days later the Shah took an armored column to Qom, and delivered a speech harshly attacking the ulama as a class.

Khomeini continued his denunciation of the Shah's programmes, issuing a manifesto that bore the signatures of eight other senior Iranian Shia religious scholars. In it he listed the various ways in which the Shah had allegedly violated the constitution, condemned the spread of moral corruption in the country, and accused the Shah of submission to the United States and Israel. He also decreed that the Nowruz celebrations for the Iranian year 1342 (which fell on 21 March 1963) be canceled as a sign of protest against government policies.

Khomeini denouncing the Shah on 'Ashura (3 June 1963)

On the afternoon of 'Ashura (3 June 1963), Khomeini delivered a speech at the Feyziyeh madrasah drawing parallels between the infamous tyrant Yazid and the Shah, denouncing the Shah as a "wretched, miserable man," and warning him that if he did not change his ways the day would come when the people would offer up thanks for his departure from the country.[53]

On 5 June 1963 (15 of Khordad) at 3:00 am, two days after this public denunciation of the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Khomeini was detained in Qom and transferred to Tehran.[54] This sparked three days of major riots throughout Iran and led to the deaths of some 400. That event is now referred to as the Movement of 15 Khordad.[55] Khomeini was kept under house arrest and released in August.[56][page needed]

Opposition to capitulation

Khomeini in prayer

On 26 October 1964, Khomeini denounced both the Shah and the United States. This time it was in response to the "capitulations" or diplomatic immunity granted by the Shah to American military personnel in Iran.[57][58] The famous "capitulation" law (or "status-of-forces agreement") would allow members of the U.S. armed forces in Iran to be tried in their own military courts. Khomeini was arrested in November 1964 and held for half a year. Upon his release, he was brought before Prime Minister Hasan Ali Mansur, who tried to convince Khomeini that he should apologize and drop his opposition to the government. Khomeini refused. In fury, Mansur slapped Khomeini's face.[59] Two weeks later, Mansur was assassinated on his way to parliament. Four members of the Fadayan-e Islam were later executed for the murder.

Life in exile

Khomeini spent more than 14 years in exile, mostly in the holy Shia city of Najaf, Iraq. Initially he was sent to Turkey on 4 November 1964 where he stayed in the city of Bursa hosted by a colonel in Turkish Military Intelligence named Ali Cetiner in his own residence.[60] In October 1965, after less than a year, he was allowed to move to Najaf, Iraq, where he stayed until 1978, when he was encouraged to leave by then-Vice President Saddam Hussein.[61] By this time discontent with the Shah was becoming intense and Khomeini went to Neauphle-le-Château, suburb of Paris, France on a tourist visa. During this last four months of his exile he was courted by press and politicians.[62][63]

By the late 1960s, Khomeini was a marja-e taqlid (model for imitation) for "hundreds of thousands" of Shia, one of six or so models in the Shia world.[64] While in the 1940s Khomeini accepted the idea of a limited monarchy under the Iranian Constitution of 1906–1907 — as evidenced by his book Kashf al-Asrar – by the 1970s he had rejected the idea. In early 1970, Khomeini gave a series of lectures in Najaf on Islamic government, later published as a book titled variously Islamic Government or Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist (Hokumat-e Islami : Velayat-e faqih).

This was his most famous and influential work, and laid out his ideas on governance (at that time):

  • That the laws of society should be made up only of the laws of God (Sharia), which cover "all human affairs" and "provide instruction and establish norms" for every "topic" in "human life."[65]
  • Since Shariah, or Islamic law, is the proper law, those holding government posts should have knowledge of Sharia. Since Islamic jurists or faqih have studied and are the most knowledgeable in Sharia, the country's ruler should be a faqih who "surpasses all others in knowledge" of Islamic law and justice,[66] (known as a marja'), as well as having intelligence and administrative ability. Rule by monarchs and/or assemblies of "those claiming to be representatives of the majority of the people" (i.e. elected parliaments and legislatures) has been proclaimed "wrong" by Islam.[67]
  • This system of clerical rule is necessary to prevent injustice, corruption, oppression by the powerful over the poor and weak, innovation and deviation of Islam and Sharia law; and also to destroy anti-Islamic influence and conspiracies by non-Muslim foreign powers.[68]

A modified form of this wilayat al-faqih system was adopted after Khomeini and his followers took power, and Khomeini was the Islamic Republic's first "Guardian" or Supreme Leader. In the meantime, however, Khomeini was careful not to publicize his ideas for clerical rule outside of his Islamic network of opposition to the Shah which he worked to build and strengthen over the next decade. In Iran, a number of actions of the Shah including his repression of opponents began to build opposition to his regime.

Khomeini at Bursa (Turkey)

Khomeini at Najaf (Iraq)

Ayatollah Khomeini in front of his house at Neauphle-le-Chateau in a media conference

Cassette copies of his lectures fiercely denouncing the Shah as (for example) "... the Jewish agent, the American serpent whose head must be smashed with a stone",[69] became common items in the markets of Iran,[70] helped to demythologize the power and dignity of the Shah and his reign. Aware of the importance of broadening his base, Khomeini reached out to Islamic reformist and secular enemies of the Shah, despite his long-term ideological incompatibility with them.

After the 1977 death of Ali Shariati (an Islamic reformist and political revolutionary author/academic/philosopher who greatly popularized the Islamic revival among young educated Iranians), Khomeini became the most influential leader of the opposition to the Shah. Adding to his mystique was the circulation among Iranians in the 1970s of an old Shia saying attributed to the Imam Musa al-Kadhem. Prior to his death in 799, al-Kadhem was said to have prophesied that "A man will come out from Qom and he will summon people to the right path".[71] In late 1978, a rumour swept the country that Khomeini's face could be seen in the full moon. Millions of people were said to have seen it and the event was celebrated in thousands of mosques.[72] He was perceived by many Iranians as the spiritual, if not political, leader of revolt.

As protest grew so did his profile and importance. Although thousands of kilometers away from Iran in Paris, Khomeini set the course of the revolution, urging Iranians not to compromise and ordering work stoppages against the regime.[73] During the last few months of his exile, Khomeini received a constant stream of reporters, supporters, and notables, eager to hear the spiritual leader of the revolution.[74]

Supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran

Return to Iran

Arrival of Khomeini on 1 February 1979. When asked about his feelings of returning from exile in the plane, he replied Hich ehsasi nadaram; "I feel nothing"

Khomeini had refused to return to Iran until the Shah left. On 17 January 1979, the Shah did leave the country (ostensibly "on vacation"), never to return. Two weeks later, on Thursday, 1 February 1979, Khomeini returned in triumph to Iran, welcomed by a joyous crowd estimated (by BBC) to be of up to five million people.[75]

On his chartered flight back to Tehran 120 journalists accompany him,[76][77] including three women.[77] One of the journalists, Peter Jennings, asked: "Ayatollah, would you be so kind as to tell us how you feel about being back in Iran?"[78] Khomeini answered via his aide Sadegh Ghotbzadeh: "Hichi" (Nothing).[78] This statement—much discussed at the time[79] and since[80]—was considered by some reflective of his mystical beliefs and non-attachment to ego[citation needed]. Others considered it a warning to Iranians who hoped he would be a "mainstream nationalist leader" that they were in for disappointment.[81] To others, it was a reflection of an unfeeling leader incapable or unconcerned with understanding the thoughts, beliefs, or the needs of the Iranian populace.[80]

Khomeini and the interim prime minister, Mehdi Bazargan

Khomeini adamantly opposed the provisional government of Shapour Bakhtiar, promising ""I shall kick their teeth in. I appoint the government."[82][83] On 11 February (Bahman 22), Khomeini appointed his own competing interim prime minister, Mehdi Bazargan, demanding, "since I have appointed him, he must be obeyed." It was "God's government," he warned, disobedience against him or Bazargan was considered a "revolt against God."[84]

As Khomeini's movement gained momentum, soldiers began to defect to his side and Khomeini declared ill fortune on troops who did not surrender.[85] On 11 February, as revolt spread and armories were taken over, the military declared neutrality and the Bakhtiar regime collapsed.[86] On 30 and 31 March 1979, a referendum to replace the monarchy with an Islamic Republic passed with 98% voting in favour of the replacement,[87] with the question: "should the monarchy be abolished in favour of an Islamic Government?"

Islamic constitution

Although revolutionaries were now in charge and Khomeini was their leader, some opposition groups claim that several secular and religious groups were unaware of Khomeini's plan for Islamic government by wilayat al-faqih, which involved rule by a marja' Islamic cleric.[88] They claim that this provisional constitution for the Islamic Republic did not include the post of supreme Islamic clerical ruler.[89][90] The Islamic government was clearly defined by Khomeini in his book Hokumat-e Islami: Velayat-e faqih (Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist) which was published while Khomeini was in exile in 1970, smuggled into Iran, and distributed to Khomeini's supporters. This book included Khomeini's notion of wilayat al-faqih (Governance of the Jurist) as well as the reasoning and in his view, the necessity of it in running an Islamic state.

Khomeini and his supporters worked to suppress some former allies and rewrote the proposed constitution. Some newspapers were closed, and those protesting the closings were attacked.[91] Opposition groups such as the National Democratic Front and Muslim People's Republican Party were attacked and finally banned.[92] Through popular support, Khomeini supporters gained an overwhelming majority of the seats of the Assembly of Experts[93] which revised the proposed constitution. The newly proposed constitution included an Islamic jurist Supreme Leader of the country, and a Council of Guardians to veto un-Islamic legislation and screen candidates for office, disqualifying those found un-Islamic.

In November 1979, the new constitution of the Islamic Republic was adopted by national referendum.[94] Khomeini himself became instituted as the Supreme Leader (supreme jurist ruler), and officially became known as the "Leader of the Revolution." On 4 February 1980, Abolhassan Banisadr was elected as the first president of Iran. Critics complain that Khomeini had gone back on his word[95] to advise, rather than rule the country.[96]

Hostage crisis

On 22 October 1979, the United States admitted the exiled and ailing Shah into the country for cancer treatment. In Iran, there was an immediate outcry, with both Khomeini and leftist groups demanding the Shah's return to Iran for trial and execution. Revolutionaries were reminded of Operation Ajax, 26 years earlier, when the Shah fled abroad while American CIA and British intelligence organized a coup d'état to overthrow his nationalist opponent.

On 4 November, Islamist students calling themselves Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, took control of the American Embassy in Tehran, holding 52 embassy staff hostage for 444 days – an event known as the Iran hostage crisis. In 2005, when Mahmoud Ahmadinejad became president, several of the hostages identified him as one of their captors, however this claim has been denied by a CIA investigation on the matter.[97] In the United States, the hostage-taking was seen as a flagrant violation of international law and aroused intense anger and anti-Iranian sentiments.[98][99]

In Iran, the takeover was immensely popular and earned the support of Khomeini under the slogan "America can't do a damn thing against us."[100] The seizure of the embassy of a country he called the "Great Satan"[101] helped to advance the cause of theocratic government and outflank politicians and groups who emphasized stability and normalized relations with other countries. Khomeini is reported to have told his president: "This action has many benefits ... this has united our people. Our opponents do not dare act against us. We can put the constitution to the people's vote without difficulty, and carry out presidential and parliamentary elections."[102] The new constitution was successfully passed by referendum a month after the hostage crisis began."

The crisis had the effect of splitting of the opposition into two groups – radicals supporting the hostage taking, and the moderates opposing it.[102][103] On 23 February 1980, Khomeini proclaimed Iran's Majlis would decide the fate of the American embassy hostages, and demanded that the United States hand over the Shah for trial in Iran for crimes against the nation. Although the Shah died a few months later, during the summer, the crisis continued. In Iran, supporters of Khomeini named the embassy a "Den of Espionage", publicizing details regarding armaments, espionage equipment and many volumes of official and classified documents which they found there.

Relationship with Islamic and non-aligned countries

Khomeini believed in Muslim unity and solidarity and the export of Islamic revolution throughout the world. "Establishing the Islamic state world-wide belong to the great goals of the revolution."[104] He declared the birth week of Muhammad (the week between 12th to 17th of Rabi' al-awwal) as the Unity week. Then he declared the last Friday of Ramadan as International Day of Quds in 1981.[105]

Iran-Iraq War

Ruhollah Khomeini with Ahmad Khomeini and Mohammad-Ali Rajai

Shortly after assuming power, Khomeini began calling for Islamic revolutions across the Muslim world, including Iran's Arab neighbor Iraq,[106] the one large state besides Iran with a Shia majority population. At the same time Saddam Hussein, Iraq's secular Arab nationalist Ba'athist leader, was eager to take advantage of Iran's weakened military and (what he assumed was) revolutionary chaos, and in particular to occupy Iran's adjacent oil-rich province of Khuzestan, and to undermine Iranian Islamic revolutionary attempts to incite the Shi'a majority of his country.

In September 1980, Iraq launched a full scale invasion of Iran, starting what would become the eight-year-long Iran–Iraq War (September 1980 – August 1988). A combination of fierce resistance by Iranians and military incompetence by Iraqi forces soon stalled the Iraqi advance and, by early 1982, Iran regained almost all of the territory lost to the invasion. The invasion rallied Iranians behind the new regime, enhancing Khomeini's stature and allowing him to consolidate and stabilize his leadership. After this reversal, Khomeini refused an Iraqi offer of a truce, instead demanding reparation and the toppling of Saddam Hussein from power.[107][108][109] The war ended in 1988, with 320,000–720,000 Iranian soldiers and militia killed[110]

Although Iran's population and economy were three times the size of Iraq's, the latter was aided by neighboring Persian Gulf Arab states, as well as the Soviet Bloc and Western countries. The Persian Gulf Arabs and the West wanted to be sure the Islamic revolution did not spread across the Persian Gulf, while the Soviet Union was concerned about the potential threat posed to its rule in central Asia to the north. However, Iran had large amounts of ammunition provided by the United States of America during the Shah's era and the United States illegally smuggled arms to Iran during the 1980s despite Khomeini's anti-Western policy (see Iran-Contra affair).

The war continued for another six years with mounting costs. 1988 saw deadly month-long Iraqi missile attacks on Tehran, mounting economic problems, the demoralization of Iranian troops, attacks by the American Navy on Iranian ships, oil rigs, and a commercial airplane, and the recapture by Iraq of the Faw Peninsula.

In July of that year, Khomeini, in his words, "drank the cup of poison" and accepted a truce mediated by the United Nations. Despite the high cost of the war – 450,000 to 950,000 Iranian casualties and USD $300 billion[111] – Khomeini insisted that extending the war into Iraq in an attempt to overthrow Saddam had not been a mistake. In a 'Letter to Clergy' he wrote: '... we do not repent, nor are we sorry for even a single moment for our performance during the war. Have we forgotten that we fought to fulfill our religious duty and that the result is a marginal issue?'[112]

Rushdie fatwa

An illegal Persian edition of The Satanic Verses, denounced by Khomeini

In early 1989, Khomeini issued a fatwa calling for the assassination of Salman Rushdie, an India-born British author. The juristic ruling (Fatwa) that claimed that Rushdie's assassination was allowed for Muslims to partake because of his alleged blasphemy against Muhammad in his novel, The Satanic Verses, published in 1988 which contains passages that many Muslims – including Ayatollah Khomeini –considered offensive to Islam and the prophet.[114]

In the West, Khomeini's fatwā was condemned across the western world by governments on the grounds that it violated the universal human rights of free speech and freedom of religion, but the fatwa has also been attacked for violating the rules of fiqh by not allowing the accused an opportunity to defend himself, and because "even the most rigorous and extreme of the classical jurist only require a Muslim to kill anyone who insults the Prophet in his hearing and in his presence."[115]

Though Rushdie publicly regretted "the distress that publication has occasioned to sincere followers of Islam",[116] the fatwa was not revoked. Khomeini explained,

Even if Salman Rushdie repents and becomes the most pious man of all time, it is incumbent on every Muslim to employ everything he has got, his life and wealth, to send him to Hell.[117]

Rushdie himself was not killed but Hitoshi Igarashi, the Japanese translator of the book The Satanic Verses, was murdered and two other translators of the book survived murder attempts.[118]

Through this fatwa, he was regarded a renewer of Islam, even by most non-Shi'a, and became the spokesman for the frustrations and ambitions of Muslims in general.[117]

Life under Khomeini

In a speech given to a huge crowd after returning to Iran from exile 1 February 1979, Khomeini made a variety of promises to Iranians for his coming Islamic regime: A popularly elected government that would represent the people of Iran and with which the clergy would not interfere. He promised that "no one should remain homeless in this country," and that Iranians would have free telephone, heating, electricity, bus services and free oil at their doorstep.[119] While these things did not come to pass, many other changes did.

Under Khomeini's rule, Sharia (Islamic law) was introduced, with the Islamic dress code enforced for both men and women by Islamic Revolutionary Guards and other Islamic groups[120] Women were required to cover their hair, and men were not allowed to wear shorts. Alcoholic drinks, most Western movies, the practice of men and women swimming or sunbathing together were banned.[121] The Iranian educational curriculum was Islamized at all levels with the Islamic Cultural Revolution; the "Committee for Islamization of Universities"[122] carried this out thoroughly. The broadcasting of any music other than martial or religious on Iranian radio and television was banned by Khomeini in July 1979.[121] The ban lasted 10 years (approximately the rest of his life).[123]

Emigration and economy

Khomeini is said to have stressed "the spiritual over the material".[124][125] Six months after his first speech he expressed exasperation with complaints about the sharp drop in Iran's standard of living: 'I cannot believe that the purpose of all these sacrifices was to have less expensive melons'[126] On another occasion emphasizing the importance of martyrdom over material prosperity: "Could anyone wish his child to be martyred to obtain a good house? This is not the issue. The issue is another world."[127] He is also reportedly famous for answering a question about his economic policies by declaring that 'economics is for donkeys'.[128] This low opinion of economics is said to be "one factor explaining the inchoate performance of the Iranian economy since the revolution."[124] Another factor was the long war with Iraq, the cost of which led to government debt and inflation, eroding personal incomes, and unprecedented unemployment.[129]

Due to the Iran-Iraq war, poverty is said to have risen by nearly 45% during the first 6 years of Khomeini's rule.[130] Emigration from Iran also developed, reportedly for the first time in the country's history.[131] Since the revolution and Iran-Iraq war, an estimated "two to four million entrepreneurs, professionals, technicians, and skilled craftspeople (and their capital)" have emigrated to other countries.[132][133]

Suppression of opposition

In a talk at the Fayzieah School in Qom, 30 August 1979, Khomeini warned pro-imperialist opponents: "Those who are trying to bring corruption and destruction to our country in the name of democracy will be oppressed. They are worse than Bani-Ghorizeh Jews, and they must be hanged. We will oppress them by God's order and God's call to prayer."[134]

The Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his family left Iran and escaped harm, but hundreds of former members of the overthrown monarchy and military met their end in firing squads, with exiled critics complaining of "secrecy, vagueness of the charges, the absence of defense lawyers or juries", or the opportunity of the accused "to defend themselves."[135] In later years these were followed in larger numbers by the erstwhile revolutionary allies of Khomeini's movement—Marxists and socialists, mostly university students—who opposed the theocratic regime. Following the 1981 Hafte Tir bombing, Ayatollah Khomeini declared the Mojahedin and anyone violently opposed to the government, "enemies of God" and pursued a mass campaign against members of the Mojahedin, Fadaiyan, and Tudeh parties as well as their families, close friends, and even anyone who was accused of counterrevolutionary behavior.[136]

In the 1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners, following the People's Mujahedin of Iran operation Forough-e Javidan against the Islamic Republic, Khomeini issued an order to judicial officials to judge every Iranian political prisoner and kill those who would not repent anti-regime activities. Estimates of the number executed vary from 1,400[137] to 30,000.[138][139][140]

Despite this, freedom of speech was said to have been greatly improved as a result of the 1979 Revolution, although harsh restrictions remained on those supporting accused "terrorist groups" and opposition such as the MKO.

Minority religions

Life for religious minorities was mixed under Khomeini. Senior government posts were reserved for Muslims. Schools set up by Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians had to be run by Muslim principals.[141] Conversion to Islam was encouraged by entitling converts to inherit the entire share of their parents (or even uncle's) estate if their siblings (or cousins) remain non-Muslim.[142] Iran's non-Muslim population has decreased. For example, the Jewish population in Iran dropped from 80,000 to 30,000.[143]

However, four of the 270 seats in parliament were reserved for each three non-Muslim minority religions, under the Islamic constitution that Khomeini oversaw. Khomeini also called for unity between Sunni and Shi'a Muslims. Sunni Muslims are the largest religious minority in Iran.[144]

Shortly after Khomeini's return from exile in 1979, he issued a fatwa ordering that Jews and other minorities (except Bahá'ís) be treated well.[145][146] In power, Khomeini distinguished between Zionism as a secular political party that employs Jewish symbols and ideals and Judaism as the religion of Moses.[147]

One non-Muslim group treated differently were the 300,000 members of the Bahá'í Faith. Starting in late 1979 the new government systematically targeted the leadership of the Bahá'í community by focusing on the Bahá'í National Spiritual Assembly (NSA) and Local Spiritual Assemblies (LSAs); prominent members of NSAs and LSAs were often detained and even executed by forces outside of Khomeini's direct control.[148] "Some 200 of whom have been executed and the rest forced to convert or subjected to the most horrendous disabilities."[149]

Like most conservative Muslims, Khomeini believed Bahá'í to be apostates.[150] He claimed they were a political rather than a religious movement,[151][152] declaring:

the Baha'is are not a sect but a party, which was previously supported by Britain and now the United States. The Baha'is are also spies just like the Tudeh [Communist Party].[153]

Ethnic minorities

After the Shah left Iran in 1979, a Kurdish delegation traveled to Qom to present the Kurds' demands to Ayatollah Khomeini. Their demands included language rights and the provision for a degree of political autonomy. Khomeini responded that such demands were unacceptable, since it involved the division of the Iranian nation. The following months saw numerous clashes between Kurdish militia groups and the Revolutionary Guards. The referendum on the Islamic Republic was massively boycotted in Kurdistan, where it was thought 85 to 90% of voters abstained. Khomeini ordered additional attacks later on in the year, and by September most of Iranian Kurdistan was under direct martial law.[154]

Death and funeral


Mausoleum of Khomeini in Tehran

After eleven days in a hospital, Khomeini died on 3 June 1989, at the age of 86. He was succeeded by Ali Khamenei. Iranians poured out into the cities and streets in enormous numbers to mourn Khomeini's death in a spontaneous outpouring of grief. In the summer heat, fire trucks sprayed water on the crowds to cool them off. Eight mourners were trampled to death and more than four hundred were injured.[155][156]

Figures about Khomeini's funeral attendance which took place on June 4 range around 2 million people.[157] Iranian officials aborted Khomeini's first funeral, after a large mob stormed the funeral procession, nearly destroying Khomeini's wooden coffin in order to get a last glimpse of his body. At one point, Khomeini's body almost fell to the ground, as the crowd attempted to tear off pieces of the death shroud, trying to keep them as if they were holy relics. The second funeral was held under much tighter security five hours later. This time, Khomeini's casket was made of steel, and heavily armed security personnel surrounded it. In accordance with Islamic tradition, the casket was only to carry the body to the burial site. In 1995, his son Ahmad Khomeini was buried next to him. Khomeini's grave is now housed within a larger mausoleum complex.


Ali Khamenei and Hussein-Ali Montazeri

Grand Ayatollah Hussein-Ali Montazeri, a former student of Khomeini and a major figure of the Revolution, was chosen by Khomeini to be his successor as Supreme Leader and approved as such by the Assembly of Experts in November 1985.[158] The principle of velayat-e faqih and the Islamic constitution called for the Supreme Leader to be a marja (a grand ayatollah), and of the dozen or so grand ayatollahs living in 1981 only Montazeri qualified as a potential Leader (this was either because only he accepted totally Khomeini's concept of rule by Islamic jurists,[159][160][unreliable source?] or, as at least one other source stated, because only Montazeri had the "political credentials" Khomeini found suitable for his successor).[161] In 1989 Montazeri began to call for liberalization, freedom for political parties. Following the execution of thousands of political prisoners by the Islamic government, Montazeri told Khomeini 'your prisons are far worse than those of the Shah and his SAVAK.'[162] After a letter of his complaints was leaked to Europe and broadcast on the BBC, a furious Khomeini ousted him from his position as official successor.

To deal with the disqualification of the only suitable marja, Khomeini called for an 'Assembly for Revising the Constitution' to be convened. An amendment was made to Iran's constitution removing the requirement that the Supreme Leader be a Marja[163] and this allowed Ali Khamanei, the new favoured jurist who had suitable revolutionary credentials but lacked scholarly ones and who was not a Grand Ayatollah, to be designated as successor.[164][165] Ayatollah Khamene'i was elected Supreme Leader by the Assembly of Experts on 4 June 1989. Grand Ayatollah Hossein Montazeri continued his criticism of the regime and in 1997 was put under house arrest for questioning what he regarded to be an unaccountable rule exercised by the supreme leader.[166][167]

Political thought and legacy

Khomeini giving a speech in 1979

According to at least one scholar, politics in the Islamic Republic of Iran "are largely defined by attempts to claim Khomeini's legacy" and that "staying faithful to his ideology has been the litmus test for all political activity" there.[168] Throughout his many writings and speeches, Khomeini's views on governance evolved. Originally declaring rule by monarchs or others permissible so long as sharia law was followed[169] Khomeini later adamantly opposed monarchy, arguing that only rule by a leading Islamic jurist (a marja'), would insure Sharia was properly followed (wilayat al-faqih),[170] before finally insisting the ruling jurist need not be a leading one and Sharia rule could be overruled by that jurist if necessary to serve the interests of Islam and the "divine government" of the Islamic state.[171]

Khomeini's concept of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (ولایت فقیه, velayat-e faqih) did not win the support of the leading Iranian Shi'i clergy of the time.[172] Towards the 1979 Revolution, many clerics gradually became disillusioned with the rule of the Shah, although none came around to supporting Khomeini's vision of a theocratic Islamic Republic.[172]

There is much debate to as whether Khomeini's ideas are or are not compatible with democracy and whether he intended the Islamic Republic to be a democratic republic. According to the state-run Aftab News,[173] both ultraconservative (Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi) and reformist opponents of the regime (Akbar Ganji and Abdolkarim Soroush) believe he did not, while regime officials and supporters like Ali Khamenei,[174] Mohammad Khatami and Mortaza Motahhari[175] believe Khomeini intended the Islamic republic to be democratic and that it is so.[176] Khomeini himself also made statements at different times indicating both support and opposition to democracy.[177]

One scholar, Shaul Bakhash, explains this disagreement as coming from Khomeini's belief that the huge turnout of Iranians in anti-Shah demonstrations during the revolution constituted a 'referendum' in favor of an Islamic republic.[178] Khomeini also wrote that since Muslims must support a government based on Islamic law, Sharia-based government will always have more popular support in Muslim countries than any government based on elected representatives.[179]

Khomeini offered himself as a "champion of Islamic revival" and unity, emphasizing issues Muslims agreed upon – the fight against Zionism and imperialism – and downplaying Shia issues that would divide Shia from Sunni.[180] Khomeini strongly opposed close relations with either Eastern or Western Bloc nations, believing the Islamic world should be its own bloc, or rather converge into a single unified power.[181] He viewed Western culture as being inherently decadent and a corrupting influence upon the youth. The Islamic Republic banned or discouraged popular Western fashions, music, cinema, and literature.[182] In the Western world it is said "his glowering visage became the virtual face of Islam in Western popular culture" and "inculcated fear and distrust towards Islam,"[183] making the word 'Ayatollah' "a synonym for a dangerous madman ... in popular parlance."[184] This has particularly been the case in the United States where some Iranians complained that even at universities they felt the need to hide their Iranian identity for fear of physical attack.[98] There Khomeini and the Islamic Republic are remembered for the American embassy hostage taking and accused of sponsoring hostage-taking and terrorist attacks,[185][186] and which continues to apply economic sanctions against Iran.

Before taking power Khomeini expressed support for the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. "We would like to act according to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. We would like to be free. We would like independence."[187] However once in power Khomeini took a firm line against dissent, warning opponents of theocracy for example: "I repeat for the last time: abstain from holding meetings, from blathering, from publishing protests. Otherwise I will break your teeth."[188]

Many of Khomeini's political and religious ideas were considered to be progressive and reformist by leftist intellectuals and activists prior to the Revolution. However, once in power his ideas often clashed with those of modernist or secular Iranian intellectuals. This conflict came to a head during the writing of the Islamic constitution when many newspapers were closed by the government. Khomeini angrily told the intellectuals:

Yes, we are reactionaries, and you are enlightened intellectuals: You intellectuals do not want us to go back 1400 years. You, who want freedom, freedom for everything, the freedom of parties, you who want all the freedoms, you intellectuals: freedom that will corrupt our youth, freedom that will pave the way for the oppressor, freedom that will drag our nation to the bottom.[189]

In contrast to his alienation from Iranian intellectuals, and "in an utter departure from all other Islamist movements," Khomeini embraced international revolution and Third World solidarity, giving it "precedence over Muslim fraternity. From the time Khomeini's supporters gained control of the media until his death, the Iranian media "devoted extensive coverage to non-Muslim revolutionary movements (from the Sandinistas to the African National Congress and the Irish Republican Army) and downplayed the role of the Islamic movements considered conservative, such as the Afghan mujahidin."[190]

Khomeini's legacy to the economy of the Islamic Republic has been expressions of concern for the mustazafin (a Quranic term for the oppressed or deprived), but not always results that aided them. During the 1990s the mustazafin and disabled war veterans rioted on several occasions, protesting the demolition of their shantytowns and rising food prices, etc.[191] Khomeini's disdain for the science of economics ("economics is for donkeys") is said to have been "mirrored" by the populist redistribution policies of former president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who allegedly wears "his contempt for economic orthodoxy as a badge of honour", and has overseen sluggish growth and rising inflation and unemployment.[192]

In 1963, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini wrote a book in which he stated that there is no religious restriction on corrective surgery for transgendered individuals. At the time Khomeini was an anti-Shah revolutionary and his fatwas did not carry any weight with the Imperial government, which did not have any specific policies regarding transsexual individuals.[193]


Mural of Khomeini

Appearance and habits

Khomeini was described as "slim," but athletic and "heavily boned." He was known for his punctuality:

He's so punctual that if he doesn't turn up for lunch at exactly ten past everyone will get worried, because his work is regulated in such a way that he turned up for lunch at exactly that time every day. He goes to bed exactly on time. He eats exactly on time. And he wakes up exactly on time. He changes his cloak every time he comes back from the mosque.[194]

Sheikh Ahmad Deedat, a Muslim Scholar from South Africa has described Imam Khomeini in his speech which he delivered on 3 March 1982:

I saw the Imam. He delivered the Lecture to us for about half an hour, and it was nothing but the Quran, the man is like a computerized Quran. And the electric effect he had on everybody, his charisma, was amazing. You just look at the man and tears come down your cheek. You just look at him and you get tears. I never saw a more handsome old man in my life, no picture, no video, no TV could do justice to this man, the handsomest old man I ever saw in my life was this man.[195]

Khomeini was also known for his aloofness and austere demeanor. He is said to have had "variously inspired admiration, awe, and fear from those around him."[196] His practice of moving "through the halls of the madresehs never smiling at anybody or anything; his practice of ignoring his audience while he taught, contributed to his charisma."[197]

Khomeini adhered to traditional beliefs of Islamic hygienical jurisprudence holding that things like urine, excrement, blood, wine etc. and also non-Muslims were some of eleven ritualistically "impure" things that physical contact with which while wet required ritual washing or Ghusl before prayer or salat.[198][199] He is reported to have refused to eat or drink in a restaurant unless he knew for sure the waiter was a Muslim.[200]


Khomeini was noted by many for his mystique. Before the revolution he benefited from the widespread circulation of a Hadith attributed to the Imam Musa al-Kazim who is said to have prophesied shortly before his death in 799 that

'A man will come out from Qom and he will summon people to the right path. There will rally to him people resembling pieces of iron, not to be shaken by violent winds, unsparing and relying on God.'[201]

Khomeini was the first and only Iranian cleric to be addressed as "Imam", a title hitherto reserved in Iran for the twelve infallible leaders of the early Shi'a.[202] He was also associated with the Mahdi or 12th Imam of Shia belief in a number of ways. One of his titles was Na'eb-e Imam (Deputy to the Twelfth Imam). His enemies were often attacked as taghut and Mofsed-e-filarz (corrupters of the earth), religious terms used for enemies of the Twelfth Imam. Many of the officials of the overthrown Shah's government executed by Revolutionary Courts were convicted of "fighting against the Twelfth Imam". When a deputy in the majlis asked Khomeini directly if he was the 'promised Mahdi', Khomeini did not answer, "astutely" neither confirming nor denying the title.[203]

Khomeini and child

As the revolution gained momentum, even some non-supporters exhibited awe, called him "magnificently clear-minded, single-minded and unswerving."[204] His image was as "absolute, wise, and indispensable leader of the nation"[205]

The Imam, it was generally believed, had shown by his uncanny sweep to power, that he knew how to act in ways which others could not begin to understand. His timing was extraordinary, and his insight into the motivation of others, those around him as well as his enemies, could not be explained as ordinary knowledge. This emergent belief in Khomeini as a divinely guided figure was carefully fostered by the clerics who supported him and spoke up for him in front of the people.[206]

Even many secularists who firmly disapproved of his policies were said to feel the power of his "messianic" appeal.[207] Comparing him to a father figure who retains the enduring loyalty even of children he disapproves of, journalist Afshin Molavi writes of the defenses of Khomeini he is "heard in the most unlikely settings":

A whiskey-drinking professor told an American journalist that Khomeini brought pride back to Iranians. A women's rights activist told me that Khomeini was not the problem; it was his conservative allies who had directed him wrongly. A nationalist war veteran, who held Iran's ruling clerics in contempt, carried with him a picture of 'the Imam'.[208]

Another journalist tells the story of listening to bitter criticism of the regime by an Iranian who tells her of his wish for his son to leave the country and who "repeatedly" makes the point "that life had been better" under the Shah. When his complaint is interrupted by news that "the Imam" — over 85 years old at the time — might be dying, the critic becomes "ashen faced" and speechless, pronouncing 'this is terrible for my country.'[209]

Family and descendants

Khomeini with son (Ahmad) and grandsons (Hassan and Yaser)
Khomeini with grandson and granddaughter

In 1929,[4] Khomeini married Khadijeh Saqafi,[210] the 16 year old daughter of a cleric in Tehran. By all accounts their marriage was harmonious and happy.[210] She died in 2009.[211] They had seven children, though only five survived infancy. His daughters all married into either merchant or clerical families, and both his sons entered into religious life. Mustafa, the elder son, died in 1977 while in exile in Najaf, Iraq with his father and was rumored by supporters of his father to have been murdered by SAVAK.[212] Ahmad Khomeini, who died in 1995 at the age of 49, was also rumoured to be a victim of foul play, but at the hands of Islamic regime.[213] Perhaps his "most prominent daughter",[214] Zahra Mostafavi, is a professor at the University of Tehran, and still alive.

Of Khomeini's fifteen grandchildren the most notable include:

  • Zahra Eshraghi, granddaughter, married to Mohammad Reza Khatami, head of the Islamic Iran Participation Front, the main reformist party in the country, and is considered a pro-reform character herself.
  • Hassan Khomeini, Khomeini's elder grandson Sayid Hasan Khomeini, son of the Seyyed Ahmad Khomeini, is a cleric and the trustee of the Mausoleum of Khomeini and also has shown support for the reform movement in Iran,[215] and Mir-Hossein Mousavi's call to cancel the 2009 election results.[214]
  • Husain Khomeini, (Sayid Husain Khomeini) Khomeini's other grandson, son of Sayid Mustafa Khomeini, is a mid-level cleric who is strongly against the system of the Islamic Republic. In 2003 he was quoted as saying:

"Iranians need freedom now, and if they can only achieve it with American interference I think they would welcome it. As an Iranian, I would welcome it."[216]

In that same year Husain Khomeini visited the United States, where he met figures such as Reza Pahlavi II, the son of the last Shah. Later that year, Husain returned to Iran after receiving an urgent message from his grandmother. According to Michael Ledeen, quoting "family sources", he was blackmailed into returning.[217] In 2006, he called for an American invasion and overthrow of the Islamic Republic, telling Al-Arabiyah television station viewers, "If you were a prisoner, what would you do? I want someone to break the prison [doors open].".[218]
  • Another of Khomeini's grandchildren, Ali Eshraghi, was disqualified from the 2008 parliamentary elections on grounds of being insufficiently loyal to the principles of the Islamic revolution, but later reinstated.[219]


Khomeini was a prolific writer (200 of his books are online)[220] who authored commentaries on the Qur'an, on Islamic jurisprudence, the roots of Islamic law, and Islamic traditions. He also released books about philosophy, gnosticism, poetry, literature, government and politics.[221] Some of his books:

  • Hokumat-e Islami: Velayat-e faqih (Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist)
  • Forty Hadith (Forty Traditions)
  • Adab as Salat (The Disciplines of Prayers)
  • Jihade Akbar (The Greater Struggle)
  • Tahrir al-Wasilah


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  114. The fatwah required not only Rushdie's execution, but also the execution of "all those involved in the publication" of the book.[113]
  115. Bernard Lewis's comment on Rushdie fatwa in The Crisis of N*****dom (2003), Bernard Lewis, pp. 141-2
  116. "Rushdie regrets". The New York Times. 19 February 1989. Retrieved 5 January 2013. 
  117. 117.0 117.1 Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p. 284
  118. "Japanese Translator of Rushdie Book Found Slain", WEISMAN, Steven R. The New York Times, 13 July 1991.
  119. Moin, Baqer, Khomeini, (2000), p. 258)
  120. John Pike. "Gobal Security, Intelligence: Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij – Mobilisation Resistance Force". Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  121. 121.0 121.1 "Khomeini bans broadcast music", New York Times, 24 July 1979
  122. "Secretariat of the Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution. Brief history of the SCCR". Archived from the original on 30 December 2007. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  123. The ban started with the revolution and lasted 10 years. Hossein Shahidi. 'BBC Persian Service 60 years on.' The Iranian. 24 September 2001
  124. 124.0 124.1 Sorenson, David S (24 December 2007). An Introduction to the Modern Middle East, By David S. Sorenson. Google Books. ISBN 978-0-8133-4399-0. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  125. (Brumberg, Reinventing Khomeini (2001), p.125)
  126. (Khomeini July 1979) [quoted in The Government of God p.111. "see the FBIS for typical broadcasts, especially GBIS-MEA-79-L30, 5 July 1979 v.5 n.130, reporting broadcasts of the National Voice of Iran.]
  127. (Brumberg, Reinventing Khomeini (2001), p.125)(p.124-5 source: 'Khomeini to the Craftsmen' broadcast on Teheran Domestic Service 13 December 1979, FBIS-MEA-79-242)
  128. Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, (2006), p.134
  129. Moin, Baqer, Khomeini, (2000), p.267
  130. Based on the government's own Planning and Budget Organization statistics, from: Jahangir Amuzegar, 'The Iranian Economy before and after the Revolution,' Middle East Journal 46, n.3 (summer 1992): 421)
  131. Ebadi, Shirin, Iran Awakening : A Memoir of Revolution and Hope by Shirin Ebadi with Azadeh Moaveni, Random House, 2006, p.78-9
  132. However, a significant degree of this can attributed to Iranians fleeing during the war.Iran's Economic Morass: Mismanagement and Decline under the Islamic Republic ISBN 0-944029-67-1
  133. Harrison, Frances (8 January 2007). "Huge cost of Iranian brain drain By Frances Harrison". BBC News. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  134. "Democracy? I meant theocracy By Dr. Jalal Matini". 5 August 2003. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  135. Bakhash, The Reign of the Ayatollahs (1984), p.61
  136. Moin, Khomeini, 2001, p.243
  137. "Massacre 1988 (Pdf)" (PDF). Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  138. "Memories of a slaughter in Iran". 5 September 2004. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  139. Lamb, Christina (4 February 2001). "Khomeini fatwa 'led to killing of 30,000 in Iran'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  140. The Millimeter Revolution By ELIZABETH RUBIN .
  141. Wright, The Last Great Revolution, (2000), p.210
  142. Wright, The Last Great Revolution, (2000), p.216
  143. Wright, The Last Great Revolution, (2000), p.207
  144. "4% belong to the Sunni branch",
  145. Wright, Last Revolution (2000), p.207
  146. "IRAN: Life of Jews Living in Iran". Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  147. R. Khomeini 'The Report Card on Jews Differs from That on the Zionists,' Ettelaat, 11 May 1979]
  148. "A Faith Denied: The Persecution of the Baha'is of Iran" (PDF). Iran Human Rights Documentation Center. 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007. 
  149. Turban for the Crown : The Islamic Revolution in Iran, by Said Amir Arjomand, Oxford University Press, 1988, p.169
  150. for example issuing a fatwa stating:

    It is not acceptable that a tributary [non-Muslim who pays tribute] changes his religion to another religion not recognized by the followers of the previous religion. For example, from the Jews who become Bahai's nothing is accepted except Islam or execution. from Poll Tax, 8. Tributary conditions, (13), Tahrir al-Vasileh, volume 2, pp. 497–507, Quoted in A Clarification of Questions : An Unabridged Translation of Resaleh Towzih al-Masael by Ayatollah Syed Ruhollah Moosavi Khomeini, Westview Press/ Boulder and London, c1984, p.432

  151. Cockroft, James (23 February 1979). "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". 
  152. "U.S. Jews Hold Talks With Khomeini Aide on Outlook for Rights". The New York Times. 13 February 1979. 
  153. Kayhan International, May 30, 1983; see also Firuz Kazemzadeh, 'The Terror Facing the Baha'is' New York Review of Books, 1982, 29 (8): 43–44.]
  154. Gérard Chaliand, A people without a country: the Kurds and Kurdistan, Interlink Books, 1993. (p. 212-213)
  155. Moin, Khomeini (2000), p. 312
  156. In the Name of God : The Khomeini Decade by Robin Wright, (1989), p. 204
  157. "Iranians – Introduction, Location, Language, Folklore, Religion, Major holidays, Rites of passage, Relationships, Living conditions". Every Culture. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  158. Mackey, Iranians, (1998), p. 353
  159. Roy, Olivier, The Failure of Political Islam, translated by Carol Volk Harvard University Press, 1994, pp. 173-4. Quoted in The Islamic Republic Will Be Run By the Most Learned Jurist
  160. Mackay, Iranians, (1998), p.353
  161. Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p. 293
  162. Ahmad Khomeini's letter, in Resalat, cited in The Reign of the Ayatollahs: Iran and the Islamic Revolution, rev. ed. by Shaul Bakhash, p.282
  163. Roy, Olivier, The Failure of Political Islam, translated by Carol Volk Harvard University Press, 1994, pp. 173-4
  164. Moin, Khomeini (2000) p. 293
  165. Mackey, SandraThe Iranians (1996), p. 353
  166. Profile: Iran's dissident ayatollah BBC NEWS
  167. Leader Khamenei PBS
  168. The New Republic "Khamenei vs. Khomeini" by Ali Reza Eshraghi, 20 August 2009. Retrieved 20-August-2009.
  169. 1942 book/pamphet Kashf al-Asrar quoted in Islam and Revolution
  170. 1970 book Hukumat Islamiyyah or Islamic Government, quoted in Islam and Revolution
  171. Hamid Algar, 'Development of the Concept of velayat-i faqih since the Islamic Revolution in Iran,' paper presented at London Conference on wilayat al-faqih, in June 1988] [p.135-8] Also Ressalat, Tehran, 7 January 1988. Quoted in "The Rule of the Religious Jurist in Iran," by Abdulaziz Sachedina, from p.135-6 of Iran at the Crossroads, Edited by John Esposito and R.K. Ramazani, Palgrave, 2001. Quoted in Khomeini on how Laws in Iran will strictly adhere to God's perfect and unchanging divine law
  172. 172.0 172.1 The Failure of Political Islam by Olivier Roy, translated by Carol Volk Harvard University Press, 1994, p.173-4 quoted in "the vilayat-i faqih thesis was rejected by almost the entire dozen grand ayatollahs living in 1981" ]
  173. Ganji, Sorush and Mesbah Yazdi(Persian)
  174. The principles of Islamic republic from viewpoint of Imam Khomeini in the speeches of the leader(Persian)
  175. About Islamic republic(Persian)
  176. "Ayatollah Khomeini and the Contemporary Debate on Freedom". 21 July 2006. Digital object identifier:10.1093/jis/etl042. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  177. Dr. Jalal Matini, Translation & Introduction by Farhad Mafie (5 August 2003). "Democracy? I meant theocracy". 
  178. Bakhash, The Reign of the Ayatollahs (1984), p.73
  179. Khomeini, Islam and Revolution, (1982), p.56
  180. Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival Norton, (2006), p.137
  181. Bayan, No.4 (1990), p.8)
  182. "Iran president bans Western music". BBC News. 19 December 2005. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  183. Nasr, Vali The Shia Revival, Norton, 2006, p.138
  184. "A Revolution Misunderstood. Charlotte Wiedemann". Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  185. Wright, Sacred Rage, (2001), p.28, 33,
  186. for example the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing see:Hizb'allah in Lebanon : The Politics of the Western Hostage Crisis Magnus Ranstorp, Department of International Relations University of St. Andrews St. Martins Press, New York, 1997, p.54, 117
  187. Sahifeh Nour (Vol.2 Page 242)
  188. in Qom, Iran, 22 October 1979, quoted in, The Shah and the Ayatollah : Iranian Mythology and Islamic Revolution by Fereydoun Hoveyda, Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 2003, p.88
  189. p.47, Wright. source: Speech at Feyziyeh Theological School, 24 August 1979; reproduced in Rubin, Barry and Judith Colp Rubin, Anti-American Terrorism and the Middle East: A Documentary Reader, Oxford University Press, 2002, p.34
  190. Roy, The Failure of Political Islam. 1994, p.175
  191. In March 1992, disabled war veterans protested against the mismanagement of the Foundation of the Disinherited. January and May 1992. In January 1992 a Tehran mob attacked grocery stores in protest against rise in subsidized milk prices. In May 1992 there were protest by squatters against demolition of shantytowns in Mashhad. Government buildings were set alight. (Mackey, Sandra, The Iranians : Persia, Islam and the soul of a nation, Dutton, c1996. p.361, 362, 366). Quoted in Class Division and Poverty Will Not Be Tolerated
  192. ""Economics is for donkeys" Robert Tait. 11 September 2008". 11 September 2008. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  193. Robert Tait, A fatwa for transsexuals, and a similar article on The Guardian. Gives details on Molkara's plea.
  194. According to a daughter quoted in In the Name of God by Robin Wright c1989, p.45
  195. "Sunni-Shia Unity, A lecture by Sheikh Ahmad Deedat". Retrieved 6 April 2012. 
  196. Brumberg, Reinventing Khomeini, (2001), p.53
  197. Mackay, Iranians (198?) p.224
  198. fatwa No. 83 from A Clarification of Questions : An Unabridged Translation of Resaleh Towzih al-Masael, by Ayatollah Syed Ruhollah Moosavi Khomeini, Translated by J. Borujerdi, with a Foreword by Michael M. J. Fischer and Mehdi Abedi, Westview Press/ Boulder and London c1984, p.48.
  199. Mottahedeh, Roy, The Mantle of the Prophet : Religion and Politics in Iran, One World, Oxford, 1985, 2000, p.383
  200. Personal communications from Dr. Mansur Farhang, a biographer and supporter of Khomeini who was the former Iranian representative at the United Nations, with Ervand Abrahamian. Quoted in Abrahamian, Ervand, Khomeinism : Essays on the Islamic Republic University of California Press, (1993)
  201. (Mackay Iranians, p.277. Source: Quoted in Fouad Ajami, The Vanished Imam: Musa al Sadr and the Shia of Lebanon (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986), p.25
  202. Moin, Khomeini (2000), p.201
  203. Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, Norton, (2006), p.131
  204. Harney, The Priest and the King (1998) pp. 173-4
  205. Benard/Khalilzad, "The Government of God", 1984, p. 121
  206. Moin Khomeini, (2000), p. 297
  207. Wright, In the Name of God, (1989) (p.21-22)
  208. Molavi, The Soul of Iran, (2005), p. 256
  209. In the Name of God: The Khomeini Decade by Robin Wright c 1989, pp. 21-22
  210. 210.0 210.1 Taheri, The Spirit of Allah (1985), p. 90-1
  211. Wife of founder of Iran's Islamic republic dies. 23 March 2009[dead link]
  212. Moin, Khomeini, (2001), 184–5
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  214. 214.0 214.1 "Khamenei vs. Khomeini" by Ali Reza Eshraghi, 20 August 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2009.
  215. Grandchildren of the revolution. By von Najmeh Bozorgmehr and Roula Khalaf 04.03.2009. Retrieved 23-August-2009.
  216. "Make Iran Next, Says Ayatollah's Grandson", Jamie Wilson, 10 August 2003, The Observer
  217. Ledeen, Michael A. (6 January 2004). "Veiled Threats Lure Ayatollah's Grandson Home By Michael A. Ledeen, 6 January 2004".,filter.all/pub_detail.asp. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  218. By PHILIP SHERWELL Published: 12:01 am BST 18 June 2006 (18 June 2006). "Ayatollah's grandson calls for US overthrow of Iran, By PHILIP SHERWELL 19 June 2006". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  219. "Khomeini grandson returns to poll, 13 February 2008". BBC News. 13 February 2008. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
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  221. "The Works and Declarations of Imam Khomeini". Retrieved 19 March 2010. 


External links

Selected bibliography
Political offices
Preceded by
New title
Supreme Leader of Iran
Succeeded by
Ali Khamenei

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