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Roger Nelson (1759 – June 7, 1815) was an American politician who represented the fourth district of Maryland in the United States House of Representatives from 1804 to 1810.

Nelson was born on "Point of Rocks" plantation, near Frederick, Maryland. He completed preparatory studies, and attended the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. He served in the militia during the American Revolutionary War, and was wounded at the Battle of Camden. He later attained the rank of brigadier general.

After the War, Nelson studied law, was admitted to the bar about 1785, and practiced in Taneytown and Frederick. He held several local offices, including serving as a member of the Maryland House of Delegates in 1795, 1801, and 1802. He also served in the Maryland Senate from November 1803 to November 1804.

Nelson was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the Eighth Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Daniel Hiester, and was reelected to the Ninth, Tenth, and Eleventh Congresses, serving from November 6, 1804, until his resignation on May 14, 1810. He was one of the managers appointed by the House of Representatives in 1804 to conduct the impeachment proceedings against Samuel Chase, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He was elected associate justice of the fifth (later sixth) judicial circuit of Maryland in 1810. He died in Frederick, and is interred in Mount Olivet Cemetery.

Roger Nelson was the father of John Nelson, another Maryland congressman.


United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Daniel Hiester
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Maryland's 4th congressional district

Succeeded by
Samuel Ringgold

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