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Template:Infobox Russian federal subject The Republic of Crimea (Russian: Республика Крым, romanized: Respublika Krym, Ukrainian language: Республіка Крим , Crimean Tatar language: Къырым Джумхуриети)[lower-alpha 1] is a de facto federal subject (republic) of Russia. Its territory corresponds to the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a de jure subdivision of Ukraine.

The Crimean Peninsula, on which the de facto republic is located, became a part of post-Soviet Ukraine in 1991, upon the latter's independence, by virtue of Ukraine's uti possidetis inheritance of the territory from the Ukrainian SSR, of which Crimea was a part since 1954. In 2014, Russia annexed the peninsula and established two federal subjects there, Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol, but the territories are still internationally recognized as being part of Ukraine.[1]

The capital city and largest city within the republic is Simferopol, which is also the second-largest city of the peninsula, behind Sevastopol. At the last census, the republic had a population of Template:Crimea-census2014



Prime Minister of the Crimean Regional Government Solomon Krym, 1919

Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet "About the transfer of the Crimean Oblast", 1954

The origins of the Russian historical claim to Crimea, which would culminate in the 2014 annexation of the territory, date to the 18th century, when the Russian Empire, under the Empress Catherine the Great, annexed the peninsula for the first time, in April 1783.[2] While ostensibly recognised by the Ottoman Empire in December that year, the annexation sowed tensions which ultimately contributed to the outbreak of Russo-Turkish war of 1787–1792, in which the Ottoman Empire attempted to reverse it, but to no avail: the 1792 Treaty of Jassy, which formally ended the war, reaffirmed the 1783 annexation again. From 1802, Crimea constituted a southern part of the Taurida Governorate of the Russian Empire until the collapse thereof in 1917. During the Russian Civil War (1917–1921) Crimea changed hands multiple times, being inter alia the last territory held by the White Russian government in the European part of Russia in 1920, and finally became an autonomous republic within Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) in 1921.

During World War II, in 1944, the central Soviet authorities deported the Crimean Tatars for alleged collaboration with the Nazi occupation regime; in 1945, the region was stripped of its autonomy status.

The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference in Crimea: Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin.

In 1954, the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet transferred the region from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, another constituent republic of the USSR, then a highly centralised state, wherein borders between constituent republics was a technical issue of administration, despite the fact that Ukraine was a separate member of the UN. The Crimean Tatars were allowed to return to Crimea in the mid-1980s under perestroika.[3]

With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Crimea became part of the newly independent Ukraine, which led to tensions between Russia and Ukraine.[lower-alpha 2] With the Black Sea Fleet based on the peninsula, worries of armed skirmishes were occasionally raised. Crimean Tatars began returning from exile and resettling in Crimea. Ukraine restored Crimea's autonomous status in 1991. Crimea's autonomous status was re-affirmed in 1996 with the ratification of Ukraine's current constitution, which designated Crimea as the "Autonomous Republic of Crimea", but also an "inseparable constituent part of Ukraine".[5]

2014 annexation

In February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that ousted the Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych, the Russian leadership decided to "start working on returning Crimea to Russia"[6] (i.e. envisaged the annexation of peninsula), and after a takeover of Crimea by Russian armed forces without insignias and pro-Russian separatists, the territory within weeks came under Russian effective control.

To facilitate the annexation politically,[7] the Russian-backed Crimean parliament and the Sevastopol City Council announced on 6 March, in violation of the Ukrainian Constitution,[8][9][10] a referendum on the issue of joining Russia, to be held on 16 March. The upcoming vote allowed citizens to vote on whether Crimea should apply to join Russia as a federal subject of the Russian Federation, or restore the 1992 Crimean constitution and Crimea's status as a part of Ukraine. The available choices did not include keeping the status quo of Crimea and Sevastopol as they were at the time the referendum was held.[11]

On 11 March 2014, the Crimean parliament and the Sevastopol City Council jointly issued a letter of intent to unilaterally declare independence from Ukraine in the event of a 'Yes' vote in the upcoming referendum, citing the "Kosovo precedent" in the lead part.[12] The envisaged process was so designed to allow Russia to claim that "it did not annex Crimea from Ukraine, rather the Republic of Crimea exercised its sovereign powers in seeking a merge with Russia".[13]

On 16 March 2014, according to the organizers of Crimean status referendum, a large majority (reported as 96.77% of the 81.36% of the population of Crimea who voted) voted in favour of independence of Crimea from Ukraine and joining Russia as a federal subject.[14][15][16][17] The referendum was not recognized by most of the international community and the reported results were disputed by numerous independent observers.[18][19][20][21][22] The BBC reported that most of the Crimean Tatars that they interviewed were boycotting the vote.[14] Reports from the UN criticised the circumstances surrounding the referendum, especially the presence of paramilitaries, self-defence groups and unidentifiable soldiers.[23] The European Union, Canada, Japan and the United States condemned the vote as illegal.[14][24]

Diagram showing the merge, short-lived independence, and separation of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol that led to the Republic of Crimea becoming a federal subject of Russia.

After the referendum, Crimean lawmakers formally voted both to secede from Ukraine and applied for their admission into Russia. The Sevastopol City Council, however, requested the port's separate admission as a federal city.[25] On the same day Russia formally approved the draft treaty on absorption of the self-proclaimed Republic of Crimea,[26][27] and on 18 March 2014 the political process of annexation was formally concluded,[7] with the self-proclaimed independent Republic of Crimea signing a treaty of accession to the Russian Federation.[28] The accession was granted but separately for each the former regions that composed it: one accession for the Autonomous Republic of Crimea as the Republic of Crimea—the same name as the short-lived self-proclaimed independent republic—and another accession for Sevastopol as a federal city. A post-annexation transition period, during which Russian authorities were to resolve the issues of integration of the new subjects "in the economic, financial, credit and legal system of the Russian Federation", was set to last until 1 January 2015.[29]

The change of status of Crimea was only recognised internationally by a few states with most regarding the action as illegal. Ukraine refused to accept the annexation, however the Ukrainian military began to withdraw from Crimea on 19 March,[30] and by 26 March, Russia had acquired complete military control of Crimea, so the annexation was essentially complete.[31]

Post-annexation integration to Russian Federation

The post-annexation integration process started within days. On 24 March, the Russian ruble went into official circulation with parallel circulation of the Ukrainian hryvnia permitted until 1 January 2016, however, taxes and fees were to be paid in rubles only, and the wages of employees at budget-receiving organisations were to be paid out in rubles as well.[32] On 29 March, the clocks in Crimea were moved forward to Moscow time,[33] and on 31 March, the Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev announced a series of programmes aimed at swiftly incorporating the territory into Russia's economy and infrastructure. The creation of a new ministry for Crimean affairs was announced too.[34] Also on 31 March, the Russian Foreign Ministry declared that foreign citizens visiting Crimea needed to apply for a visa to the Russian Federation at one of Russian diplomatic missions or its consulates.[35]

On 3 April 2014, Moscow sent a diplomatic note to Ukraine on terminating the actions of agreements concerning the deployment of the Russian Federation's Black Sea Fleet on the territory of Ukraine. As part of the agreements, Russia used to pay the Ukrainian government $530 million annually for the base, and wrote off nearly $100 million of Kyiv's debt for the right to use Ukrainian waters. Ukraine also received a discount of $100 on each 1,000 cubic meters of natural gas imported from Russia, which was provided for by cutting export duties on the gas, money that would have gone into the Russian state budget. The Kremlin explained that because the base was no longer located in Ukraine, the discount was no longer legally justifiable.[36] Crimea and the city of Sevastopol became part of Russia's Southern Military District.[37]

Simferopol, Crimea, 9 May 2019, the celebration of the Victory Day

On 11 April 2014, the parliament of Crimea approved a new constitution, with 88 out of 100 lawmakers voting in favor of its adoption.[38] The new constitution confirms the Republic of Crimea as a democratic state within the Russian Federation and declares both territories united and inseparable. The Crimean parliament would become smaller and have 75 members instead of the current 100.[39] According to the Kommersant newspaper, the authorities, including the State Council chair Vladimir Konstantinov, unofficially promised that certain quotas would be reserved for Crimean Tatars in various government bodies.[citation needed] On the same day, a new revision of the Russian Constitution was officially published, with the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol included in the list of federal subjects of the Russian Federation.[40]

On 12 April 2014, the Constitution of the Republic of Crimea, adopted at the session of the State Council on 11 April, entered into legal force. The constitution was published by the Krymskiye Izvestiya newspaper, becoming law on the publication date, the State Council of Crimea said. The Constitution consists of 10 chapters and 95 articles; its main regulations are analogous to the articles of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. The text proclaims the Republic of Crimea is a democratic, legal state within the Russian Federation and an equal subject of the Russian Federation. The source of power in the Crimean Republic is its people, which constitutes to the multinational nation of the Russian Federation. It is noted that the supreme direct manifestation of the power of the people is referendum and free elections; seizure of power and appropriation of power authorization are unacceptable.[citation needed]

On 15 April 2014, the Ukrainian Parliament declared Crimea and the city of Sevastopol "occupied territories".[41]

On 1 June 2014, Crimea officially switched over to the Russian ruble as its only form of legal tender.[42]

On 7 May 2015, Crimea switched its phone codes (Ukrainian number system) to the Russian number system.[43]

In July 2015, Russian Prime Minister, Dmitry Medvedev, declared that Crimea had been fully integrated into Russia,[44] similar statements were also expressed at the Russian Security Council.[45]

In July 2016, Crimea ceased to be a separate federal district of the Russian Federation and was included into the Southern federal district instead.[46][47]

Government and politics

Dmitry Medvedev and Crimean PM Aksyonov meeting with students in Simferopol, 31 March 2014

The State Council of Crimea is a legislative body with a 75-seat parliament.[48] The polling held on 14 September 2014 resulted in United Russia securing 70 of the 75 members elected.[49]

Justice is administered by courts, as part of the judiciary of Russia. Under Russian law, all decisions delivered by the Crimean branches of the judiciary of Ukraine up to its annexation remain valid.[50] This includes sentences (for "encroaching on Ukraine's territorial integrity and inviolability") for pre-2014 calls for an incorporation of Crimea into Russia.[50]

The executive power is represented by the Council of Ministers, headed either by the Prime Minister of Crimea or by the Head of the Republic of Crimea. The authority and operation of the State Council and the Council of Ministers of Crimea are determined by the Constitution of the Republic of Crimea and other Crimean laws, as well as by regular decisions carried out by the Council.[51]

Crimeans who refused to take Russian citizenship are barred from holding government positions or municipal jobs.[52]

By July 2015, 20,000 Crimeans had renounced their Ukrainian citizenship.[53] From the time of Russia's annexation until October 2016, more than 8,800 Crimean residents received Ukrainian passports.[54]


Administrative divisions

The Republic of Crimea continues to use the administrative divisions previously used by the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and is thus subdivided into 25 regions: 14 districts (raions) and 11 city municipalities (gorodskoj sovet or gorsovet), officially known as territories governed by city councils.[55][not in citation given]

1. Bakhchysarai Raion
2. Bilohirsk Raion
3. Dzhankoy Raion
4. Kirovske Raion
5. Krasnohvardiiske Raion
6. Krasnoperekopsk Raion
7. Lenine Raion
8. Nyzhnohirskyi Raion
9. Pervomaiske Raion
10. Rozdolne Raion
11. Saky Raion
12. Simferopol Raion
13. Sovietskyi Raion
14. Chornomorske Raion
City municipalities
15. Alushta Municipality
16. Armyansk Municipality
17. Dzhankoy Municipality
18. Yevpatoria Municipality
19. Kerch Municipality
20. Krasnoperekopsk Municipality
21. Saky Municipality
22. Simferopol Municipality
23. Sudak Municipality
24. Feodosia Municipality
25. Yalta Municipality
Subdivisions of Crimea.


Political geography

If it were to be considered a part of Russia, then Crimea would be one of two parts of European Russia that had no land connection to the rest of the country, the other being Kaliningrad Oblast on the Baltic Sea. Being a semi-exclave, the peninsula is connected to Russia by a multibillion-dollar road–rail fixed link across the Kerch Strait,[56] dubbed Crimean Bridge by the Russian government. The link is operational for road traffic since 2018, and for rail traffic since 2019 (passenger) and 2020 (freight).[57]

If Crimea were considered separate from Ukraine, which continues to claim sovereignty over the peninsula, then Ukraine would be the only country with which it shared a land border, with a number of road and rail connections. These crossings have been under the control of Russian troops since at least mid-March 2014.


Ethnic groups

Interior of the Church of the Resurrection of Christ in Yalta.

According to the 2014 Crimean Federal District census, the ethnic makeup of the population of the whole Crimean Federal District at the time comprised the following self-reported groups:

  • Russians: 1,188,978 (65.2%)
  • Ukrainians: 291,603 (16.0%)
  • Crimean Tatars: 229,526 (12.6%)
  • Tatars: 42,254 (2.3%)
  • Belarusians: 17,919 (1.0%)
  • Armenians: 9,634 (0.5%)

According to the 2014 census, 84% of Crimean inhabitants named Russian as their native language; 7.9% named Crimean Tatar; 3.7% Tatar and 3.3% Ukrainian. The previous census was held more than decade ago in 2001, when Crimea was still controlled by Ukraine.[58]


According to the Constitution of the Republic of Crimea:[59]

Article 10

1. Official languages of the Republic of Crimea are Russian, Ukrainian and Crimean Tatar.

According to the Republic of Crimea Ministry of Education, Science, and Youth,[60] most primary and secondary school pupils have decided to study in Russian in 2015.

  • In Russian – 96.74%
  • In Crimean Tatar – 2.76%. 5083 pupils (+188 to 2014 year) study in Crimean Tatar language in 53 schools in 17 districts. 37 1st grade classes of primary school have been opened.
  • In Ukrainian – 0.5%. 949 pupils study in Ukrainian language in 22 schools in 13 districts. 2 1st grade classes of primary school have been opened.

Its Education Minister Natalia Goncharova announced mid-August 2014 that (since no parents of first-graders wrote an application for learning Ukrainian) Crimea had decided not to form Ukrainian language classes in its primary schools.[61] Goncharova said that since more than a quarter of parents at the Ukrainian gymnasium in Simferopol had written an application to teach children in Ukrainian; this school might have Ukrainian language classes.[61] Goncharova also added that the parents of first-graders had written application for learning the Russian language, and (in areas inhabited by Crimean Tatars) for learning Crimean Tatar.[61] Goncharova stated on 10 October 2014 that at that time Crimea had 20 schools where all subjects were conducted in Ukrainian.[62]

A report (realised in the summer of 2015) of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) claimed that the Republic of Crimea had the aim to "end the teaching of Ukrainian" by "pressure on school administrations, teachers, parents, and children".[63]


Circle frame.svg

Religion in Crimea (2013)[64]

  Orthodox (58%)
  Belief without religion (10%)
  Atheist (2%)
  Other religion (2%)
  Not stated (13%)

The majority of the Crimean population adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, with the Crimean Tatars forming a Sunni Muslim minority, besides smaller Roman Catholic, Ukrainian Greek Catholic, Armenian Apostolic and Jewish minorities. In 2013, Orthodox Christians made up 58% of the Crimean population, followed by Muslims (15%, mainly Tatars) and believers without religion (10%).[64]

Catholic church in Yevpatoria
Catholic church in Yevpatoria
a Sunni mosque in Yevpatoria
A Sunni mosque in Yevpatoria
Orthodox church in Yalta
Orthodox church in Yalta


Peninsula economy is based on tourism, agriculture (wines, fruits, wheat, rice and further crops), fishing, pearls, mining and natural resources (mainly iron, titanium, aluminium, manganese, calcite, sandstone, quartz and silicates, amethyst, other), metallurgical and steel industry, shipbuilding and repair, oil gas and petrochemical, chemical industry, electronics and devices machinery, instruments making, glass, electronics and electric parts devices, materials and building.


In March 2014 Crimean GDP was estimated at $4.3 billion or 0.2% of Russia based on current prices and 0.5% based on purchasing power parity.[citation needed]

After annexation of the peninsula, Russia doubled payments to about 560,000 pensioners and 200,000 public workers (in Crimea).[65] Those raises were cut back in April 2015.[66]

In June 2015 The Economist estimated that the average salary in Crimea was about two-thirds of the average salary in Russia.[66] According to Russian statistics by March 2015 the inflation in Crimea was 80%.[67] According to the Crimean authorities local food prices have grown 2.5 times since Russia's annexation.[68] Since then the peninsula now has to import most of its food from Russia.

After the annexation, Russian Crimean authorities started nationalization of what they called strategically important enterprises, which included not only transportation and energy production enterprises, but also, for example, a wine factory in Massandra. The enterprises which belonged to Russian citizens were nationalized against financial reimbursement, which was, however, much lower than the actual value; those which belonged to Ukrainian citizens, for example, PrivatBank owned by Ihor Kolomoyskyi or Ukrtelecom owned by Rinat Akhmetov, were expropriated without any reimbursement. The future of the nationalized enterprises is decided by the government.[69] Reasons given for this were (among others) "the company helped to finance military operations against Donetsk People's Republic and Lugansk People's Republic" and "the resort complex illegally blocked public access to nearby park lands".[70] The government can nationalise assets considered to have "particular social, cultural, or historical value".[70] In the case of the Zalyv Shipbuilding yard, Crimean "self-defense" forces stormed the company's headquarters to demand nationalization.[70] Head of the Republic Sergey Aksyonov claimed that in at least one case "Employees established control of the enterprise on their own, we just helped them a little".[70] The nationalization of Ihor Kolomoyskyi's assets was, according to Aksyonov, "totally justified due to the fact that he is one of the initiators and financiers of the special anti-terrorist operation in the Eastern Ukraine where Russian citizens are being killed".[71][72]

By late October 2014 90% of the heads of Crimean government-owned corporation were fired as part of a supposed anti-corruption campaign, although no charges have been filed against anyone. Human rights activists in the region have described the seizures as lacking a legal basis and dismissed the "anti-corruption" rationale.[73] In June 2015 the Federal Security Service (FSB) started several anti-corruption criminal cases against high ranking Crimean officials.[74] According to Aksyonov the FSB had opened these criminal cases because it was "interested in destabilizing the situation in Crimea".[74]

On 6 May 2014 the National Bank of Ukraine ordered Ukrainian banks to cease operations in Crimea; the following weeks the Central Bank of Russia closed all Ukrainian banks in the peninsula because "they had failed to meet their obligations to creditors".[75] Eight months after the 21 March 2014 formal annexation of Crimea by Russia it became impossible for clients of Ukrainian banks to access their deposits and most of them did not pay interest (on loans).[76][Clarification needed] A "Fund for the Protection of Depositors in Crimea", as part of Russia's Deposit Insurance Agency, was set up by Russia to compensate Crimeans.[76] By 6 November 2014 it paid out more than $500 million to 196,400 depositors; the fund has a limit of about $15,000 per bank account.[76] In July 2015, 25 banks were operating in Crimea while prior to the Russian annexation there were 180 banks.[77]

While many international businesses left the region, in 2015 only few Russian companies were reported to invest in Crimea, fearing sanctions.[65]

Under the international sanctions Crimea's once bustling IT-sector shrunk to a few IT companies.[68]

Russia invests significantly in Crimea, according to "The Federal Target Program for the Development of the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol" they plan to invest one trillion Russian rubles (15.3 billion dollars) before 2022[78][79] The Russian government claims that those investments are necessary because Ukrainian mismanagement of the Crimean territory caused losses of 2.5 trillion Russian rubles (38.3 billion dollars) to the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol[80] Meanwhile, Ukraine estimates their losses due to Russian annexation of the peninsula to 100 billion dollars.[81]


  • JSC GENBANK[82][83]
  • JSC Bank CHBDR[84]
  • Russian National Commercial Bank

Gross regional product:[85]

Commercial Medical Clinic in the Republic of Crimea

  • Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles, personal and household goods – 13%
  • Transport and Telecom – 10%
  • Real estate, renting and business activities – 10%
  • Health care and social services – 10%
  • Public administration, defense, compulsory social security – 8%
  • Agriculture, hunting and forestry – 10%
  • Other – 39%

Free economic zone

A Free Economic Zone has been established in the territory of the Republic of Crimea since 1 January 2015.[86]

By the end of 2017, the amount of investment in Crimea's free economic zone since early 2015, exceeded 100 billion rubles ($1.69 billion).[87]

At the beginning of 2019, 215 billion rubles ($3.3 billion) were attracted to the economy of Crimea.[88]


Tourists in Crimea in June 2015

In 2014 about two million tourists holidayed in Crimea, including 300,000 Ukrainians.[89] In 2013 3.5 million Ukrainian and 1.5 million Russian tourists visited Crimea.[89] Tourism is the mainstay of the Crimean economy.[89] In August 2014 Head of the Republic Aksyonov was confident that in 2015 Crimea would welcome "at least five million visitors – I have no doubts about that".[89] Early August 2015 the press service of his government stated that in 2015 2.02 million tourists had visited Crimea (16.5% more than in 2014).[90] They stated in January 2016 (that in 2015) more than 4 million tourists had vacationed in the peninsula.[91] Over 6.4 million tourists visited Crimea in 2018.[92]

Museums and art galleries

  • Aivazovsky National Art Gallery
  • Alexander Grin house museum
  • Feodosia Money Museum
  • Lapidarium, Kerch
  • Livadia Palace
  • Massandra Palace
  • Simferopol Art Museum
  • Museum of Vera Mukhina
  • Vorontsov Palace (Alupka)
  • White Dacha

Industrial Park

  • Feodosia Industrial Park[93]
  • Bakhchysarai Industrial Park[94]


The internet connection goes via Krasnodar Krai.[95] Cell telecom In Crimea Peninsula worked four mobile operators already offers voice and mobile data for 2G, 3G and 4G users.[96]



Simferopol is an air transport hub of the Republic of Crimea.

  • Simferopol International Airport


  • Crimea Railway

Trolleybus Line

Crimean trolleybus line length of 86 kilometres (53 mi) long of service «Krymtrolleybus».

Routes: Airport Simferopol — Simferopol — Alushta — Yalta


  • European route E105SyvashDzhankoyNorth Crimean Canal – Simferopol – Alushta – Yalta
  • Tavrida Highway A291: Kerch — Feodosia — Belogorsk — Simferopol — BakhchisaraiSevastopol.
  • European route E97: Dzhankoy – Feodosiya – Kerch.
  • Novorossiysk — Kerch highway A290: Crimean Bridge — Kerch
  • Highway H19 (Ukraine) – Yalta – Sevastopol
  • Highway M18 (Ukraine) – Yalta – Simferopol – Dzhankoy
  • Highway H05 (Ukraine) – Simferopol – Simferopol International AirportKrasnoperekopsk.


  • Kerch Strait ferry line (until 2020), Kerch–Yenikale Canal


  • V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University[97]
  • Simferopol gymnasium №1
  • Gymnasium 9 (Simferopol)
  • Kerch Polytechnic College


The 70 m radio telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory is a part of the Soviet Deep Space Network

  • Crimean Astrophysical Observatory is a part of the Soviet Deep Space Network
  • Deep-Space communications center
  • RT-70
  • Simeiz Observatory


Lokomotiv Republican Sports Complex in Simferopol.

Football clubs

  • FC TSK Simferopol
  • FC Krymteplytsia Molodizhne
  • FC Ocean Kerch
  • FC Rubin Yalta

Human rights

United Nations monitors (that had been in Crimea from 2 April to 6 May 2014) said they were concerned about treatment of journalists, sexual, religious and ethnic minorities and AIDS patients.[98] The monitors had found that journalists and activists who had opposed the 2014 Crimean referendum had been harassed and abducted.[99] They also reported that Crimeans who hadn't applied for Russian citizenship faced harassment and intimidation.[98] Russia criticized the monitoring report as politically motivated and as an attempt to whitewash "violations of human rights by the self-proclaimed Kiev authorities".[98] Russia added that it did not support the deployment of human rights monitors in Crimea.[99] The (new) Crimean authorities vowed to investigate the reports of human rights violations.[99]

According to Human Rights Watch "Russia has violated multiple obligations it has as an occupying power under international humanitarian law – in particular in relation to the protection of civilians' rights."[100][101]

In its November 2014 report on Crimea, Human Rights Watch stated that "The de facto authorities in Crimea have limited free expression, restricted peaceful assembly, and intimidated and harassed those who have opposed Russia's actions in Crimea".[102] According to the report, 15 persons went missing since March 2014; according to Ukrainian authorities 21 people disappeared.[52] Head of the Republic Sergey Aksyonov pledged to find the missing persons as well as the culprits behind the kidnappings.[52] Aksyonov regularly meets with a group of parents, whose children have gone missing, and human rights activists.[52] These parents and human rights activists have complained that rotation of the team of investigators into these missing persons has harmed these investigations.[52]

Crimean Tatars

Vladimir Putin meeting with representatives of the Crimean Tatars, 16 May 2014

The Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People has come under the scrutiny of the Russian Federal Security Service, which reportedly took control of the building where the Mejlis meets and searched it on 16 September 2014. Crimean Tatar media said FSB officers also searched the office of the Avdet newspaper, which is based inside the Mejlis building. Several members of the Mejlis were also reportedly subjected to FSB searches at their homes. Several Crimean Tatar opposition figures were banned from entering Crimea for five years.[103] Since Russia annexed Crimea several Crimean Tatars have disappeared or have been found dead after being reported missing.[104][105][106] Crimean authorities state these deaths and disappearances are connected to "smoking an unspecified substance" and volunteers for the Syrian civil war; human rights activists claim the disappearances are part of a repression campaign against Crimean Tatars.[101][104][105]

In February 2016 human rights defender Emir-Usein Kuku from Crimea was arrested and accused of belonging to the Islamist organization Hizb ut-Tahrir although he denies any involvement in this organization. Amnesty International has called for his immediate liberation.[107][108]

In May 2018 Server Mustafayev, the founder and coordinator of the human rights movement Crimean Solidarity was imprisoned by Russian authorities and charged with "membership of a terrorist organisation". Amnesty International and Front Line Defenders demand his immediate release.[109][110]

International status

The status of the republic is disputed, as Russia and some other states recognised the annexation, whilst most other nations do not. Ukraine still considers both the Autonomous Republic and Sevastopol as subdivisions of Ukraine under Ukrainian territory and subject to Ukrainian law.

The official line of the US, EU and Australia is that they don't grant visas to Crimeans with Russian passports.[66][111] Nevertheless, Russian media claims Crimeans get visas for some EU countries.[112][113]

On 21 March 2014, Armenia recognised the Crimean referendum, which led to Ukraine recalling its ambassador to that country.[114] The unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic also recognised the referendum earlier that week on 17 March.[115] On 22 March 2014, President Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan told a U.S. delegation that he recognised and supported the Crimean referendum and "respects the free will of the people of Crimea and Sevastopol to decide their own future".[citation needed] On 23 March 2014, Belarus recognised Crimea as de facto part of Russia.[citation needed] On 27 March 2014, Nicaragua unconditionally recognised the incorporation of Crimea into Russia.[116]

Results of the United Nations General Assembly vote about the territorial integrity of Ukraine in March 2014. Note that Crimea is shown as part of Ukraine.
  In favour   Against   Abstentions   Absent

On 27 March 2014, the UN General Assembly voted on a non-binding resolution claiming that the referendum was invalid and reaffirming Ukraine's territorial integrity, by a vote of 100 to 11, with 58 abstentions and 24 absent.[117][118] Australia, Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, United Kingdom, United States and 89 other countries voted for; Armenia, Belarus, Bolivia, Cuba, North Korea, Nicaragua, Sudan, Syria, Venezuela and Zimbabwe, as well as Russia, voted against.[citation needed] Among the abstaining countries were China, India, and Brazil; Israel was among the countries listed as absent.[citation needed] Reuters reported unnamed UN diplomats saying the Russian delegation threatened with punitive action against certain Eastern European and Central Asian countries if they supported the resolution.[119] Subsequent United Nations General Assembly resolutions also reaffirmed non-recognition of the annexation and condemned "the temporary occupation of part of the territory of Ukraine—the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol".[120][121][122]


  1. /krˈmə, krɪ-/; Russian language: Республика Крым, translit. Respublika Krym [rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə krɨm]; Ukrainian language: Республіка Крим , translit. Respublika Krym; Crimean Tatar language: Къырым Джумхуриети, Qırım Cumhuriyeti
  2. In a summer 2013 poll by VTSIOM where respondents in Russia were asked what they consider Russian territory 56% claimed that Crimea was part of Russia.[4]


  1. Publications, Europa (2019). The territories of the Russian Federation 2019. (20th ed.). London. ISBN 978-0-429-05792-2. OCLC 1091626001. "The territories of the Crimean peninsula, comprising Sevastopol City and the Republic of Crimea, remained internationally recognized as constituting part of Ukraine, following their annexation by Russia in March 2014." 
  2. O'Neill, Kelly (2017). Claiming Crimea: A History of Catherine the Great's Southern Empire. New Haven. pp. x. ISBN 978-0-300-23150-2. OCLC 1007823334. "The moment in which this long trajectory truly took shape came not in the spring of 2014 but one morning late in the autumn of 1782, as Empress Catherine II sat in her study in the Winter Palace drinking coffee. In her hand was a carefully crafted letter from Prince Grigorii Potemkin, president of the War College, commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and grand admiral of the Black Sea and Caspian fleets. For some months Potemkin had been urging his sovereign to declare an end to the in dependence of the Crimean Khanate (an interlude that began in 1774)." 
  3. "The Crimean Tatars began repatriating on a massive scale beginning in the late 1980s and continuing into the early 1990s. The population of Crimean Tatars in Crimea rapidly reached 250,000 and leveled off at 270,000 where it remains as of this writing [2001]. There are believed to be between 30,000 and 100,000 remaining in places of former exile in Central Asia." Greta Lynn Uehling, The Crimean Tatars (Encyclopedia of the Minorities, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn)
  4. (in Ukrainian) Майже 60% росіян вважають, що Крим – це Росія Almost 60% of Russians believe, that Crimea – is Russian, Ukrayinska Pravda (10 September 2013)
  5. "Constitution of Ukraine, 1996".,_1996. 
  6. "Vladimir Putin describes secret meeting when Russia decided to seize Crimea". 9 March 2015. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Kofman, Michael (2017). Lessons from Russia's Operations in Crimea and Eastern Ukraine.. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. ISBN 9780833096173. OCLC 990544142. "The March 16 referendum would become the political instrument to annex the peninsula, a process that concluded on March 18" 
  8. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}" (in ru). Interfax-Ukraine. 14 March 2014. 
  9. Tokarev, Alexey (2014). "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}" (in ru). pp. 32–41. "Спустя 22 года и 364 дня после первого в СССР референдума в автономной республике Украины Крым состоялся последний референдум. Проводился он вопреки украинскому законодательству, не предусматривающему понятия региональный референдум и предписывающему решать территориальные вопросы только на всеукраинском референдуме" 
  10. Marxen, Christian (2014). "The Crimea Crisis – An International Law Perspective". "Organizing and holding the referendum on Crimea's accession to Russia was illegal under the Ukrainian constitution. Article 2 of the constitution establishes that "Ukraine shall be a unitary state" and that the "territory of Ukraine within its present border is indivisible and inviolable". This is confirmed in regard to Crimea by Chapter X of the constitution, which provides for the autonomous status of Crimea. Article 134 sets forth that Crimea is an "inseparable constituent part of Ukraine". The autonomous status provides Crimea with a certain set of authorities and allows, inter alia, to hold referendums. These rights are, however, limited to local matters. The constitution makes clear that alterations to the territory of Ukraine require an all-Ukrainian referendum." 
  11. "При воссоединении с Россией крымчане дискомфорта не почувствуют! – Krym Info". Krym Info. 
  12. "Парламент Крыма принял Декларацию о независимости АРК и г. Севастополя". Государственный Совет Республики Крым. 11 March 2014. 
  13. Borgen, Christopher J. (2015). "Law, Rhetoric, Strategy: Russia and Self-Determination Before and After Crimea" (in en). ISSN 2375-2831. "The recognition of Crimea by Russia was the legal fig leaf which allowed Russia to say that it did not annex Crimea from Ukraine, rather the Republic of Crimea exercised its sovereign powers in seeking a merge with Russia" 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 "Crimea referendum: Voters 'back Russia union'". BBC News. 16 March 2014. 
  15. "Crimeans vote over 90 percent to quit Ukraine for Russia". Reuters. 16 March 2014. 
  16. "Crimea 'votes to rejoin Russia' after controversial poll". ITV. 16 March 2014. 
  17. "Crimea applies to be part of Russian Federation after vote to leave Ukraine". The Guardian. 17 March 2014. 
  18. "OSCE says Crimea referendum illegal". 11 March 2014. 
  19. Pifer, Steven (18 March 2019). "Five years after Crimea's illegal annexation, the issue is no closer to resolution". 
  20. Rayman, Noah (27 March 2014). "UN General Assembly: Crimea Referendum Was Illegal". 
  21. "Ukraine crisis: 'Illegal' Crimean referendum condemned". 6 March 2014. 
  22. Bellinger III, John B.. "Why the Crimean Referendum Is Illegitimate". 
  23. "UN report on Euronews – 15 April 2014". Euronews. 11 March 2014. 
  24. "Japan does not recognise Crimea vote – govt spokesman". Reuters. 17 March 2014. 
  25. Herszenhorn, David M.; Cowell, Alan (17 March 2014). "Lawmakers in Crimea Move Swiftly to Split From Ukraine". The New York Times. 
  26. "Putin Approves Draft Treaty On Crimea" (in en). 
  27. "Путин одобрил проект договора о принятии в РФ Республики Крым". 
  28. "Kremlin: Crimea and Sevastopol are now part of Russia, not Ukraine". CNN. 18 March 2014. 
  29. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}" (in ru). 18 March 2014.  (and a PDF copy of signed document)
  30. Carol Morello and Kathy Lally (19 March 2014). "Ukraine says it is preparing to leave Crimea". 
  31. Kofman, Michael (2017). Lessons from Russia's Operations in Crimea and Eastern Ukraine.. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. ISBN 9780833096173. OCLC 990544142. "By March 26, the annexation was essentially complete, and Russia began returning seized military hardware to Ukraine." 
  32. "TASS: Russia – Russian ruble goes into official circulation in Crimea as of Monday". TASS. 
  33. "Ukraine crisis: Crimea celebrates switch to Moscow time". BBC News. 29 March 2014. 
  34. Lukas I. Alpert, Alexander Kolyandr. "Medvedev visits Crimea, vows development aid". Market Watch. 
  35. "Now foreigners need Russian visas to visit Crimea – Russian Foreign Ministry". 
  36. Sputnik (3 April 2014). "Moscow Sent Diplomatic Note to Ukraine on Terminating Black Sea Fleet Agreements". 
  37. "Крым и Севастополь вошли в состав Южного военного округа России". 
  38. Sputnik (11 April 2014). "Crimean Parliament Approves New Constitution". 
  39. Sudakov, Dmitry (11 April 2014). "Crimea approves new Constitution". PravdaReport. 
  40. Sputnik (11 April 2014). "Russia Amends Constitution to Include Crimea, Sevastopol". 
  41. Sputnik (15 April 2014). "Ukraine's Parliament Declares Crimea, Sevastopol 'Occupied Territory'". 
  42. Verbyany, Volodymyr (1 June 2014). "Crimea Adopts Ruble as Ukraine Continues Battling Rebels". Bloomberg. 
  43. Crimea switches to Russian telephone codes, Interfax-Ukraine (7 May 2015)
  44. Jess McHugh (15 July 2015). "Putin Eliminates Ministry of Crimea, Region Fully Integrated into Russia, Russian Leaders Say". International Business Times. 
  45. "Russian Security Council: Crimea is fully integrated in Russian legal, administrative systems". 5 August 2015. 
  46. "Crimea becomes part of vast Southern federal district of Russia". 
  47. "Крым, который лопнул. Как Путин снова обманул полуостров". 29 July 2016. 
  48. "The Supreme Council of ARC has been renamed as the State Council of the Republic of Crimea". 17 March 2014. 
  49. "Election Victories Strengthen Putin's Grip Around Russia and Crimea". The New York Times. 14 September 2014. 
  50. 50.0 50.1 Pro-Russian Activist Falls On Hard Times In Annexed Crimea, Radio Free Europe (16 January 2016)
  51. "Autonomous Republic of Crimea – Information card". Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. 
  52. 52.0 52.1 52.2 52.3 52.4 Ukraine human rights 'deteriorating rapidly', Al Jazeera (3 December 2014)
    Disappearing Crimea's anti-Russia activists , Al Jazeera
  53. Thomas de Waal. "The New Siege of Crimea". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 
  54. (in Ukrainian) Nearly 9 thousand Crimean residents received Ukrainian passports after annexation, Ukrayinska Pravda (16 October 2016)
  55. "Infobox card – Avtonomna Respublika Krym" (in uk). Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. 
  56. "Putin orders military exercise as protesters clash in Crimea". reuters. 18 April 2016. 
  57. "На Крымском мосту установили новый рекорд автотрафика" (in ru). 16 August 2020. 
  58. "Census of the population is transferred to 2016" (in uk). 20 September 2013. 
  59.[dead link]
  60. "На крымско-татарском и украинском языках в Крыму обучаются чуть более 3% детей – Министерство образования, науки и молодежи Республики Крым – Правительство Республики Крым". 
  61. 61.0 61.1 61.2 (in Ukrainian) Crimea has no longer Ukrainian classes, Ukrayinska Pravda (14 August 2014)
  62. (in Russian) In Crimea, Ukrainian schools left – "Minister of Education", UNIAN (10 October 2014)
  63. Two Years After Annexation, Crimeans Wait On Russia's Unfulfilled Promises, Radio Free Europe (18 March 2016)
  64. 64.0 64.1 "Public Opinion Survey Residents of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea".,%20May%2016-30,%202013.pdf. , The sample consisted of 1,200 permanent Crimea residents older than the age of 18 and eligible to vote and is representative of the general population by age, gender, education and religion.
  65. 65.0 65.1 "In Crimea, cash is king". 
  66. 66.0 66.1 66.2 "Bad_Memory". 11 June 2015. 
  67. Dreams in Isolation: Crimea 2 Years After Annexation, The Moscow Times (18 March 2016)
  68. 68.0 68.1 Alexey Eremenko. "Crimea One Year After Russia Referendum Is Isolated From World". NBC News. 
  69. Sambros, Andrey (27 February 2015). "Изображая Чавеса: чем закончился год национализаций в Крыму". 
  70. 70.0 70.1 70.2 70.3 Russia Delivers a New Shock to Crimean Business: Forced Nationalization, Bloomberg News (18 November 2014 )
  71. "Kolomoyskyi's assets to be nationalized in Crimea (Sergey Aksyonov)". 5 September 2014. 
  72. Ukrainian tycoon’s estate in Crimea sold for $18 mln, Russian News Agency TASS (3 February 2016)
  73. Crimea’s rapid Russification means pride for some but perplexity for others, Guardian Weekly (11 November 2014)
  74. 74.0 74.1 "The Moscow Times – News, Business, Culture & Events". 2016-07-07. 
  75. Six More Ukrainian Banks Expelled from Crimea, Moscow Times (13 May 2014)
  76. 76.0 76.1 76.2 Months After Russian Annexation, Crimeans Ask: 'Where Is Our Money?', Moscow Times (20 November 2014)
  77. (in Ukrainian) Grey financial zone: why with annexed the Crimea are Russian banks, Deutsche Welle (2 August 2015)
  78. "ФЦП развития Крыма и Севастополя увеличили почти до триллиона" (in ru). 
  79. "Crimea – Federal Target Program | Investment portal of the Republic of Crimea". 
  80. правды», Галина КОВАЛЕНКО | Сайт «Комсомольской (2019-06-28). "Украина за 23 года нанесла Крыму ущерб на 2,5 триллиона рублей" (in ru). 
  81. "Ukrainian Ministry of Justice: Ukraine lost $100 billion due to the annexation of the Crimea". 23 February 2017. 
  82. "Company Overview of JSC GENBANK". 
  83. "Genbank | Банки.ру". 
  84. "Bank CHBDR | Банки.ру". 
  85. "Republic of Crimea Industries" (in en). 
  86. "Free Economic Zone | Investment portal of the Republic of Crimea". 
  87. "Investments in Crimea's free economic zone exceed $1.69 bln – region's head" (in ru). 
  88. "Over 100 agreements worth $3.3 bln signed at Yalta forum, says Crimean leader" (in ru). 
  89. 89.0 89.1 89.2 89.3 Tourism takes a nosedive in Crimea, BBC News (7 August 2014)
    Russia's takeover of Crimea is killing tourism industry, Kyiv Post (14 August 2014)
  90. (in Russian) In Crimea, we saw an increase in tourist traffic as compared to the year 2014, Radio Free Europe (2 August 2015)
  91. (in Ukrainian) Crimea – Aksenov predicts "huge flow of tourists" and operators – appreciation, Ukrayinska Pravda (19 January 2016)
  92. "Over 6.4 mln tourists visit Crimea in 2018". 
  93. "The construction of the industrial park "Feodosia" starts in June 2018 | Investment portal of the Republic of Crimea". 
  94. "RUB 800 Million to be Invested into Creation of the Logistics Hub in Crimea". 
  95. "Crimeans are now using the Russian internet". 
  96. "The first Russian mobile network launched in Crimea :: Ministry of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media of the Russian Federation". 2014-08-04. Retrieved 2022-02-20. 
  97. "About university" (in en). 
  98. 98.0 98.1 98.2 "U.N. monitors warn on human rights in east Ukraine, Crimea". Reuters. 
  99. 99.0 99.1 99.2 Cumming-Bruce, Nick (15 April 2014). "U.N. Cites Abuses in Crimea Before Russia Annexation Vote". 
  100. "Crimean Tatars: Human Rights Watch Publishes Report Detailing Serious Human Rights Abuses". Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. 
  101. 101.0 101.1 "Rights in Retreat: Abuses in Crimea". Human Rights Watch. 17 November 2014. 
  102. Russia Abusing Rights in Annexed Crimea, Human Rights Watch Says, Bloomberg News (17 November 2014)
    Human Rights Watch releases damning report on Crimea, Kyiv Post (18 November 2014)
  103. "Russian FSB surrounds Crimean Tatar parliament-UPDATED". 16 September 2014. 
  104. 104.0 104.1 "Missing Crimean Tatar Reportedly Found Dead". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. 
  105. 105.0 105.1 "Crimea: Enforced Disappearances". Human Rights Watch. 7 October 2014. 
  106. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}" (in uk). 28 October 2017. 
  107. "Jailed Crimean Tatar Human Rights Activist on Hunger Strike in Russian World Cup city". 4 July 2018. 
  108. "Crimean Tatar: Never Silent in the Face of Injustice". February 2018. 
  109. "Russian Federation/Ukraine: Further Information: Rights Defender Facing Trumped-Up Charges: Server Mustafayev". 29 November 2019. 
  110. "Arrest of Server Mustafayev". 
  111. "Crimean residents may not be able to visit Western countries using Russian passports". 
  112. "TASS: Russia – Crimean citizens get Schengen visas in Moscow despite EU ban". TASS. 
  113. "Греция выдаст крымчанам шенгенские визы". Горящие туры в Египет, туры в Турцию, Грецию. Скидки. Поиск туров – Турскидки.ру. 
  114. "Ukraine Recalls Ambassador to Armenia over Crimea Recognition". Asbarez Armenian News. 21 March 2014. 
  115. "Karabakh Foreign Ministry Issues Statement on Crimea". Asbarez Armenian News. 17 March 2014. 
  116. "Nicaragua unconditionally recognises incorporation of Crimea into Russia". The Voice of Russia. 27 March 2014. 
  117. "United Nations News Centre". UN News Service Section. 27 March 2014. 
  118. "U.N. General Assembly declares Crimea secession vote invalid". Reuters. 27 March 2014. 
  119. Charbonneau, Louis (28 March 2014). "Russia Threatened Countries Ahead of UN Vote on Ukraine, Diplomats Say". 
  120. "A/RES/71/205 – E – A/RES/71/205". 
  121. "General Assembly Adopts 50 Third Committee Resolutions, as Diverging Views on Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity Animate Voting – Meetings Coverage and Press Releases". United Nations. 
  122. "UN officially recognized Russia as an occupying power in Crimea". Euromaidan Press. 20 December 2016. 

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