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Republic of the Philippines

Republika ng Pilipinas  (fil)
Flag of The Philippines
Coat of arms of The Philippines
Coat of arms
"Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa"[1]
"For God, People, Nature and Country"
Anthem: Lupang Hinirang
(English: "Chosen Land")
Great Seal
Great Seal of the Philippines
Dakilang Sagisag ng Pilipinas  (Tagalog)
Great Seal of the Philippines
Capital Manila[a] (de jure)
14°35′N 120°58′E / 14.583°N 120.967°E / 14.583; 120.967
Metro Manila[a] (de facto)
Largest city Quezon City
14°38′N 121°02′E / 14.633°N 121.033°E / 14.633; 121.033
Official languages
  • Filipino
  • English
Recognized regional languages
Protected auxiliary languages
  • Spanish
  • Arabic[3]
Other recognized languages Filipino Sign Language
Ethnic groups
  • 33.7% Visayan
  • 24.4% Tagalog
  • 8.4% Ilocano
  • 6.8% Bicolano
  • 26.2% Others
  • 92.0% Christianity
  • —80.6% Roman Catholic
  • —8.2% Protestant
  • —3.2% Other Christian
  • 5.6% Islam
  • 2.4% None / Others[4]

(masculine or neutral)
(colloquial masculine or neutral)
(colloquial feminine)

(used for certain common nouns)
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Rodrigo Duterte (PDP–Laban)
Leni Robredo (LP)
• Senate President
Tito Sotto (NPC)
• House Speaker
Lord Allan Velasco (PDP–Laban)
• Chief Justice
Alexander Gesmundo
Legislature Congress
• Upper house
• Lower house
House of Representatives
from the United States
• Independence from Spain declared
June 12, 1898
December 10, 1898
July 4, 1946
• Total
Template:Convinfobox/prisec2 (72nd)
• Water (%)
0.61[5] (inland waters)
• Land
• 2020 estimate
IncreaseTemplate:UN PopulationTemplate:UN Population (12th)
• 2015 census
Increase 100,981,437[6][7]
• Density
Template:Convinfobox/prisec2 (47th)
GDP (PPP) 2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $1 trillion[8] (29th)
• Per capita
Increase $9,061[8] (115th)
GDP (nominal) 2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $402.638 billion[8] (32nd)
• Per capita
Increase $3,646[8] (118th)
Gini (2015)  44.4[9]
medium · 44th
HDI (2019) Increase 0.718[10]
high · 107th
Time zone UTC+8 (PST)
Date format mm/dd/yyyy
Mains electricity 220 V–60 Hz
Driving side right[b]
Calling code +63
Internet TLD .ph
  1. ^ While Manila is designated as the nation's capital, the seat of government is the National Capital Region, commonly known as "Metro Manila", of which the city of Manila is a part.[11][12] Many national government institutions aside from Malacañang Palace and some agencies/institutions are located within the NCR.
  2. ^ Since March 10, 1945[13][14]

The Philippines (Listeni/ˈfɪlɪpnz/; Filipino language: Pilipinas [ˌpɪlɪˈpinɐs] or Filipinas [fɪlɪˈpinɐs]), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino language: Republika ng Pilipinas),[lower-alpha 1] is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It is situated in the western Pacific Ocean, and consists of about 7,640 islands,[15] that are broadly categorized under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The Philippines is bounded by the South China Sea to the west, the Philippine Sea to the east, and the Celebes Sea to the southwest, and shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Palau to the east and southeast, Indonesia to the south, Malaysia and Brunei to the southwest, Vietnam to the west, and China to the northwest. Manila is the nation's capital, while the largest city is Quezon City, both lying within the urban area of Metro Manila.

The Philippines' position as an island country on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the country prone to earthquakes and typhoons. The country has a variety of natural resources and a globally significant level of biodiversity. This low-lying island geography makes the country vulnerable to climate change, increasing risk from typhoons and sea level rise. The Philippines covers an area of 300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi), with a population of around 109 million people, making it the world's twelfth-most populous country. Negritos, some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for Spain, marked the beginning of Spanish colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. Spanish settlement, beginning in 1565, led to the Philippines becoming part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. During this time, Catholicism became the dominant religion, and Manila became the western hub of trans-Pacific trade. In 1896, the Philippine Revolution began, which then became entwined with the 1898 Spanish–American War. Spain ceded the territory to the United States, while Filipino rebels declared the First Philippine Republic. The ensuing Philippine–American War ended with the United States establishing control over the territory, which they maintained until the Japanese invasion of the islands during World War II. Following liberation, the Philippines became independent in 1946. Since then, the unitary sovereign state has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by the People Power Revolution.

The Philippines is a multinational state, with diverse ethnicities and cultures throughout its islands. It is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to being based more on services and manufacturing. The Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, and the East Asia Summit.


Philip II of Spain

Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar "Felipinas" after Philip II of Spain, then the Prince of Asturias. Eventually the name "Las Islas Filipinas" would be used to cover the archipelago's Spanish possessions.[16] Before Spanish rule was established, other names such as Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West) and Magellan's name for the islands, San Lázaro, were also used by the Spanish to refer to islands in the region.[17][18][19][20]

During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the period of the Spanish–American War (1898) and the Philippine–American War (1899–1902) until the Commonwealth period (1935–1946), American colonial authorities referred to the country as The Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name.[21] The United States began the process of changing the reference to the country from The Philippine Islands to The Philippines, specifically when it was mentioned in the Philippine Autonomy Act or the Jones Law.[22] The full official title, Republic of the Philippines, was included in the 1935 constitution as the name of the future independent state,[23] it is also mentioned in all succeeding constitutional revisions.[24][25]


Prehistory (pre–900)

There is evidence of early hominins living in what is now the Philippines as early as 709,000 years ago.[26] A small number of bones from Callao Cave potentially represent an otherwise unknown species, Homo luzonensis, that lived around 50,000 to 67,000 years ago.[27][28] The oldest modern human remains found on the islands are from the Tabon Caves of Palawan, U/Th-dated to 47,000 ± 11–10,000 years ago.[29] The Tabon Man is presumably a Negrito, who were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, descendants of the first human migrations out of Africa via the coastal route along southern Asia to the now sunken landmasses of Sundaland and Sahul.[30]

The first Austronesians reached the Philippines at around 2200 BC, settling the Batanes Islands and northern Luzon from Taiwan. From there, they rapidly spread downwards to the rest of the islands of the Philippines and Southeast Asia.[31][32] This population assimilated with the existing Negritos resulting in the modern Filipino ethnic groups which display various ratios of genetic admixture between Austronesian and Negrito groups.[33] Jade artifacts have been found dated to 2000 BC,[34][35] with the lingling-o jade items crafted in Luzon made using raw materials originating from Taiwan.[36] By 1000 BC, the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gatherer tribes, warrior societies, highland plutocracies, and port principalities.[37]

Early states (900–1565)

The Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the oldest known writing found in the Philippines

The earliest known surviving written record found in the Philippines is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription.[38] By the 1300s, a number of the large coastal settlements had emerged as trading centers, and became the focal point of societal changes.[39] Some polities had exchanges with other states across Asia.[40][41][42][43][44] Trade with China is believed to have begun during the Tang dynasty, but grew more extensive during the Song dynasty.[45] By the 2nd millennium CE, some Philippine polities were known to have sent trade delegations which participated in the tributary system of China.[46][40] Indian cultural traits, such as linguistic terms and religious practices, began to spread within the Philippines during the 10th century, likely via the Hindu Majapahit empire.[39][43][47] By the 15th century, Islam was established in the Sulu Archipelago and spread from there.[48]

Polities founded in the Philippines from the 10th–16th centuries include Maynila,[49] Tondo, Namayan, Pangasinan, Cebu, Butuan, Maguindanao, Lanao, Sulu, and Ma-i.[50] The early polities were typically made up of three-tier social structure: a nobility class, a class of "freemen", and a class of dependent debtor-bondsmen.[39][40] Among the nobility were leaders called "Datus," responsible for ruling autonomous groups called "barangay" or "dulohan".[39] When these barangays banded together, either to form a larger settlement[39] or a geographically looser alliance group,[40] the more esteemed among them would be recognized as a "paramount datu",[37][39] rajah, or sultan[51] which headed the community state.[52] There is little evidence of large-scale violence in the archipelago prior to the 2nd millennium AD.[53][better source needed] However, warfare developed and escalated during the 14th to 16th centuries[54] and throughout these periods population density is thought to have been low.[55] In 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the area, claimed the islands for Spain, and was then killed by natives at the Battle of Mactan.[56]

Colonial rule (1565–1946)

Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565.[57][58]:20–23 In 1571, Spanish Manila became the capital of the Spanish East Indies,[59] which encompassed Spanish territories in Asia and the Pacific.[60][61] The Spanish successfully invaded the different local states by employing the principle of divide and conquer,[62] bringing most of what is now the Philippines into a single unified administration.[63][64] Disparate barangays were deliberately consolidated into towns, where Catholic missionaries were more easily able to convert the inhabitants to Christianity.[65]:53, 68[66] From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed as part of the Mexico-based Viceroyalty of New Spain, later administered from Madrid following the Mexican War of Independence.[67] Manila was the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade.[68] Manila galleons were constructed in Bicol and Cavite.[69][70]

Spanish artillery along the walls of Intramuros to protect the city from local revolts and foreign invaders.

During its rule, Spain quelled various indigenous revolts,[71] as well as defending against external military challenges.[72][73] Spanish forces included soldiers from elsewhere in New Spain, many of whom deserted and intermingled with the wider population.[74][75][76] Immigration blurred the racial caste system[65]:98[77][78] Spain maintained in towns and cities.[79] War against the Dutch from the West, in the 17th century, together with conflict with the Muslims in the South nearly bankrupted the colonial treasury.[80]

Administration of the Philippine islands were considered a drain on the economy of Spain,[72] and there were debates about abandoning it or trading it for some other territory. However, this was opposed for a number of reasons, including economic potential, security, and the desire to continue religious conversion in the islands and the surrounding region.[81][82] The Philippines survived on an annual subsidy provided by the Spanish Crown,[72] which averaged 250,000 pesos[83] and was usually paid through the provision of 75 tons of silver bullion being sent from the Americas.[84]

British forces occupied Manila from 1762 to 1764 during the Seven Years' War, with Spanish rule restored through the 1763 Treaty of Paris.[58]:81–83 The Spanish considered their war with the Muslims in Southeast Asia an extension of the Reconquista.[85] The Spanish–Moro conflict lasted for several hundred years. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Spain conquered portions of Mindanao and Jolo,[86] and the Moro Muslims in the Sultanate of Sulu formally recognized Spanish sovereignty.[87][88]

Filipino Ilustrados in Spain formed the Propaganda Movement. Photographed in 1890.

In the 19th century, Philippine ports opened to world trade and shifts started occurring within Filipino society.[89][90] The Latin American wars of independence and renewed immigration led to shifts in social identity, with the term Filipino shifting from referring to Spaniards born in the Iberian Peninsula and in the Philippines to a term encompassing all people in the archipelago. This identity shift was driven by wealthy families of mixed ancestry, for which it developed into a national identity.[91][92]

Revolutionary sentiments were stoked in 1872 after three activist Catholic priests were executed on weak pretences.[93][94][95] This would inspire a propaganda movement in Spain, organized by Marcelo H. del Pilar, José Rizal, and Mariano Ponce, lobbying for political reforms in the Philippines. Rizal was eventually executed on December 30, 1896, on charges of rebellion. This radicalized many who had previously been loyal to Spain.[96] As attempts at reform met with resistance, Andrés Bonifacio in 1892 established the militant secret society called the Katipunan, who sought independence from Spain through armed revolt.[97]

The Katipunan started the Philippine Revolution in 1896.[98] Internal disputes led to an election in which Bonifacio lost his position and Emilio Aguinaldo was elected as the new leader of the revolution.[99]:145–147 In 1897, the Pact of Biak-na-Bato brought about the exile of the revolutionary leadership to Hong Kong. In 1898, the Spanish–American War began and reached Philippines. Aguinaldo returned, resumed the revolution, and declared independence from Spain on June 12, 1898.[65]:112–113 The First Philippine Republic was established on January 21, 1899.[100]

General Douglas MacArthur landing ashore during the Battle of Leyte on October 20, 1944.

The islands had been ceded by Spain to the United States alongside Puerto Rico and Guam as a result of the latter's victory in the Spanish–American War.[101][102] As it became increasingly clear the United States would not recognize the First Philippine Republic, the Philippine–American War broke out.[103] War resulted in the deaths of 250,000 to 1 million civilians, mostly due to famine and disease.[104] After the defeat of the First Philippine Republic, an American civilian government was established.[105] American forces continued to secure and extend their control over the islands, suppressing an attempted extension of the Philippine Republic,[99]:200–202[106] securing the Sultanate of Sulu,[107] and establishing control over interior mountainous areas that had resisted Spanish conquest.[108]

Cultural developments strengthened the continuing development of a national identity,[109][110] and Tagalog began to take precedence over other local languages.[65]:121 In 1935, the Philippines was granted Commonwealth status with Manuel Quezon as president and Sergio Osmeña as vice president.[111] Quezon's priorities were defence, social justice, inequality and economic diversification, and national character.[112] Tagalog was designated the national language,[113] women's suffrage was introduced,[114] and land reform mooted.[115][116]

During World War II the Japanese Empire invaded[117] and the Second Philippine Republic, under Jose P. Laurel, was established as a puppet state.[118][119] From 1942 the Japanese occupation of the Philippines was opposed by large-scale underground guerrilla activity.[120][121][122] Atrocities and war crimes were committed during the war, including the Bataan Death March and the Manila massacre.[123][124] Allied troops defeated the Japanese in 1945. By the end of the war it is estimated that over a million Filipinos had died.[125][126] On October 11, 1945, the Philippines became one of the founding members of the United Nations.[127][128] On July 4, 1946, the Philippines was officially recognized by the United States as an independent nation through the Treaty of Manila, during the presidency of Manuel Roxas.[128][129][130]

Postcolonial period (1946–present)

Efforts to end the Hukbalahap Rebellion began during Elpidio Quirino's term,[131] however, it was only during Ramon Magsaysay's presidency was the movement suppressed.[132] Magsaysay's successor, Carlos P. Garcia, initiated the Filipino First Policy,[133] which was continued by Diosdado Macapagal, with celebration of Independence Day moved from July 4 to June 12, the date of Emilio Aguinaldo's declaration,[134][135] and pursuit of a claim on the eastern part of North Borneo.[136][137]

In 1965, Macapagal lost the presidential election to Ferdinand Marcos. Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated numerous infrastructure projects[138] but, together with his wife Imelda, was accused of corruption and embezzling billions of dollars in public funds.[139] Nearing the end of his term, Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972.[140][141] This period of his rule was characterized by political repression, censorship, and human rights violations.[142]

On August 21, 1983, Marcos' chief rival, opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr., was assassinated on the tarmac at Manila International Airport. Marcos called a snap presidential election in 1986.[143] Marcos was proclaimed the winner, but the results were widely regarded as fraudulent.[144] The resulting protests led to the People Power Revolution,[145] which forced Marcos and his allies to flee to Hawaii, and Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino, was installed as president.[143][146]

The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was the second largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century.

The return of democracy and government reforms beginning in 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts,[147][148] a persistent communist insurgency,[149][150] and a military conflict with Moro separatists.[151] The administration also faced a series of disasters, including the sinking of the MV Doña Paz in December 1987[152] and the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991.[153][154] Aquino was succeeded by Fidel V. Ramos, whose economic performance, at 3.6% growth rate,[155][156] was overshadowed by the onset of the 1997 Asian financial crisis.[157][158]

Ramos' successor, Joseph Estrada, was overthrown by the 2001 EDSA Revolution and succeeded by his Vice President, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, on January 20, 2001.[159] Arroyo's 9-year administration was marked by economic growth,[160] but was tainted by graft and political scandals.[161][162] On November 23, 2009, 34 journalists and several civilians were killed in Maguindanao.[163][164]

Economic growth continued during Benigno Aquino III's administration, which pushed for good governance and transparency.[165][166] In 2015, a clash which took place in Mamasapano, Maguindanao killed 44 members of the Philippine National Police-Special Action Force, resulting in efforts to pass the Bangsamoro Basic Law reaching an impasse.[167][168] Former Davao City mayor Rodrigo Duterte won the 2016 presidential election, becoming the first president from Mindanao.[169][170] Duterte launched an anti-drug campaign[171][172] and an infrastructure plan.[173][174] The implementation of the Bangsamoro Organic Law led to the creation of the autonomous Bangsamoro region in Mindanao.[175][176] In early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic reached the country[177][178] causing the economy to contract by 9.5% in terms of gross domestic product since records began in 1947.[179]

Geography and environment

Topography of the Philippines

The Philippines is an archipelago composed of about 7,640 islands,[15][180] covering a total area, including inland bodies of water, of around 300,000 square kilometers (115,831 sq mi),[181][182] with cadastral survey data suggesting it may be larger.[183] Its 36,289 kilometers (22,549 mi) coastline gives it the world's fifth-longest coastline.[184] The EEZ of the Philippines covers 2,263,816 km2 (874,064 sq mi).[185] It is located between 116° 40', and 126° 34' E longitude and 4° 40' and 21° 10' N latitude and is bordered by the Philippine Sea to the east,[186][187] the South China Sea to the west,[188] and the Celebes Sea to the south.[189] The island of Borneo is located a few hundred kilometers southwest,[190] and Taiwan is located directly to the north. Sulawesi is located to the southwest and Palau is located to the east of the islands.[191][192]

The highest mountain is Mount Apo. It measures up to 2,954 meters (9,692 ft) above sea level and is located on the island of Mindanao.[193] The 10,540-metre (34,580 ft) Galathea Depth of the Philippine Trench in the Philippine Sea is the deepest point in the country and the third deepest in the world.[194][195][not in citation given] The longest river is the Cagayan River in northern Luzon, measuring about 520 kilometers (320 mi).[196] Manila Bay,[197] upon the shore of which the capital city of Manila lies, is connected to Laguna de Bay,[198] the largest lake in the Philippines, by the Pasig River.[199] The Puerto Princesa Subterranean River, which runs 8.2 kilometers (5.1 mi) underground through a karst landscape before reaching the ocean, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[200]

Mayon is an active stratovolcano, located in the south of the island of Luzon

Situated on the western fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Philippines experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activity.[201] The Benham Plateau to the east in the Philippine Sea is an undersea region active in tectonic subduction.[202] Around 20 earthquakes are registered daily, though most are too weak to be felt. The last major earthquake was the 1990 Luzon earthquake.[203] There are many active volcanoes such as the Mayon Volcano, Mount Pinatubo, and Taal Volcano.[204] The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 produced the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century.[205] The Philippines is the world's second-biggest geothermal energy producer behind the United States, with 18% of the country's electricity needs being met by geothermal power.[206]

The country has valuable,[207] mineral deposits as a result of the its complex geologic structure and high level of seismic activity.[208][209] The Philippine are thought to have the second-largest gold deposits after South Africa, along with a large amount of copper deposits,[210] and the world's largest deposits of palladium.[211] Other minerals include chromite, nickel, and zinc. Despite this, a lack of law enforcement, poor management, opposition due to the presence of indigenous communities, and past instances of environmental damage and disaster, have resulted in these mineral resources remaining largely untapped.[210][212]


The Commission on Population estimated the country's population to be 107,190,081 as of December 31, 2018, based on the latest population census of 2015 conducted by the Philippine Statistics Authority.[213] The population increased from 1990 to 2008 by approximately 28 million, a 45% growth in that time frame.[214] The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1877 and recorded a population of 5,567,685.[215]

A third of the population resides in Metro Manila and its immediately neighboring regions.[216] The 2.34% average annual population growth rate between 1990 and 2000 decreased to an estimated 1.90% for the 2000–2010 period.[217] Government attempts to reduce population growth have been a contentious issue.[218] The population's median age is 22.7 years with 60.9% aged from 15 to 64 years old.[5] Life expectancy at birth is 69.4 years, 73.1 years for females and 65.9 years for males.[219] Poverty incidence dropped to 21.6% in 2015 from 25.2% in 2012.[220]

Metro Manila is the most populous of the 3 defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines[221] and the 5th most populous in the world.[222] Census data from 2015 showed it had a population of 12,877,253 constituting almost 13% of the national population.[223] Including suburbs in the adjacent provinces (Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, and Rizal) of Greater Manila, the population is around 23,088,000.[222] Across the country, the Philippines has a total urbanization rate of 51.2 percent.[223] Metro Manila's gross regional product was estimated as of 2009 to be 468.4 billion (at constant 1985 prices) and accounts for 33% of the nation's GDP.[224] In 2011 Manila ranked as the 28th wealthiest urban agglomeration in the world and the 2nd in Southeast Asia.[225] Template:Largest cities of the Philippines

Ethnic groups

Dominant ethnic groups by province

There is substantial ethnic diversity with the Philippines, a product of the seas and mountain ranges dividing the archipelago along with significant foreign influences.[226] According to the 2010 census, 24.4% of Filipinos are Tagalog, 11.4% Visayans/Bisaya (excluding Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Waray), 9.9% Cebuano, 8.8% Ilocano, 8.4% Hiligaynon, 6.8% Bikol, 4% Waray, and 26.2% are "others",[5][227] which can be broken down further to yield more distinct non-tribal groups like the Moro, the Kapampangan, the Pangasinense, the Ibanag, and the Ivatan.[228] There are also indigenous peoples like the Igorot, the Lumad, the Mangyan, the Bajau, and the tribes of Palawan.[229]

Negritos are considered among the earliest inhabitants of the islands.[230] These minority aboriginal settlers are an Australoid group and are a left-over from the first human migration out of Africa to Australia, and were likely displaced by later waves of migration.[231] At least some Negritos in the Philippines have Denisovan admixture in their genomes.[232][233] Ethnic Filipinos generally belong to several Southeast Asian ethnic groups classified linguistically as part of the Austronesian or Malayo-Polynesian speaking people.[229] There is some uncertainty over the origin of this Austronesian speaking population, with it being likely that ancestors related to Taiwanese aborigines brought their language and mixed with existing populations in the area.[234][235] European DNA is present in many Filipinos today.[236] A craniometric study reveals that samples taken from graveyards across the Philippines show a mean ratio of European descent of circa 6%.[237] Under Spanish rule there was also immigration from elsewhere in the empire, especially from Latin America.[238]

Chinese Filipinos are mostly the descendants of immigrants from Fujian in China after 1898,[239] numbering around 2 million, although there are an estimated 20 percent of Filipinos who have partial Chinese ancestry, stemming from precolonial and colonial Chinese migrants.[240] While a distinct minority, Chinese Filipinos are well-integrated into Filipino society.[226][241] As of 2015, there were 220,000 to 600,000 American citizens living in the country.[242] There are also up to 250,000 Amerasians scattered across the cities of Angeles, Manila, Clark and Olongapo.[243] Other important non-indigenous minorities include Indians[244] and Arabs.[245] There are also Japanese people, which include escaped Christians (Kirishitan) who fled the persecutions of Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu which the Spanish empire in the Philippines had offered asylum from.[246] The descendants of mixed-race couples are known as Tisoy.[247]


Population by mother tongue (2010)
Language Speakers
Tagalog Template:Bartable 22,512,089
Cebuano Template:Bartable 19,665,453
Ilokano Template:Bartable 8,074,536
Hiligaynon Template:Bartable 7,773,655
Waray Template:Bartable 3,660,645
Other local languages/dialects Template:Bartable 24,027,005
Other foreign languages/dialects Template:Bartable 78,862
Not reported/not stated Template:Bartable 6,450
TOTAL 92,097,978
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[248]

Ethnologue lists 186 individual languages in the Philippines, 182 of which are living languages, while 4 no longer have any known speakers. Most native languages are part of the Philippine branch of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, which is itself a branch of the Austronesian language family.[229][249] In addition, various Spanish-based creole varieties collectively called Chavacano exist.[250] There are also many Philippine Negrito languages that have unique vocabularies that survived Austronesian acculturation.[251]

Filipino and English are the official languages of the country.[252] Filipino is a standardized version of Tagalog, spoken mainly in Metro Manila.[253] Both Filipino and English are used in government, education, print, broadcast media, and business, with third local languages often being used at the same time.[254] The Philippine constitution provides for the promotion of Spanish and Arabic on a voluntary and optional basis.[252] Spanish, which was widely used as a lingua franca in the late nineteenth century, has since declined greatly in use,[255] although Spanish loanwords are still present today in Philippine languages,[256][257] while Arabic is mainly taught in Islamic schools in Mindanao.[258]

Nineteen regional languages act as auxiliary official languages used as media of instruction: Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Pangasinan, Sambal, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, Waray, and Yakan.[2] Other indigenous languages such as, Cuyonon, Ifugao, Itbayat, Kalinga, Kamayo, Kankanaey, Masbateño, Romblomanon, Manobo, and several Visayan languages are prevalent in their respective provinces.[259] Article 3 of Republic Act No. 11106 declared the Filipino Sign Language as the national sign language of the Philippines, specifying that it shall be recognized, supported and promoted as the medium of official communication in all transactions involving the deaf, and as the language of instruction of deaf education.[260][261]


The historical Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte. Declared as a National Cultural Treasure by the Philippine government in 1973 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the collective group of Baroque Churches of the Philippines in 1993.

The Philippines is a secular state which protects freedom of religion. Christianity is the dominant faith,[262][263] shared by over 92% of the population.[264] As of 2013, the country had the world's third largest Roman Catholic population, and was the largest Christian nation in Asia.[265] Census data from 2015 found that about 79.53% of the population professed Catholicism.[266] Around 37% of the population regularly attend Mass. 29% of self-identified Catholics consider themselves very religious.[267] An independent Catholic church, the Philippine Independent Church, has around 66,959 adherents.[266] Protestants were 10.8% of the population in 2010.[268] 2.64% of the population are members of Iglesia ni Cristo.[266] The combined following of the Philippine Council of Evangelical Churches comes to 2.42% of the total population.[266][269]

Islam is the second largest religion. The Muslim population of the Philippines was reported as 6.01% of the total population according to census returns in 2015.[266] Conversely, a 2012 report by the National Commission of Muslim Filipinos (NCMF) stated that about 10,700,000 or 11% of Filipinos are Muslims.[262] The majority of Muslims live in Mindanao and nearby islands.[263][270] Most practice Sunni Islam under the Shafi'i school.[271][272]

The percentage of combined positive atheist and agnostic people in the Philippines was measured to be about 3% of the population as of 2008.[273] The 2015 Philippine Census reported the religion of about 0.02% of the population as "none".[266] A 2014 survey by Gallup International Association reported that 21% of its respondents identify as "not a religious person".[274] Around 0.24% of the population practice indigenous Philippine folk religions,[266] whose practices and folk beliefs are often syncretized with Christianity and Islam.[275][276] Buddhism is practiced by around 0.03% of the population,[266] concentrated among Filipinos of Chinese descent.[277]


Founded in 1611, the University of Santo Tomas is the oldest extant university in Asia.

The Philippines had a simple literacy rate of 98.3% as of 2015, and a functional literacy rate of 90.3% as of 2013.[278] Education takes up a significant proportion of the national budget. In the 2020 budget, education was allocated PHP17.1 billion from the PHP4.1 trillion budget.[279]

The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) lists 2,180 higher education institutions, among which 607 are public and 1,573 are private.[280] Classes start in June and end in March. The majority of colleges and universities follow a semester calendar from June to October and November to March, while some have adopted an increasingly common semester calendar from August to December and January to May.[281][not in citation given] Primary and secondary schooling is divided between a 6-year elementary period, a 4-year junior high school period, and a 2-year senior high school period.[282][283][284]

The Department of Education (DepEd) covers elementary, secondary, and non-formal education.[285] The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) administers middle-level education training and development.[286][287] The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) was created in 1994 to, among other functions, formulate and recommend development plans, policies, priorities, and programs on higher education and research.[288]

In 2004, madaris were mainstreamed in 16 regions nationwide, mainly in Muslim areas in Mindanao under the auspices and program of the Department of Education.[289] Public universities are all non-sectarian entities, and are further classified as State Universities and Colleges (SUC) or Local Colleges and Universities (LCU).[280] The University of the Philippines, a system of eight constituent universities, is the national university system of the Philippines.[290] The country's top ranked universities are as follows: University of the Philippines, Ateneo de Manila University, De La Salle University, and University of Santo Tomas.[291][292][293] The University of Santo Tomas, established in 1611, has the oldest extant university charter in the Philippines and Asia.[294][295]

Government and politics

File:Malacañang Palace (local img).jpg

Malacañang Palace is the official residence of the President of the Philippines.

The Philippines has a democratic government in the form of a constitutional republic with a presidential system.[296] The President functions as both head of state and head of government[226] and is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces.[296] The president is elected by popular vote for a single six-year term,[297] during which he or she appoints and presides over the cabinet.[298]:213–214 Rodrigo Duterte was elected to a six-year term as president in 2016[dated info].[169] The bicameral Congress is composed of the Senate, serving as the upper house, with members elected to a six-year term, and the House of Representatives, serving as the lower house, with members elected to a three-year term.[299] Philippine politics tends to be dominated by those with well-known names, such as members of political dynasties or celebrities.[300][301]

Senators are elected at large[299] while the representatives are elected from both legislative districts and through sectoral representation.[298]:162–163 The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court, composed of a Chief Justice as its presiding officer and fourteen associate justices,[302] all of whom are appointed by the President from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council.[296] The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both within the single urban area of Metro Manila.[303]

There have been attempts to change the government to a federal, unicameral, or parliamentary government since the Ramos administration.[304] There is a significant amount of corruption in the Philippines,[305][306][307] which some historians attribute to the system of governance put in place during the Spanish colonial period.[308]

Foreign relations

President Rodrigo Duterte and U.S. President Donald Trump discuss matters during a bilateral meeting in November 2017.

As a founding and active member of the United Nations,[309] the country has been elected to the Security Council.[310] Carlos P. Romulo was a former President of the United Nations General Assembly.[311][312] The country is an active participant in peacekeeping missions, particularly in East Timor.[313][314] Over 10 million Filipinos live and work overseas.[315][316]

The Philippines is a founding and active member of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations).[317] It has hosted several summits and is an active contributor to the direction and policies of the bloc.[318][319] It is also a member of the East Asia Summit (EAS),[320] the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Group of 24, and the Non-Aligned Movement.[321] The country is also seeking to obtain observer status in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.[322][323]

The Philippines has a long relationship with the United States, covering economics, security, and people-to-people relations.[324] A mutual defense treaty between the two countries was signed in 1951, and supplemented later with the 1999 Visiting Forces Agreement and the 2016 Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement.[325] The Philippines supported American policies during the Cold War and participated in the Korean and Vietnam wars.[326][327] In 2003 the Philippines was designated a Major non-NATO ally.[328] Under President Duterte ties with the United States have weakened[329] with military purchases instead coming from China and Russia,[330][331] while Duterte states that the Philippines will no longer participate in any US-led wars.[332] In 2021, it was revealed the United States would defend the Philippines including the South China sea.[333]

The Philippines attaches great importance in its relations with China, and has established significant cooperation with the country.[334][335][336][337][338][339] Japan is the biggest bilateral contributor of official development assistance to the country.[340][341][342] Although historical tensions exist due to the events of World War II, much of the animosity has faded.[343]

Historical and cultural ties continue to affect relations with Spain.[344][345] Relations with Middle Eastern countries are shaped by the high number of Filipinos working in these countries,[346] and by issues relating the Muslim minority in the Philippines.[347] Concerns have been raised regarding issues such as domestic abuse and war affecting[348][349] the around 2.5 million overseas Filipino workers in the region.[350]

The Philippines has claims in the Spratly Islands which overlap with claims by China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam. The largest of its controlled islands in Thitu Island, which contains the Philippine's smallest village.[351][352] The Scarborough Shoal standoff in 2012, where China took control of the shoal from the Philippines, led to an international arbitration case[353] and has made the shoal a prominent symbol in the wider dispute.[354]


BRP Jose Rizal (FF-150) is the lead ship of her class of guided missile frigates of the Philippine Navy

The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) consist of three branches: the Philippine Air Force, the Philippine Army, and the Philippine Navy.[355] The Armed Forces of the Philippines are a volunteer force.[356] Civilian security is handled by the Philippine National Police under the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG).[357][358]

In Bangsamoro, the largest separatist organizations, the Moro National Liberation Front and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front were engaging the government politically as of 2007.[359][needs update] Other more militant groups like the Abu Sayyaf have kidnapped foreigners for ransom, particularly in the Sulu Archipelago.[361][362][363][364] Their presence decreased due to successful security provided by the Philippine government.[365][366] The Communist Party of the Philippines and its military wing, the New People's Army, have been waging guerrilla warfare against the government since the 1970s, reaching its apex in 1986 when Communist guerrillas gained control of a fifth of the country's territory, before significantly dwindling militarily and politically after the return of democracy in 1986.[367][368] As of 2018, $2.843 billion,[369] or 1.1 percent of GDP is spent on military forces.[370]

Administrative divisions

The Philippines is governed as a unitary state, with the exception of the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM),[371] although there has been several steps towards decentralization within the unitary framework.[372][373] A 1991 law devolved some powers to local governments.[374] The country is divided into 17 regions, 81 provinces, 146 cities, 1,488 municipalities, and 42,036 barangays.[375] Regions other than Bangsamoro serve primarily to organize the provinces of the country for administrative convenience.[376] As of 2015, Calabarzon was the most populated region while the National Capital Region (NCR) the most densely populated.[377]

Regions of the Philippines
Designation Name Area[377] Population
(as of 2015)[378]
% of Population Population density[377]
NCR National Capital Region 619.54 km2 (239.21 sq mi) Template:Number and percent 20,785/km2 (53,830/sq mi)
Region I Ilocos Region 12,964.62 km2 (5,005.67 sq mi) Template:Number and percent 388/km2 (1,000/sq mi)
CAR Cordillera Administrative Region 19,818.12 km2 (7,651.82 sq mi) Template:Number and percent 87/km2 (230/sq mi)
Region II Cagayan Valley 29,836.88 km2 (11,520.08 sq mi) Template:Number and percent 116/km2 (300/sq mi)
Region III Central Luzon 22,014.63 km2 (8,499.90 sq mi) Template:Number and percent 512/km2 (1,330/sq mi)
Region IV-A Calabarzon 16,576.26 km2 (6,400.13 sq mi) Template:Number and percent 870/km2 (2,300/sq mi)
Region IV-B Mimaropa 29,606.25 km2 (11,431.04 sq mi) Template:Number and percent 100/km2 (260/sq mi)
Region V Bicol Region 18,114.47 km2 (6,994.04 sq mi) Template:Number and percent 320/km2 (830/sq mi)
Region VI Western Visayas 20,778.29 km2 (8,022.54 sq mi) Template:Number and percent 363/km2 (940/sq mi)
Region VII Central Visayas 15,872.58 km2 (6,128.44 sq mi) Template:Number and percent 466/km2 (1,210/sq mi)
Region VIII Eastern Visayas 23,234.78 km2 (8,971.00 sq mi) Template:Number and percent 191/km2 (490/sq mi)
Region IX Zamboanga Peninsula 16,904.03 km2 (6,526.68 sq mi) Template:Number and percent 215/km2 (560/sq mi)
Region X Northern Mindanao 20,458.51 km2 (7,899.07 sq mi) Template:Number and percent 229/km2 (590/sq mi)
Region XI Davao Region 20,433.38 km2 (7,889.37 sq mi) Template:Number and percent 239/km2 (620/sq mi)
Region XII Soccsksargen 22,610.08 km2 (8,729.80 sq mi) Template:Number and percent 188/km2 (490/sq mi)
Region XIII Caraga 21,120.56 km2 (8,154.69 sq mi) Template:Number and percent 123/km2 (320/sq mi)
BARMM Bangsamoro 36,826.95 km2 (14,218.96 sq mi) Template:Number and percent 111/km2 (290/sq mi)

Template:Provinces of the Philippines image map


Philippine Export Treemap in 2012.

A proportional representation of the Philippines' exports, 2017.

The Philippine economy has produced an estimated gross domestic product (nominal) of $356.8 billion.[379] Primary exports include semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, and fruits. Major trading partners include the United States, Japan, China, Singapore, South Korea, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, Germany, Taiwan, and Thailand.[5] Its unit of currency is the Philippine peso (₱[380] or PHP[381]).[382]

A newly industrialized country,[383] the Philippine economy has been transitioning from one based upon agriculture to an economy with more emphasis upon services and manufacturing.[384] Of the country's 2018 labor force of around 43.46 million, the agricultural sector employed 24.3%,[385] and accounted for 8.1% of 2018 GDP.[386] The industrial sector employed around 19% of the workforce and accounted for 34.1% of GDP, while 57% of the workers involved in the services sector were responsible for 57.8% of GDP.[386][387]

The unemployment rate as of October 2019, stands at 4.5%.[388] Meanwhile, due to lower charges in basic necessities, the inflation rate eased to 1.7% in August 2019.[389] Gross international reserves as of October 2013 are $83.201 billion.[390] The Debt-to-GDP ratio continues to decline to 37.6% as of the second quarter of 2019[391][392] from a record high of 78% in 2004.[393] The country is a net importer[394] but it is also a creditor nation.[395] Manila hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank.[396]

Filipinos planting rice. Agriculture employs 23% of the Filipino workforce as of 2020.[397]

The 1997 Asian Financial Crisis affected the economy, resulting in a lingering decline of the value of the peso and falls in the stock market. The extent it was affected initially was not as severe as that of some of its Asian neighbors. This was largely due to the fiscal conservatism of the government, partly as a result of decades of monitoring and fiscal supervision from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), in comparison to the massive spending of its neighbors on the rapid acceleration of economic growth.[155] There have been signs of progress since. In 2004, the economy experienced 6.4% GDP growth and 7.1% in 2007, its fastest pace of growth in three decades.[398][399] Average annual GDP growth per capita for the period 1966–2007 still stands at 1.45% in comparison to an average of 5.96% for the East Asia and the Pacific region as a whole. The daily income for 45% of the population of the Philippines remains less than $2.[400][401][402]Template:Obsolete source

Remittances from overseas Filipinos contribute significantly to the Philippine economy.[403] Remittances peaked in 2006 at 10.4% of the national GDP, and were 8.6% and 8.5% in 2012 and in 2014 respectively.[403] In 2014 the total worth of foreign exchange remittances was US$28 billion.[404] Regional development is uneven, with Luzon – Metro Manila in particular – gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of the other regions.[405][406] Service industries such as tourism[407] and business process outsourcing have been identified as areas with some of the best opportunities for growth for the country.[408] The Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry is composed of eight sub-sectors, namely, knowledge process outsourcing and back offices, animation, call centers, software development, game development, engineering design, and medical transcription.[409] In 2010, the Philippines was reported as having eclipsed India as the main center of BPO services in the world.[410][411][412]

Science and technology

Headquarters of the International Rice Research Institute in Los Baños, Laguna.

The Department of Science and Technology is the governing agency responsible for the development of coordination of science and technology-related projects in the Philippines.[413] Research organizations in the country include the International Rice Research Institute,[414] which focuses on the development of new rice varieties and rice crop management techniques.[415]

The Philippines bought its first satellite in 1996.[416] In 2016, the Philippines first micro-satellite, Diwata-1 was launched aboard the US Cygnus spacecraft.[417] The Philippines has a high concentration of cellular phone users.[418] Text messaging is a popular form of communication and, in 2007, the nation sent an average of one billion SMS messages per day.[419] The country has a high level of mobile financial services utilization.[420] The Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company, commonly known as PLDT, is a formerly nationalized telecommunications provider.[418] It is also the largest company in the country.[421] The National Telecommunications Commission is the agency responsible for the supervision, adjudication and control over all telecommunications services throughout the country.[422] There are approximately 417 AM and 1079 FM radio stations and 438 television and 1,551 cable television stations.[423] On March 29, 1994, the country was connected to the Internet via a 64 kbit/s connection from a router serviced by PLDT to a Sprint router in California.[424] Estimates for Internet penetration in the Philippines vary widely ranging from a low of 2.5 million to a high of 24 million people.[425][426] Social networking and watching videos are among the most frequent Internet activities.[427] The Philippine population is the world's top internet user.[428]



An LRT Line 2 train at Santolan station.

Transportation in the Philippines is facilitated by road, air, rail and waterways. As of December 2018, there are 210,528 kilometers (130,816 mi) of roads in the Philippines, with only 65,101 kilometers (40,452 mi) of roads paved.[429] The 919-kilometer (571 mi) Strong Republic Nautical Highway (SRNH), an integrated set of highway segments and ferry routes covering 17 cities was established in 2003.[430] The Pan-Philippine Highway connects the islands of Luzon, Samar, Leyte, and Mindanao, forming the backbone of land-based transportation in the country.[431] Roads are the dominant form of transport, carrying 98% of people and 58% of cargo. A network of expressways extends from the capital to other areas of Luzon.[432] The 8.25-kilometre (5.13 mi) Cebu–Cordova Link Expressway in Cebu will be finished by 2021.[433] Traffic is a significant issue facing the country, especially within Manila and on arterial roads connecting to the capital.[434]

Public transport in the country include buses, jeepneys, UV Express, TNVS, Filcab, taxis, and tricycles.[435][436] Jeepneys are a popular and iconic public utility vehicle.[437] Jeepneys and other Public Utility Vehicles which are older than 15 years are being phased out gradually in favor of a more efficient and environmentally friendly Euro 4 compliant vehicles.[438][439]

Despite wider historical use, rail transport in the Philippines is extremely limited, being confined to transporting passengers within Metro Manila and neighboring Laguna, with a separate short track in the Bicol Region.[440] There are plans to revive Freight transport to reduce road congestion.[441][442] As of 2019, the country had a railway footprint of only 79 kilometers, which it had plans to expand up to 244 kilometers.[443][444] Metro Manila is served by three rapid transit lines: LRT Line 1, LRT Line 2 and MRT Line 3.[445][446][447] The PNR South Commuter Line transports passengers between Metro Manila and Laguna.[448] Railway lines that are under-construction include the 4-kilometre (2.5 mi) Line 2 East Extension Project (2020),[449] the 22.8-kilometre (14.2 mi) MRT Line 7 (2020),[450] the 35-kilometre (22 mi) Metro Manila Subway (2025),[451] and the 109-kilometre (68 mi) PNR North-South Commuter Railway which is divided into several phases, with partial operations to begin in 2022.[452] The civil airline industry is regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines.[453] Philippine Airlines is Asia's oldest commercial airline still operating under its original name.[454][455] Cebu Pacific is the countries leading low-cost carrier.[456]

As an archipelago, inter-island travel using watercraft is often necessary.[457] Boats have always been important to societies in the Philippines.[458][459] Most boats are double-outrigger vessels, which can reach up to 30 metres (98 ft) in length, known as banca[460]/bangka,[461] parao, prahu, or balanghay. A variety of boat types are used throughout the islands, such as dugouts (baloto) and house-boats like the lepa-lepa.[459] Terms such as bangka and baroto are also used as general names for a variety of boat types.[461] Modern ships use plywood in place of logs and motor engines in place of sails.[460] These ships are used both for fishing and for inter-island travel.[461] The principal seaports of Manila, Batangas, Subic Bay, Cebu, Iloilo, Davao, Cagayan de Oro, General Santos, and Zamboanga form part of the ASEAN Transport Network.[462][463] The Pasig River Ferry serves the cities of Manila, Makati, Mandaluyong, Pasig and Marikina in Metro Manila.[464][465]


A participant of the Ati-Atihan Festival.

There is significant cultural diversity across the islands, reinforced by the fragmented geography of the country.[466] The cultures within Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago developed in a particularly distinct manner, due to very limited degree of Spanish influence and greater influence from nearby Islamic regions.[467] Despite this, a national identity emerged in the 19th century, the development of which is represented by shared national symbols and other cultural and historical touchstones.[466]

One of the most visible Hispanic legacies is the prevalence of Spanish names and surnames among Filipinos; a Spanish name and surname, however, does not necessarily denote Spanish ancestry. This peculiarity, unique among the people of Asia, came as a result of a colonial edict by Governor-General Narciso Clavería y Zaldua, which ordered the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of Hispanic nomenclature on the population.[468] The names of many locations are also Spanish, or stem from Spanish roots and origins.[469]

There is a substantial American influence on modern Filipino culture.[226] The common use of the English language is an example of the American impact on Philippine society. It has contributed to the influence of American pop cultural trends.[470] This affinity is seen in Filipinos' consumption of fast food and American film and music.[471] American global fast-food chain stalwarts have entered the market, but local fast-food chains like Goldilocks[472] and most notably Jollibee, the leading fast-food chain in the country, have emerged and compete successfully against foreign chains.[473]

The Ati-Atihan, Moriones and Sinulog festivals are among the most well-known.[474][475][476]


A statue in Iriga City commemorating the mano po gesture

As a general description, the distinct value system of Filipinos is rooted primarily in personal alliance systems, especially those based in kinship, obligation, friendship, religion (particularly Christianity), and commercial relationships.[477]

Filipino values are, for the most part, centered around maintaining social harmony, motivated primarily by the desire to be accepted within a group. The main sanction against diverging from these values are the concepts of "Hiya", roughly translated as 'a sense of shame',[478] and "Amor propio" or 'self-esteem'.[479] Social approval, acceptance by a group, and belonging to a group are major concerns. Caring about what others will think, say or do, are strong influences on social behavior among Filipinos.[480]

Other elements of the Filipino value system are optimism about the future, pessimism about present situations and events, concern and care for other people, the existence of friendship and friendliness, the habit of being hospitable, religious nature, respectfulness to self and others, respect for the female members of society, the fear of God, and abhorrence of acts of cheating and thievery.[481][482]


  1. In the recognized regional languages of the Philippines:
    • Template:Lang-akl
    • Template:Lang-bik
    • Cebuano language: Republika sa Pilipinas
    • Template:Lang-cbk
    • Hiligaynon: Republika sang Filipinas
    • Template:Lang-ibg
    • Template:Lang-ilo
    • Template:Lang-ivv
    • Template:Lang-pam
    • Template:Lang-krj
    • Template:Lang-mdh
    • Template:Lang-mrw
    • Template:Lang-pag
    • Template:Lang-xsb
    • Template:Lang-sgd
    • Tagalog language: Republika ng Pilipinas
    • Template:Lang-tsg
    • Template:Lang-war
    • Template:Lang-yka

    In the recognized optional languages of the Philippines:

    • Spanish language: República de Filipinas
    • Arabic language: جمهورية الفلبين



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  49. Ring, Trudy; Robert M. Salkin; Sharon La Boda (1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Taylor & Francis. pp. 565–569. ISBN 978-1-884964-04-6. Retrieved January 7, 2010. 
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  51. Carley, Michael (November 4, 2013). "7". Urban Development and Civil Society: The Role of Communities in Sustainable Cities. Routledge. p. 108. ISBN 9781134200504. Retrieved September 11, 2020. "Each boat carried a large family group, and the master of the boat retained power as leader, or datu, of the village established by his family. This form of village social organization can be found as early as the 13th century in Panay, Bohol, Cebu, Samar and Leyte in the Visayas, and in Batangas, Pampanga and Tondo in Luzon. Evidence suggests a considerable degree of independence as small city-states with their heads known as datu, rajah or sultan." 
  52. Tan, Samuel K. (2008) (in en). A History of the Philippines. UP Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-971-542-568-1. Retrieved August 10, 2020. 
  53. Mallari, Perry Gil S. (April 5, 2014). "War and peace in precolonial Philippines". Manila Times. 
  54. Reyeg, Fernardo; Marsh, Ned (December 2011). "2". The Filipino Way of War: Irregular Warfare Through The Centuries (Post Graduate). Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California. p. 21. 
  55. Newson, Linda (2009). "2". Conquest and Pestilence in the Early Spanish Philippines. University of Hawaii Press. p. 18. Digital object identifier:10.21313/hawaii/9780824832728.001.0001. ISBN 9780824832728. Retrieved September 11, 2020. "Given the significance of the size and distribution of the population to the spread of diseases and their ability to become endemic, it is worth commenting briefly on the physical and human geography of the Philippines. The hot and humid tropical climate would have generally favored the propagation of many diseases, especially water-borne infections, though there might be regional or seasonal variations in climate that might affect the incidence of some diseases. In general, however, the fact that the Philippines comprise some seven thousand islands, some of which are uninhabited even today, would have discouraged the spread of infections, as would the low population density." 
  56. Zaide, Gregorio F.; Sonia M. Zaide (2004). Philippine History and Government (6th ed.). All-Nations Publishing Company. pp. 52–55. ISBN 971-642-222-9. 
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  61. Andrade, Tonio (2005). "La Isla Hermosa: The Rise of the Spanish Colony in Northern Taiwan". How Taiwan Became Chinese: Dutch, Spanish and Han colonialization in the Seventeenth Century. Columbia University Press. 
  62. Guillermo, Artemio (2012). Historical Dictionary of the Philippines. The Scarecrow Press Inc.. p. 374. ISBN 9780810875111. Retrieved September 11, 2020. "To pursue their mission of conquest, the Spaniards dealt individually with each settlement or village and with each province or island until the entire Philippine archipelago was brought under imperial control. They saw to it that the people remained divided or compartmentalized and with the minimum of contact or communication. The Spaniards adopted the policy of divide et impera (divide and conquer)." 
  63. Llobet, Ruth de (June 23, 2015). "The Philippines. A mountain of difference: The Lumad in early colonial Mindanao By Oona Paredes Ithaca: Southeast Asia Program Publications, Cornell University, 2013. Pp. 195. Maps, Appendices, Notes, Bibliography, Index.". pp. 332–334. Digital object identifier:10.1017/S0022463415000211. 
  64. Acabado, Stephen (March 1, 2017). "The Archaeology of Pericolonialism: Responses of the "Unconquered" to Spanish Conquest and Colonialism in Ifugao, Philippines". pp. 1–26. Digital object identifier:10.1007/s10761-016-0342-9. 
  65. 65.0 65.1 65.2 65.3 Abinales, P. N.; Amoroso, Donna J. (2005) (in en). State and Society in the Philippines. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 53,68. ISBN 978-0-7425-1024-1. Retrieved January 12, 2021. 
  66. Constantino, Renato; Constantino, Letizia R. (1975) (in en). A History of the Philippines. NYU Press. pp. 58–59. ISBN 978-0-85345-394-9. Retrieved January 12, 2021. 
  67. Gutierrez, Pedro Luengo. "Dissolution of Manila-Mexico Architectural Connections between 1784 and 1810". pp. 62–63. 
  68. Kane, Herb Kawainui (1996). "The Manila Galleons". In Bob Dye. Hawaiʻ Chronicles: Island History from the Pages of Honolulu Magazine. I. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. pp. 25–32. ISBN 978-0-8248-1829-6. 
  69. Bolunia, Mary Jane Louise A.. "Astilleros: the Spanish shipyards of Sorsogon". Archaeology Division, National Museum of the Philippines. p. 1. 
  70. William J. McCarthy (December 1, 1995). "The Yards at Cavite: Shipbuilding in the Early Colonial Philippines". pp. 149–162. Digital object identifier:10.1177/084387149500700208. 
  71. Halili, Maria Christine N. (2004). Philippine History. Rex Bookstore. pp. 111–122. ISBN 978-971-23-3934-9. 
  72. 72.0 72.1 72.2 Ooi, Keat Gin (2004) (in en). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. p. 1077. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2. Retrieved January 29, 2021. "Because local resources did not yield enough money to maintain the colonial administration, the government was constantly running a deficit and had to be supported with an annual subsidy from the Spanish government in Mexico, the situado." 
  73. Iaccarino, Ubaldo (October 2017). ""The Centre of a Circle": Manila's Trade with East and Southeast Asia at the Turn of the Sixteenth Century". OSTASIEN Verlag. ISSN 2190-8796. [not in citation given]
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  75. Garcıa de los Arcos, "Grupos etnicos," ´ 65–66 Garcia de los Arcos, Maria Fernanda (1999). "Grupos éthnicos y Clases sociales en las Filipinas de Finales del Siglo XVIII". 
  76. Mehl, Eva Maria (2016). "Chapter 1 – Intertwined Histories in the Pacific". Forced Migration in the Spanish Pacific World From Mexico to the Philippines, 1765–1811. Cambridge University Press. pp. 246. Digital object identifier:10.1017/CBO9781316480120.007. ISBN 9781316480120. "The military organization of Manila might have depended to some degree on non-European groups, but colonial authorities measured a successful imperial policy of defense on the amount of European and American recruits that could be accounted for in the military forces.~CSIC ser. Consultas riel 301 leg.8 (1794)" 
  77. "Filipino-Mexican-Central-and-South American Connection, Tales of Two Sisters: Manila and Mexico". June 21, 1997. "Tomás de Comyn, general manager of the Compañia Real de Filipinas, in 1810 estimated that out of a total population of 2,515,406, "the European Spaniards, and Spanish creoles and mestizos do not exceed 4,000 persons of both sexes and all ages, and the distinct castes or modifications known in America under the name of mulatto, quarteroons, etc., although found in the Philippine Islands, are generally confounded in the three classes of pure Indians, Chinese mestizos and Chinese." In other words, the Mexicans who had arrived in the previous century had so intermingled with the local population that distinctions of origin had been forgotten by the 19th century. The Mexicans who came with Legázpi and aboard succeeding vessels had blended with the local residents so well that their country of origin had been erased from memory." 
  78. (Page 10) Pérez, Marilola (2015). Cavite Chabacano Philippine Creole Spanish: Description and Typology (PhD). University of California, Berkeley. ""The galleon activities also attracted a great number of Mexican men that arrived from the Mexican Pacific coast as ships’ crewmembers (Grant 2009: 230). Mexicans were administrators, priests and soldiers (guachinangos or hombres de pueblo) (Bernal 1964: 188) many though, integrated into the peasant society, even becoming tulisanes ‘bandits’ who in the late 18th century “infested” Cavite and led peasant revolts (Medina 2002: 66). Meanwhile, in the Spanish garrisons, Spanish was used among administrators and priests. Nonetheless, there is not enough historical information on the social role of these men. In fact some of the few references point to a quick integration into the local society: “los hombres del pueblo, los soldados y marinos, anónimos, olvidados, absorbidos en su totalidad por la población Filipina.” (Bernal 1964: 188). In addition to the Manila-Acapulco galleon, a complex commercial maritime system circulated European and Asian commodities including slaves. During the 17th century, Portuguese vessels traded with the ports of Manila and Cavite, even after the prohibition of 1644 (Seijas 2008: 21). Crucially, the commercial activities included the smuggling and trade of slaves: “from the Moluccas, and Malacca, and India… with the monsoon winds” carrying “clove spice, cinnamon, and pepper and black slaves, and Kafir [slaves]” (Antonio de Morga cf Seijas 2008: 21).” Though there is no data on the numbers of slaves in Cavite, the numbers in Manila suggest a significant fraction of the population had been brought in as slaves by the Portuguese vessels. By 1621, slaves in Manila numbered 1,970 out of a population of 6,110. This influx of slaves continued until late in the 17th century; according to contemporary cargo records in 1690, 200 slaves departed from Malacca to Manila (Seijas 2008: 21). Different ethnicities were favored for different labor; Africans were brought to work on the agricultural production, and skilled slaves from India served as caulkers and carpenters. "" 
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  82. Crossley, John Newsome (July 28, 2013). Hernando de los Ríos Coronel and the Spanish Philippines in the Golden Age. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. pp. 168–169. ISBN 9781409482420. 
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  85. Hawkley, Ethan (2014). "Reviving the Reconquista in Southeast Asia: Moros and the Making of the Philippines, 1565–1662" (in en). University of Hawai'i Press. pp. 288. Digital object identifier:10.1353/jwh.2014.0014. "The early modern revival of the Reconquista in the Philippines had a profound effect on the islands, one that is still being felt today. As described above, the Spanish Reconquista served to unify Christians against a common Moro enemy, helping to bring together Castilian, Catalan, Galician, and Basque peoples into a single political unit: Spain. In precolonial times, the Philippine islands were a divided and unspecified part of the Malay archipelago, one inhabited by dozens of ethnolinguistic groups, residing in countless independent villages, strewn across thousands of islands. By the end of the seventeenth century, however, a dramatic change had happened in the archipelago. A multiethnic community had come together to form the colonial beginnings of a someday nation: the Philippines. The powerful influence of Christian-Moro antagonisms on the formation of the early Philippines remains evident more than four hundred years later, as the Philippine national government continues to grapple with Moro separatists groups, even in 2013." 
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