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Army Reserve Command
Pangasiwaan ng Panlaáng Kawal ng Hukbóng Katihan
Comando de la Reserva del Ejército
Coat of Arms of the Army Reserve Command
Active September 1, 1977 - February 26, 1986
May 12, 1992 - Present
Country Philippines Philippines
Branch Philippine Army
Type File:Arescom.jpg Army Reserve Force
Role Conventional and Unconventional Warfare, Anti-Guerrilla Operations, Combat Support & Service Support, Force Multiplier, Training, Disaster Rescue & Relief, and Community Service
Size 120,000+ in Ready Reserve Status, 50,000+ in Standby Reserve Status
Part of Under the Philippine Army
Garrison/HQ Camp General Mariano Riego de Dios,
Tanza, Cavite
Motto(s) Committed citizen army builder
Anniversaries May 12
Decorations Streamer PPUC.PNG
Philippine Republic Presidential Unit Citation Badge
3 Sampaguita Pin Silver Framed large.png Col. Rolando A. Rodil, GSC, PA
Unit Patch ARESCOM Emblem/ RCDG Unit Patch

The Army Reserve Command (ARESCOM or RESCOM; Tagalog: Pangasiwaan ng Panlaáng Kawal ng Hukbóng Katihan or PPKHK) is a Major Support Commands of the Philippine Army. It was created for the sole purpose of Reserve Force management, procurement, and organisation.


Pre-Colonial Period

The utilization and management of Reserve Forces in the Philippines started when Rajah Lapu-Lapu, chieftain of the Mactan Island, Cebu, rallied his troops and defeated the Spanish invaders lead by Fernando Magallanes in the year 1521. Due to his actions as the local village chief, Rajah Lapu-lapu and his townsfolk became the very first reservists that saw action in defending the Philippines.[1][2]

Philippine Commonwealth

By 1935, the Philippine Commonwealth, under the leadership of President Manuel Luis Quezon enacted the very first legislature of his government. Commonwealth Act Nr. 01 ensured that Philippines will be prepared to thwart off any invasion or aggression of some sort by any nation, or entity and thus called upon its citizens to provide manpower to then fledgling Philippine Army. The National Defense Act of 1935 heralded the creation of what would be the Armed Forces of the Philippines and very first documented account of voluntary citizen enlistment.[3][4]

World War II

Reservists fought hard during the 1940s and saw action on almost all parts of the country in World War II. Regular and reserve members of then Philippine Army/Philippine Army Air Corps (forerunner of the Phil Air Force), the Philippine Constabulary, and the Philippine Offshore Patrol (what would become the Phil Navy later on.) were incorporated with US units and rallied under the banner of the USAFFE.[1]

A ragtag group of former ROTC Cadets, Guerilla Fighters and draftees of the Philippine Army Reserve Force formed units among themselves and fought gallantly against the Japanese invaders. Collectively, they were known as the Hunters ROTC Unit.[5]

Post World War II

Post WWII saw the re-organization of the AFP and the further need to rebuilt the defense of the nation. Reserve units were then organized to Battalion Combat Teams with the sole purpose of force augmentation in the eventuality that another world war ensues.[4]

On September 1, 1977, the Army Reserve Command was activated pursuant to General Orders No. 250 of the Philippine Army. Army officers were tasked to organized, train, and manage a reserve force that will equate or surpass the current strenght of its regular forces.[1]

1986 EDSA Revolution

By 1986, after the infamous EDSA Revolution, the unit was shortly deactivated since the AFP at that time will undergo retraining and re-organization.

The Birth of the Mordern Reserve Force

1991 saw the birth of a new reserve force when Republic Act 7077 (Reservists Act of 1991) was signed into law on July 1, 1991. This new legislation directed the AFP to organize and create units with the sole purpose of reservists management.[4]

On May 12, 1992, the Reserve Command, Philippine Army, was again reactivated pursuant to HPA General Orders No. 392 and was later again renamed as the Army Reserve Command on October 1, 1999 (HPA GO Nr 1300) and was given its marching orders to maintain, administer, develop, train, and organize reservists units to help enhance and sustain National Security and Development.[1]

The Future of the Reserve Force

As the unit enters the dawn of 21st Century, the unit is modernizing itself pursuant to the directives of Headquarters, Philippine Army's transformation roadmap to 2028.[6][7]

Legal Mandate

Commonwealth Act 1

Commonwealth Act No. 1, particularly Section II, cites the responsibility of each and every citizen of for the defense of the nation. Citizens may be mobilized in the event the national government declares an act of war or emergency.[8]

Republic Act 7077

Republic Act No. 7077,[9] also known as the Citizen's Armed Force Act or Reservist Law of 1991, is an act passed in to law by the joint house of representatives which clearly provides the policies and procedures in the creation and administration of reservists and reserve units of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.

Republic Act 9163

Republic Act No. 9163,[10] also known as the National Service Training Program Act or National Service Law of 2002, defines the policies and procedures in administration/training of ROTC Units in relation to the other two (2) components, Civic Welfare Training Service (CWTS) and Literacy Training Service (LTS), of the National Service Training Program (NSTP).

The Role of Women in the Reserve Force

Section 65, Article X, of RA 7077 clearly defines the right and duty of every able bodied female citizen of the Republic of the Philippines to serve in the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Standards for acceptance of female reservists shall likewise be kept standard like their male counterparts with a few adjustments due to physiological differents with the later.[11]

Notable Female Army Reservists

Commissioned Officers

  • AFP Colonel Rank Insignia.jpg COL MARGARITA R COJUANGO MNSA (RES) PA - former Governor; Tarlac, former President; Philippine Public Safety College (PPSC)[12]
  • AFP Lieutenant Colonel Rank Insignia.jpg LTC MARLENE RUTH S SANCHEZ MNSA (RES) PA - Deputy Executive Director; NCCA[13]
  • AFP Lieutenant Colonel Rank Insignia.jpg LTC SARA DUTERTE-CARPIO (RES) PA - former Mayor and Vice-mayor of Davao City[14]
  • AFP Lieutenant Colonel Rank Insignia.jpg LTC MARLENE AGABAS (RES) PA - Pangasinan 3rd District Representative
  • AFP Lieutenant Colonel Rank Insignia.jpg LTC MARY RUBY M PALMA (RES) PA - Department Head; Quezon City Gender and Development Resource and Coordinating Office
  • AFP Lieutenant Colonel Rank Insignia.jpg LTC REMELYN RECOTER (RES) PA - Regional Director, Deparment of Agriculture Regional Office 6[15]

Non-commissioned Officers

  • MSg Jennivev S Tamayo (RES) PA - Actress; (ABS-CBN), former Corps Commander of UE ROTC Unit Class of 2002.[16]
  • MSg Maria Lourdes Carlos-Fernando (Res) PA - former mayor, Marikina City
  • MSg Olivia P Antonio (Res) PA - first female army reservist deployed with the UN Peacekeeping Force
  • MSg Maria Regina Corazon Weigh Donaleigh Sevilla-Sibal (Res) PA - first female Corps Commander of UP ROTC Unit Class of 2000.[17]


Training is the major task handled by ARESCOM. Its primary arms are the university/college-based Department of Military Science and Tactics-administered mandatory basic and the optional advanced Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC);[18] and the territorial unit-administered Basic Citizen's Military Training (BCMT).

Reserve Officer's Training Corps (ROTC)

A soldier of the 1st Scout Ranger Regiment of the Philippine Army instructs an ROTC cadet officer on the finer points of the M16 rifle

Basic ROTC is the only component required by a tertiary (college) level student to have completed as requirement for completion of the National Service Training Program. Military subjects are provided similar to how military instructions are conducted in the service academies and graduates are automatically enlisted in the reserve force of the particular service branch (Army) administering the training. Advance ROTC is purely voluntary in nature and that Advance ROTC Cadets are provided a modest allowance after passing the requirements for their respective Advance ROTC Examination (PAARE). Completion of Advance ROTC is considered a graduate qualification in Military Science, and such graduates who subsequently progress to the Probationary Officer Training Course (POTC)[19] are commissioned as 2nd Lieutenants.[18]

Other than time-in-grade and merit promotions, rank adjustments are authorised depending on civilian qualifications, as well as their reciprocity to the operating environment.[20]

Basic Citizen's Military Training (BCMT)

A Sergeant from the Scout Ranger Regiment gives instructions on military rappelling to SBCMT CL45-11 of the 1302nd Community Defense Center.

Basic Citizen's Military Training (BCMT) is a military training course conducted by the Philippine Army through the Army Reserve Command. It is an entry level training course undertaken by Filipino Citizens wanting to enlist in the reserve force.

BCMT instruction is administered by a joint training pool of military instructors from both regular and reserve forces and is usually conducted inside any of the Philippine Army's training camps. Guest instructors are requested from other government agencies and non-government organizations (NGO) for specialized instructions.

Special Basic Citizen's Military Training (SBCMT) is a special course conducted by the Philippine Army in response to a request from a Local Government Unit (LGU). Funding is usually provided for by the requesting agency as compared to regular BCMT which receives funding from the Army.

Types of Reservists

There are currently two types of reservists in the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) Reserve Force:[11][21]

Categorization of Reservists and Reserve Units

Section 12, Article 5, of Republic Act 7077 breaks down and categorizes reservists and their units based on various criterias cited by this law.[11]

  • First Category Reservists - Able bodied reservists aged eighteen (18) years of age up to thirty five (35) years of age, inclusive.
  • Second Category Reservists - Able bodied reservists aged eighteen (36) years of age up to fifty one (51) years of age, inclusive.
  • Third Category Reservists - All able bodied reservists aged above fifty (51) years of age.

Classification of Reservists and Reserve Units

Section 13, Article 5, of Republic Act 7077 clearly cites the classification of reservists based on their operational readiness for immediate deployment or mobilization.[11]

  • Ready Reserve - physically-fit and tactically-current reservist personnel that are always on constant alert and training; ready to mobilize once a mobilization order has been given.
  • Standby Reserve - reservist personnel who do not maintain currency in specialization qualifications but the base for expansion, support and augmentation to the Ready Reserve Force as needed.
  • Retired Reserve - composed of citizens who are qualified for retirement either by lenght of service or age.

Lineage of Commanding Officers

Commanders of ARESCOM are drawn from both the ranks of Called To Active Duty (CAD) Reserve Officers and Regular Army Officers that graduated from either Officer Candidate School (OCS) and the Philippine Military Academy (PMA).[22]

  • AFP Colonel Rank Insignia.jpg Col Rosendo V Cruz PA (GSC) 01 Sep 77 - 1986
  • AFP Colonel Rank Insignia.jpg Col Ernesto H Luis PA MNSA (GSC) 01 Jul 92 - 01 Jul 95
  • US-O7 insignia.svg BGen Franklin C Acosta AFP 01 Jul 95 - 10 Dec 97
  • US-O7 insignia.svg BGen Antonio J Saldua AFP 10 Dec 97 - 30 Nov 00
  • AFP Colonel Rank Insignia.jpg Col Edmund G Pacada PA (GSC) 30 Nov 00 - 16 Jun 02
  • AFP Colonel Rank Insignia.jpg Col Roberto C Gervacio PA (GSC) 16 Jun 02 - 25 Apr 02
  • US-O7 insignia.svg BGen Marcial A Collao Jr AFP 25 Apr 02 - 09 Dec 02
  • US-O7 insignia.svg BGen Edwin H Vargas AFP 09 Dec 02 - 16 Oct 03
  • US-O7 insignia.svg BGen Dionisio A Torina AFP 16 Oct 03 - 01 Jul 04
  • AFP Colonel Rank Insignia.jpg Col Ibarra P Gutierrez (INF) GSC PA 01 Jul 04 - 24 Aug 05
  • US-O7 insignia.svg BGen Emmanuel S Cayton AFP 24 Aug 05 - 18 Dec 06
  • US-O7 insignia.svg BGen Luini C Mirar AFP 18 Dec 06 - 26 May 08
  • US-O7 insignia.svg BGen Danilo M Garcia AFP 26 May 08 - 7 March 2010
  • US-O7 insignia.svg BGen Joel P Ibañez AFP 7 March 2010 - 10 March 2011
  • US-O7 insignia.svg BGen Alex N Albano AFP[23] 10 March 2011 – Present


ARESCOM's unit are divided into several base units, regionally into 13 Community Defense Groups, having three or more Community Defense Centers incorporated into them, and nine Reserve Infantry Divisions. Army ROTC Management falls under their respective RCDGs.[24]

Base Units

  • Headquarters & Headquarters Service Battalion
  • ARESCOM Training Group
  • Reservist Management Information Systems Office

Line Units[25]

  • National Capital Region Regional Community Defense Group ( Fort Andrés Bornifacio, Taguig, Metro Manila)
  • 1st Regional Community Defense Group (Cp Lt Tito B Abat, Manaoag, Pangasinan)
  • 2nd Regional Community Defense Group (Cp Melchor F Dela Cruz, Upi, Gamu, Isabela)
  • 3rd Regional Community Defense Group (Cp MG Servillano T Aquino, Tarlac, Tarlac)
  • 4th Regional Community Defense Group (Cp Eldridge, Los Baños, Laguna)
  • 5th Regional Community Defense Group (Cp Gen Simeón A Ola, Legazpi, Albay)
  • 6th Regional Community Defense Group (Cp Gen Adriano Hernández, Dingle, Iloilo)
  • 7th Regional Community Defense Group (Cp Rajah Lapu-lapu, Cebu City, Cebu)
  • 8th Regional Community Defense Group (Cp Downes, Ormoc, Leyte)
  • 9th Regional Community Defense Group (Kuta Dao, Pagadian, Zamboanga del Sur)
  • 10th Regional Community Defense Group (Cp LG Edilberto Evangelista, Cagayan De Oro, Misamis Oriental)
  • 11th Regional Community Defense Group (Davao City)
  • 12th Regional Community Defense Group (PC Hill, Cotabato City)
  • CARAGA Regional Community Defense Group (Bancasi, Butuan City)

Ready Reserve Infantry Divisions[25]

  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 2nd Infantry (Ready Reserve) Division, PA (Lupi, Camarines Sur)
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 4th Infantry (Ready Reserve) Division, PA (Cp Camp Natividad, Malaybalay City, Bukidnon)
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 5th Infantry (Ready Reserve) Division, PA (Cp Elpidio Quirino, Bulag, Bantay, Isabela)
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 6th Infantry (Ready Reserve) Division, PA (Cp BG Gonzalo H Siongco, Tacurong, Maguindanao)
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 8th Infantry (Ready Reserve) Division, PA (Cp Vicente Lukban, Catbalogan, Western Samar)
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 10th Infantry (Ready Reserve) Division, PA (Cp Bancasi, Libertad, Butuan City, Agusan Del Norte)
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 12th Infantry (Ready Reserve) Division, PA (Cp Juan Villamor, Bangued, Abra)
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 15th Infantry (Ready Reserve) Division, PA (Metro Manila) (Ft Andrés Bonifacio, Makati, Metro Manila)[26]
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 16th Infantry Division Ready Reserve (Cp Tito Abat, Manaoag, Pangasinan)
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 17th Infantry Division Ready Reserve (Cp Eldridge, Los Baños, Laguna)
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 22th Infantry (Eagle) Division (Ready Reserve) (Quimpo Boulevard Almendras Gym Davao City)

Ready Reserve Light Armor Divisions

  • The Philippine Army Cavalry Branch Class.jpg Light Armor (Ready Reserve) Division, PA (Cp Riego De Dios, Tanza, Cavite)[27]

Standby Reserve Infantry Divisions[25]

  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 11th Infantry (Standby Reserve) Division, PA (Cp Tito Abat, Manaoag, Pangasinan)
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 21st Infantry (Standby Reserve) Division, PA (Cp Melchor Dela Cruz, Upi, Gamu, Isabela)
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 31st Infantry (Standby Reserve) Division, PA (Cp Servillano Aquino, Luisita, Tarlac)
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 41st Infantry (Standby Reserve) Division, PA (Cp Eldridge, Los Baños, Laguna)
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 51st Infantry (Standby Reserve) Division, PA (Cp Simeon Ola, Legazpi City, Albay)
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 61st Infantry (Standby Reserve) Division, PA (Cp Hernandez, Dingle, Ilo-ilo)
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 71st Infantry (Standby Reserve) Division, PA (Cp Lapu-lapu, Lahug, Cebu City)
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 81st Infantry (Standby Reserve) Division, PA (Cp Downes, Ormoc City, Leyte)
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 91st Infantry (Standby Reserve) Division, PA (Cp Dau, Pagadian, Zamboanga del Sur)
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 101st Infantry (Standby Reserve) Division, PA (Cp Evangelista, Cagayan De Oro City)
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 111th Infantry (Standby Reserve) Division, PA (San Gabriel, Davao City)
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 121st Infantry (Standby Reserve) Division, PA (PC Hill, Cotabato City)
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 131st Infantry (Standby Reserve) Division, PA (Ft Andrés Bonifactio, Makati, Metro Manila)
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 141st Infantry (Standby Reserve) Division, PA (CARAGA Region)

Reserve Regiments[25]

  • Philippine Army Artillery BC.jpg Artillery (Ready Reserve) Regiment, PA (Ft Andrés Bonifactio, Makati, Metro Manila)[28]

Deactivated Units

The Following Divisions were subsequently de-activated due to the activation of the two Regular Infantry Division with the laters divisional numerical designation.

  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 9th Infantry (Ready Reserve) Division, PA (Makati City)[29]
  • Philippine Army Infantry BC.jpg 3rd Infantry (Ready Reserve) Division, PA (Cebu City)[30][31]

Awards and Decorations

Campaign Streamers

Award Streamer Streamer Name Operation Date Awarded Reference
Streamer PPUC.PNG Presidential Unit Citation Badge SAR/DRR Ops, TS Ketsana & TS Parma 4 February 2010 General Orders No. 112, GHQ-AFP, dtd 04 Feb '10
Streamer PPUC.PNG Presidential Unit Citation Badge General Elections, Philippines 1 July 2010 General Orders No. 641, GHQ-AFP, dtd 1 July '10


Military Badge Badge Name Operation Date Awarded Reference
AFP Election Duty Badge General Elections, Philippines 21 May 2010 General Orders No. 513, GHQ-AFP, dtd 21 May '10


See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3
  2. Battle of Mactan
  3. National Defense Act of 1935
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Conscription in the Philippines
  5. Hunters ROTC
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3
  12. Tingting Cojuangco#Career
  16. Nene Tamayo
  18. 18.0 18.1 Reserve Officers' Training Corps (Philippines)
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3
  26. 15th Infantry Division (Philippines)
  27. Provisional unit for fill-out as the Philippine Army expands its components.
  28. Currently filled out by personnel from the 201IB(RR),1502IBde, 15ID(RR).
  29. 9th Infantry Division (Philippines)
  30. 3rd Infantry Division (Philippines)
  31. 3ID(RR) was downgraded to 3rd Infantry Battalion (Ready Reserve), PA
  • Official Site ARESCOM
  • The Training Committee, Military Science 21 ROTC Manual, 2001, NCRRCDG, ARESCOM.
  • The Philippine Army Public Affairs Office, The Philippine Army: First 100 Years, 1997, OTAPA.
  • Pobre, Cesar P. (2006). History of the Armed Forces of the Filipino People. New Day Publishers.ISBN 9711010410.

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