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Peruvian Naval Infantry
Infantería de Marina del Perú
File:Peruvian Naval Infantry Coat of Arms.png
Coat of Arms of the Peruvian Naval Infantry
Founded November 6, 1821; ago (1821-11-06)
Countries  Peru
Type Naval infantry
Role Amphibious, combined arms, expeditionary, and aerial warfare
Part of Peruvian Navy
Motto(s) Acción y valor (English: Action and valor)

The 3,000 personnel Peruvian Naval Infantry (Spanish language: Infantería de Marina del Perú

- IMAP) includes an amphibious brigade of three battalions and local security units with two transport ships (one used as a training ship), four tank landing ships, and about forty Portuguese Chaimite armored personnel carriers.

Since 1982 IMAP detachments have been deployed, under Peruvian Army command, in counter-insurgency capacities in Ayacucho and Huancavelica departments. The Fuerza de Infantería de Marina (Naval Infantry Force) falls under the Comandancia General de Operaciones del Pacífico (Pacific Operations General Command).

History

Founding

Following the creation of the Peruvian Navy on 23 October 1821, the Commander General of the Navy, Jorge Martín Guise, requested a garrison of 38 troops to be stationed at Balcarce and Belgrano. The formal request was made on 6 November 1821 to the Minister of War and Navy, creating the Navy Battalion. The Navy Brigade was later formed after another battalion was formed and on 2 June 1823, the brigade attacked the Spanish in Arica, successfully taking the city. During the War of the Confederation, the Navy Brigade fought in the Siege of Talcahuano on 23 November 1837. In 1847, President Ramón Castilla reorganized the Peruvian Navy, creating six companies of the naval infantry.[1]

War of the Pacific

During the War of the Pacific, the Marine Garrison Battalion under the direction of the Commander General of the Navy was created on 10 January 1880 with a force of 600 men. The Marines participated in the Battle of Miraflores on 15 January 1881 with 524 Marines led by Juan Fanning and Guardia Chalaca. Both of the commanders were killed along with nearly all Marines, with the infamous shout of Fanning becoming a motto of the Peruvian Marines, "¡Adelante marina, marina adelante!" or "Forward Marine, Marine forward!".[1]

Modernization

BAP Paita, (USS LST-512 in image), one of Peru's first amphibious warfare ships purchased during its modernization.

The Marines were received an update on 2 February 1919 when the Battalion of the Navy was organized into two companies of riflemen, one section of machine gunners and another section of servicemen, commanded by corvette captain Héctor Mercado. The Peruvian Navy in charge of defending the oil port of Talara then allied itself with the United States, patrolling the continent and the Panama Canal. On 9 June 1943, President Manuel Prado decreed the creation of the Infantería de Marina as part of the Naval Coast Defense Force. Through the 1950s and into the 1960s, multiple amphibious warfare ships and weapons were purchased. The Naval Station of Ancon was created on October 8, 1971 with the Amphibious Command Company headquartered there a year later providing logistical information to better organize amphibious operations.[1]

Counterterrorism

Peruvian Ministry of Defense and military personnel commemorating the operation in 2013.

Following over a decade of an authoritarian government in Peru, elections were held in 1980. Leftist armed groups arose, such as the Shining Path and later the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA). The Marines began counterterrorist operations against such groups stationed in the Ayacucho Region from 1985 to 1991, creating Task Force 90, later expanding to Ucayali, Huánuco and Loreto. In 1995, Marines also participated in the brief the Cenepa War, a brief territorial conflict with Ecuador.[1]

On 17 December 1996, hundreds of diplomats, businessmen, as well as government and military officers were taken hostage by the MRTA at the Japanese ambassadors residence, initiating the Japanese embassy hostage crisis. Over the year, some hostages were released, though 72 hostages remained. Peruvian Marines were then involved in a hostage rescue operation, Operation Chavín de Huántar, named after the Chavín de Huantar archaeological site due to the tunnels dug by troops to access the ambassadors compound. The operation resulted in two commandos and one hostage dead while all fourteen militants were killed.[1] Operation Chavín de Huánta is regarded as one of the most successful hostage rescue operations in history.[2][3][4]

Organization

Peruvian marines of various specialities.

Brigada de Infanteria de Marina
Other units
  • 3rd Naval Infantry Battalion - Tumbes
  • 4th Naval Infantry Battalion - Puno
  • 1st Jungle Naval Infantry Battalion - Iquitos
  • 2nd Jungle Naval Infantry Battalion - Pucallpa
  • Naval Infantry Detachment Litoral Sur - Mollendo
  • Special Forces Espíritus Negros and Fuerza Delta, based on the American Delta Force and US Army Rangers.

Equipment

Weapons

Model Image Caliber Origin Details
Assault rifles
Daewoo K2 Daewoo K2.png 5.56 × 45 mm NATO  South Korea
IMI G Galil.jpg 5.56 × 45 mm NATO  Israel Used by Marine Special Forces[5]
Carbon 15 Bushmaster Carbon-15 SBR.png 5.56 × 45 mm NATO United States Used by Marine Special Forces
FN F2000 FN F2000.png 5.56 × 45 mm NATO  Belgium Used by Marine Special Forces.[6]
IMI Tavor IWI-Tavor-TAR-21w1.jpg 5.56 × 45 mm NATO  Israel Used by Marine Special Forces[7]
Carabina SAR-21 SAR 21 (cropped).png 5.56 × 45 mm NATO  Singapore Used by Marine Special Forces[7]
MicroGail File:Imfdb galil.jpg 5.56 × 45 mm NATO  Israel Standard issue[7]
Sub-machine guns
Heckler & Koch HK21 Heckler Koch MP5.jpg 9 x 19mm Parabellum  Germany Used by Marine Special Forces
IMI Uzi Uzi of the israeli armed forces.jpg 9 x 19mm Parabellum  Israel Used by Marine Special Forces[8]
FN P90 FN-P90 2.jpg 5.7 x 28 mm  Belgium Used by Marine Special Forces[7]
Machine guns
M60 File:M60GPMG.jpeg 7.62 × 51 mm NATO United States
FN Minimi FN MINIMI Standard Right.jpg 7.62 × 51 mm NATO  Belgium [9]
Ultimax 100 Ultimax100.png 5.56 × 45 mm NATO  Singapore
Grenade launchers
Milkor MGL RBG6.png 40 × 46mm grenade  South Africa [10]

Vehicles

Name Image Type Quantity Origin Details
Armoured vehicles
LAV‑II LAV-II Peru.jpg APC 32  Canada All 32 delivered to the Amphibious Expeditionary Brigade (BEA) of the Marines in mid-2016.[11]
BMR-600 File:BMR 600.jpg APC 25  Spain
Bravia Chaimite Bravia Chaimite - Peru.jpg APC 20  Portugal
Utility vehicles
Asanave V1 Utility vehicle 500+  Peru
Asanave V3 Utility vehicle 150  Peru
Can-Am Commander Max Can-Am Commander Max - Peru.jpg Off-road vehicle  Canada
RAM MK3 File:IAI RAM MK3 MGP.png Armoured light vehicle 7  Israel Purchased in 2016[12]
Vatt Wolf File:VATT en maniobras.jpg Off-road vehicle 210  Peru

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 "Comandancia de Fuerzas de Infanteria - Marina de Guerra del Perú". Marina de Guerra del Perú. https://www.marina.mil.pe/page/comandanciainfanteria. Retrieved 29 December 2016. 
  2. "Top 10 most daring rescue missions in history". The Richest. http://www.therichest.com/rich-list/most-shocking/top-10-most-daring-rescue-missions-in-history/. Retrieved 2016-09-22. 
  3. "Top 10 greatest hostage rescue operations of all time". Exploredia. https://exploredia.com/top-10-greatest-hostage-rescue-operations-of-all-time/. Retrieved 2016-02-08. 
  4. "The World's Most Successful Hostage Rescue". youtube.com. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M2vZQP0LS04. Retrieved 2013-04-03. 
  5. ":.DintelGID. Fotografías Desfile Militar día Nacional del Perú, 2007". 25 May 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090525153530/http://www.dintel-gid.com.ar/galerias/desfileperu2007.html. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  6. "PLAYAS DE HUACHO FUERON ESCENARIO DE GRAN DESEMBARCO ANFIBIO EN EL MARCO DE OPERACIÓN UNITAS 2017". https://www.flickr.com/photos/ministeriodedefensaperu/35251496394/in/dateposted/. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 "www.portierramaryaire.com • Ver Tema - Marina de Guerra del Perú" (in es). http://www.portierramaryaire.com/foro/viewtopic.php?f=4&p=148544. Retrieved 4 June 2017. 
  8. ":.DintelGID. Fotografías Desfile Militar día Nacional del Perú, 2007". 25 May 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090525153530/http://www.dintel-gid.com.ar/galerias/desfileperu2007.html. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  9. "轻武器大杂烩:秘鲁军队阅兵式枪的种类可真不少!_陆军版_三军论坛_军事论坛_新浪网". http://club.mil.news.sina.com.cn/thread-12269-1-9.html###. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  10. "Reclamo a la adquisición de Armamento para las Fuerzas Especiales de la Marina de Guerra del Perú-noticia defensa.com". 14 February 2017. http://www.defensa.com/peru/reclamo-adquisicion-armamento-para-fuerzas-especiales-marina. Retrieved 3 June 2017. 
  11. "GDLS culmina las entregas de LAV II a la Infantería de Marina peruana-noticia defensa.com". 19 August 2016. http://www.defensa.com/peru/gdls-culmina-entregas-lav-ii-infanteria-marina-peruana. Retrieved 23 July 2017. 
  12. "La Marina de Perú adquiere siete blindados RAM MK3 de IAI - Noticias Infodefensa América" (in es). 21 January 2016. http://www.infodefensa.com/latam/2016/01/21/noticia-marina-adquiere-siete-vehiculos-blindados-reconocimiento.html. Retrieved 3 January 2017. 

External links

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