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The People's Republic of China has developed and possessed weapons of mass destruction, including chemical and nuclear weapons. China is estimated by the Federation of American Scientists to have an arsenal of about 180 active nuclear weapon warheads and 240 total warheads as of 2009, which would make it the second smallest nuclear arsenal amongst the five major nuclear weapon states.

China's first nuclear test took place in 1964 and first hydrogen bomb test occurred in 1967. Tests continued until 1996 when it signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). China has acceded to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC) in 1984 and ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) in 1997.

Chemical weapons

China signed the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) in January 13, 1993. The CWC was ratified April 25, 1997.[1] In the official declaration submitted to OPCW Chinese government has declared that it had possessed small arsenal of chemical weapons in the past but that it had destroyed it before ratifying Convention. It has declared only two former chemical production facilities that may have produced mustard gas and Lewisite.[2] China was found to have supplied Albania with a small stockpile of chemical weapons in the 1970s during the Cold War.[3]

Biological weapons

China is currently a signatory of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention and Chinese officials have stated that China has never engaged in biological activities with offensive military applications. However, China was reported to have had an active biological weapons program in the 1980s.[4]

Kanatjan Alibekov, former director of one of the Soviet germ-warfare programs, said that China suffered a serious accident at one of its biological weapons plants in the late 1980s. Alibekov asserted that Soviet reconnaissance satellites identified a biological weapons laboratory and plant near a site for testing nuclear warheads. The Soviet suspected that two separate epidemics of hemorrhagic fever that swept the region in the late 1980s were caused by an accident in a lab where Chinese scientists were weaponizing viral diseases.[5]

US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright expressed her concerns over possible Chinese biological weapon transfers to Iran and other nations in a letter to Senator Robert E. Bennett (R-Utah) in January 1997.[6] Albright stated that she had received reports regarding transfers of dual-use items from Chinese entities to the Iranian government which concerned her and that the United States had to encourage China to adopt comprehensive export controls to prevent assistance to Iran's biological weapons program. The United States acted upon the allegations on January 16, 2002, when it imposed sanctions on three Chinese firms accused of supplying Iran with materials used in the manufacture of chemical and biological weapons. In response to this, China issued export control protocols on dual use biological technology in late 2002.[7]

Nuclear weapons

Location of China
First nuclear weapon test October 16, 1964
Last nuclear test July 29, 1996
Largest yield test

4 Mt

  • Atmospheric - 4 Mt (November 17, 1976)
  • Underground - 660~1,000 Kt (May 21, 1992)
Total tests 44
Current stockpile (usable and not) 240
Maximum missile range 12,000-15,000 km

Nuclear weapon history

Because of strict secrecy it is very difficult to determine the exact size and composition of China's nuclear forces. Several declassified U.S. government reports give historical estimates. The 1984 Defense Intelligence Agency's Defense Estimative Brief estimates the Chinese nuclear stockpile as consisting of between 150 and 160 warheads.[8] A 1993 United States National Security Council report estimated that China's nuclear deterrent force relied on 60 to 70 nuclear armed ballistic missiles.[9] The Defense Intelligence Agency's The Decades Ahead: 1999 - 2020 report estimates the 1999 Nuclear Weapons' Inventory as between 140 and 157.[10] In 2004 the U.S. Department of Defense assessed that China had about 20 intercontinental ballistic missiles capable of targeting the United States.[11] In 2006 a U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency estimate presented to the Senate Armed Services Committee was that "China currently has more than 100 nuclear warheads." [12]

A mock-up of China's first nuclear bomb.

China's first test of a nuclear device took place on October 16, 1964, at the Lop Nur test site. China's last nuclear test was on July 29, 1996. According to the Australian Geological Survey Organization in Canberra, the yield of the 1996 test was 1-5 kilotons. This was China's 22nd underground test and 45th test overall.[13]

China has made significant improvements in its miniaturization techniques since the 1980s. There have been accusations, notably by the Cox Commission, that this was done primarily by covertly acquiring the U.S.'s W88 nuclear warhead design as well as guided ballistic missile technology. Chinese scientists have stated that they have made advances in these areas, but insist that these advances were made without espionage. Although the total number of nuclear weapons in the Chinese arsenal is unknown, as of 2014 estimates vary from as low as 80 to as high as 2000. In 2004, China stated that "among the nuclear-weapon states, China... possesses the smallest nuclear arsenal," implying China has fewer than the United Kingdom's 200 nuclear weapons.[14] Several non-official sources estimate that China has around 400 nuclear warheads. However U.S. intelligence estimates suggest a much smaller nuclear force than many non-governmental organizations.[15]

Nuclear policy

China is one of the five "nuclear weapons states" (NWS) under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, which China ratified in 1992. China is the only NWS to give a security assurance to non-nuclear-weapon states:

"China undertakes not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones at any time or under any circumstances." [5]

Chinese public policy has always been one of the "no first use rule" while maintaining a deterrent retaliatory force targeted for countervalue targets.

2005 white paper

In 2005, the Chinese Foreign Ministry released a white paper stating that the government would not be the first to use nuclear weapons at any time and under any circumstances. In addition, the paper went on to state that this "no first use" policy would remain unchanged in the future and that China would not use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against any non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones.


2010 IISS Military Balance

The following are estimates of China's strategic missile forces from the International Institute of Strategic Studies Military Balance 2010.[16] According to these estimates, China has up to 90 inter-continental range ballistic missiles (66 land-based ICBMs and 24 submarine-based JL-2 SLBMs), not counting MIRV warheads.

Designation Missiles Estimated Range
Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles
DF-5A (CSS-4 Mod 2) ICBM 20 12,000-15,000 km
DF-31A (CSS-9 Mod 2) road-mobile ICBM 24 11,200-12,000 km
DF-31 (CSS-9) road-mobile ICBM 12 7,200–8000 km
DF-4 (CSS-3) ICBM 10 5,500 km
Intermediate Range Ballistic Missiles
DF-3A (CSS-2 Mod) IRBM 2 3,000+ km
Medium Range Ballistic Missiles
DF-21C (CSS-5 Mod 3) road-mobile MRBM 36 1,750+ km
DF-21 (CSS-5) road-mobile MRBM 80 1,750+ km
Short Range Ballistic Missiles
DF-15 (CSS-6) road-mobile SRBM 96 600 km
DF-11A (CSS-7 Mod 2) road-mobile SRBM 108 300 km
Land Attack Cruise Missiles
DH-10 LACM 54 3,000+ km
Submarine Launched Ballistic Missiles
JL-1 SLBM 12 1,770+ km
JL-2 SLBM 24 8,600-14,000 km
Total 478

2008 DoD annual PRC military report

The following are estimates from the United States Department of Defense 2008 report to Congress concerning the Military Power of the People's Republic of China[17]

China’s Missile Inventory




Estimated Range
CSS-2 IRBM 5-10/15-20 3,000+ km
CSS-3 ICBM 10-15/15-20 4,750 km
DF-5A (CSS-4) ICBM 20/20 12,000-15,000 km
DF-31 ICBM <15 7,200–8000 km
DF-31A ICBM <15 11,200-12,000 km
CSS-5 MRBM Mod 1/2 60/60-80 1,750+ km
CSS-6 SRBM 90-110/315-355 600 km
CSS-7 SRBM 120-140/675-715 300 km
DH-10 LACM 20-30/50-250 2,000+ km
JL-1 SLBM ? / ? 1,770+ km
JL-2 SLBM ? / ? 8,600-14,000 km

2006 FAS & NRDC report

The following table is an overview of PRC nuclear forces taken from a November 2006 report by Hans M. Kristensen, Robert S. Norris, and Matthew G. McKinzie of the Federation of American Scientists and the Natural Resources Defense Council titled Chinese Nuclear Forces and U.S. Nuclear War Planning.[18]:202

Chinese Nuclear Forces, 2006
China designation U.S./NATO designation Year deployed Range Warhead x yield Number deployed Warheads deployed
Land-based missiles
DF-3A CSS-2 1971 3,100 km 1 x 3.3 Mt 16 16
DF-4 CSS-3 1980 5500 km 1 x 3.3 Mt 22 22
DF-5A CSS-4 Mod 2 1981 13,000 km 1 x 4-5 Mt 20 20
DF-21A CSS-5 Mod 1/2 1991 2,150 km 1 x 200-300 kt 35 35
DF-31 (CSS-X-10) 2006? 7,250+ km 1 x ? n.a. n.a.
DF-31A n.a. 2007-2009 11,270+ km 1 x ? n.a. n.a.
Subtotal 93 93
Submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs)**
JL-1 CSS-NX-3 1986 1,770+ km 1 x 200-300 kt 12 12
JL-2 CSS-NX-4 2008-2010 ? 8,000+ km 1 x ? n.a. n.a.
Subtotal 12 12
Total strategic ballistic missiles 105 105
Hong-6 B-6 1965 3,100 km 1-3 x bomb 100 20
Attack (Q-5, others?) 1 x bomb 20
Subtotal 40
Short-range tactical weapons
DF-15 CSS-6 1990 600 km 1 x low ~300 ?
DH-10? (LACM) 2006-2007 ? ~1,500 km ? 1 x low ? n.a. n.a.
Total ~145

Land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles

Although unconfirmed, most Western analysts believe China has deployed anywhere from 18 to 36 Dongfeng 5 ("East Wind") intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) since the 1980s. The Dongfeng 5A is a single-warhead, three-stage, liquid-fueled missile with a range of 13,000+ km. In 2000, General Eugene Habiger of the U.S. Air Force, then-commander of the U.S. Strategic Command, testified before Congress that China has 18 silo-based DF-5s.[19] Since the early 21st century, the Second Artillery Corps have also deployed up to 10 Solid-fueled mobile DF-31 ICBMs, with a range of 7,200+ km and possibly up to 3 MIRVs.[20] China has also developed the DF-31A, an intercontinental ballistic missile with a range of 11,200+ km with possibly 3-6 multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle (MIRV) capability.

Medium range ballistic missiles

Approximately 55% of China's missiles are in the medium range category, targeted at regional theater targets.[18]:61



Tactical cruise missiles

The CJ-10 long-range cruise missile made its first public appearance during the military parade on the 60th Anniversary of the People's Republic of China as a part of the Second Artillery Corps' long range conventional missile forces; the CJ-10 represents the next generation in rocket weapons technology in the PLA. A similar naval cruise missile, the YJ-62, was also revealed during the parade; the YJ-62 serves as the People's Liberation Army Navy's latest development into naval rocketry.

Long range ballistic missiles

The Chinese categorize long range ballistic missiles as ones with a range between 3000–8000 km.[18]:103


The Dong Feng 4 or DF-4 (also known as the CSS-3) is a long-range two-stage Chinese intermediate-range ballistic missile with liquid fuel (nitric acid/UDMH). It was thought to be deployed in limited numbers in underground silos beginning in 1980.[18]:67 The DF-4 has a takeoff thrust of 1,224.00 kN, a takeoff weight of 82000 kg, a diameter of 2.25 m, a length of 28.05 m, and a fin span of 2.74 m. It is equipped with a 2190 kg nuclear warhead with 3300 kt explosive yield, and its range is 5,500 km.[18]:68 The missile uses inertial guidance, resulting in a relatively poor CEP of 1,500 meters.[citation needed]

Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs)

DF-5A/CSS-4 Mod 2

The Dongfeng 5 or DF-5 is a 3 stage Chinese ICBM. It has a length 32.6 m and a diameter of 3.35 m. It weighs in at 183,000 kilograms and it has an estimated range of 13,000 to kilometers.[18]:71–72 The DF-5 had its first flight in 1971 and was in operational service 10 years later. One of the downsides of the missile was that it took between 30 and 60 minutes to fuel.[citation needed]


The Dong Feng 31 (a.k.a. CSS-9) is a medium-range, three stage, solid propellant intercontinental ballistic missile developed by the People's Republic of China. It is a land-based variant of the submarine launched JL-2. It is operated by the Second Artillery Corps (SAC) which is estimated to have 8-12 missiles in inventory[2].[citation needed]


The DF-41 or CSS-X-10 is an intercontinental ballistic missile developed by China. It can carry up to 10 nuclear warheads, which are maneuverable reentry vehicles. It has a range of approximately 12,000-14,000 km and can cover any position on the planet.[21][22][23][24]

Nuclear cruise missiles

The US DoD estimated in 2006 that the PRC was developing ground and air launched cruise missiles that could easily be converted to carry nuclear warheads once developed.[25]


The DongHai 10 (DH-10) is a cruise missile developed in the People's Republic of China. According to Jane's Defense Weekly, the DH-10 is a second-generation land-attack cruise missile (LACM), with over 4,000 km range, integrated inertial navigation system, GPS, terrain contour mapping system, and digital scene-matching terminal-homing system. The missile is estimated to have a circular error probable (CEP) of 10 meters.


The ChangJian-10 (Long Sword 10) is a cruise missile developed by China, based on the Hongniao missile family. It has a range of 2,200 km. Although not confirmed, it is suspected that the CJ-10 could carry nuclear warheads. An air-launched variant (named CJ-20) has also been developed.[26][27]

HongNiao missile family

There are three missiles in this family: the HN-1, HN-2, and HN-3. Reportedly based on the Kh-SD/65 missiles, the Hongniao (or Red Bird) missiles are some of the first nuclear-capable cruise missiles in China. The HN-1 has a range of 600 km, the HN-2 has a range of 1,800 km, and the HN-3 has a range of 3,000 km.[28][29][30]

ChangFeng missile family

There are 2 missiles in the Chang Feng (or Long Wind) family: CF-1 and CF-2. These are the first domestically-developed long-range cruise missiles for China. The CF-1 has a range of 400 km while the CF-2 has a range of 800 km. Both variants can carry a 10 kT nuclear warhead.[28][29]

Sea-based weapons

The submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) stockpile of the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) is thought to be relatively new. China launched its first second-generation nuclear submarine in April 1981. The navy currently has a 1 Type 092 Xia class SSBN at roughly 8000 tons displacement. A second Type 092 was reportedly lost in an accident in 1985. The Type 092 is equipped with 12 JL-1 SLBMs with a range of 2150–2500 km. The JL-1 is a modified DF-21 missile. It is suspected that the Type 092 is being converted into a cruise missile submarine.

The Chinese navy has developed Type 094 ballistic missile submarine, open source satellite imagery has shown that at least 2 of these have been completed. This submarine will be capable of carrying 12 of the longer ranged, more modern JL-2s with a range of approximately 14000 km.[citation needed]

China is also developing the Type 096 submarine, able to carry up to 24 JL-2 ballistic missiles each. Some Chinese sources states that the submarine is already undergoing trials.[31]

The Type 095 and Type 097 submarines are under trials could carry cruise missiles.[32][33]

Heavy bomber group

China's bomber force consists mostly of Chinese-made versions of Soviet aircraft. The People's Liberation Army Air Force has 120 H-6s (a variant of the Tupolev Tu-16). These bombers are outfitted to carry nuclear as well as conventional weapons. While the H-6 fleet is aging, it is not as old as the American B-52 Stratofortress.[18]:93–98 The Chinese have also produced the Xian JH-7 Flying Leopard fighter-bomber (currently about 80 are in service) capable of delivering a nuclear strike. China has also bought the advanced Sukhoi Su-30 from Russia; currently, about 100 Su-30s (MKK and MK2 variants) have been purchased by China. The Su-30 is capable of carrying tactical nuclear weapons.[18]:102

China is testing its new H-8 and H-9 strategic bombers, able to carry nuclear weapons.[34][35][36]

China is also testing the JH-7B strike fighter, a stealthy variant of the Xian JH-7.[37][38]

Missile ranges


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  2. NTI Research Library: country profile: China
  3. Albania's Chemical Cache Raises Fears About Others - Washington Post, Monday 10 January 2005, Page A01
  4. Roland Everett Langford, Introduction to Weapons of Mass Destruction: Radiological, Chemical, and Biological, Wiley-IEEE, 2004
  5. William J Broad, Soviet Defector Says China Had Accident at a Germ Plant, New York Times, April 5, 1999
  6. Leonard Spector, Chinese Assistance to Iran's Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missile Programs, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, September 12, 1996
  7. Nuclear Threat Initiative, Country Profile: China
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  16. IISS Military Balance 2010
  17. Office of the Secretary of Defense - Annual Report to Congress: Military Power of the People's Republic of China 2008 (PDF)[3]
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 Kristensen, Hans M; Robert S. Norris; Matthew G. McKinzie. Chinese Nuclear Forces and U.S. Nuclear War Planning. Federation of American Scientists and Natural Resources Defense Council, November 2006.
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  20. "DongFeng 31A (CSS-9) Intercontinental Ballistic Missile". Retrieved 2010-04-06. 
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  28. 28.0 28.1 John Pike. "Land-Attack Cruise Missiles (LACM)". Retrieved 2010-04-06. 
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  34. "外媒炒作中国首架轰-8隐形战略轰炸机问世(图)_新浪军事_新浪网". Retrieved 2010-04-06. 
  35. "英国简氏称中国正在研发轰-8型隐形轰炸机_军事频道_新华网". Retrieved 2010-04-06. 
  36. "Google Translate". 2008-11-11. Retrieved 2010-04-06. 
  37. "中国新型隐身飞豹JH-7B战机试飞成功!-西陆网". 2009-06-11. Retrieved 2010-04-06. 
  38. "中国冲天飞豹:歼轰7系列战斗轰炸机(组图)_新浪军事_新浪网". Retrieved 2010-04-06. 

Further reading

See also

External links

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