Military Wiki
Pat Tillman
Pat Tillman when he was a specialist
Birth name Patrick Daniel Tillman
Nickname "Pat"
Born (1976-11-06)November 6, 1976
Died April 22, 2004(2004-04-22) (aged 27)
Place of birth Fremont, California
Place of death Sperah, Afghanistan (KIA)
Allegiance United States
Service/branch United States Department of the Army Seal.svg United States Army
Years of service 2002–2004
Rank Army-USA-OR-04a.svg Corporal (posthumously)
  • War on Terror
  • Iraq War
  • War in Afghanistan
  • Awards
  • Silver Star ribbon.svg Silver Star
  • Purple Heart BAR.svg Purple Heart
  • Meritorious Service ribbon.svg Meritorious Service Medal
  • Patrick Daniel "Pat" Tillman[1] (November 6, 1976 – April 22, 2004) was an American football player who left his professional career and enlisted in the United States Army in June 2002 in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks. He joined the Army Rangers and served several tours in combat before he died in the mountains of Afghanistan. The Army at first reported that Tillman had been killed by enemy fire, and then Lieutenant General Stanley A. McChrystal approved the award of a Silver Star. The actual cause of Tillman's death was ruled by The Pentagon as friendly fire.

    Early life

    Tillman was born on November 6, 1976, in San Jose, California. The eldest of three sons, with Kevin and Richard as the other two, Tillman excelled at football in high school. He helped lead Leland High School to the Central Coast Division I Football Championship. Tillman then went to Arizona State University on a football scholarship.[2]

    Family and friends

    Tillman was very close to his family and high school friends. He repeatedly mentioned in his personal journals during wartime service that he drew strength from and deeply valued his closest friendships, parents, wife and family. Tillman was very committed to his high-school sweetheart whom he married just prior to enlistment in the Army Rangers, Marie Ugenti Tillman. He also was very close with his brother, Kevin Tillman, who enlisted with and served alongside him.[3]

    Football career

    He started his college career as a linebacker for Arizona State University in 1994, when he secured the last remaining scholarship for the team. Tillman excelled as a linebacker at Arizona State, despite being relatively small for the position at five-feet eleven-inches (1.80 m) tall. As a junior, he helped his team go undefeated that season as well as helping them make it to the Rose Bowl that year. In 1997, he was voted the Pac-10 Defensive Player of the Year. Academically, Tillman majored in marketing and graduated in three and a half years with a 3.85 GPA. He also earned many academic awards including: the Clyde B. Smith Academic Award in 1996 and 1997; the Sporting News Honda Scholar-Athlete of the Year in 1997; and the 1998 Sun Angel Student Athlete of Year. He was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 2010.

    Pat Tillman
    Born (1976-11-06)November 6, 1976
    San Jose, California
    Died April 22, 2004(2004-04-22) (aged 27)
    Sperah, Afghanistan
    Weight 202

    In the 1998 National Football League Draft, Tillman was selected as the 226th pick by the Arizona Cardinals. Tillman moved over to play the safety position in the NFL and started ten of sixteen games in his rookie season.

    At one point in his NFL career, Tillman turned down a five-year, $9 million contract offer from the St. Louis Rams out of loyalty to the Cardinals.[4]

    Sports Illustrated football writer Paul Zimmerman (Dr. Z) named Tillman to his 2000 NFL All-Pro team after Tillman finished with 155 tackles (120 solo), 1.5 sacks, 2 forced fumbles, 2 fumble recoveries, 9 pass deflections and 1 interception for 30 yards.

    Tillman finished his career with totals of 238 tackles, 2.5 sacks, 3 interceptions for 37 yards, 3 forced fumbles, 2 pass deflections, and 3 fumble recoveries in 60 career games. In addition he also had 1 rush attempt for 4 yards and returned 3 kickoffs for 33 yards.[5]

    In May 2002, eight months after the September 11 attacks and after completing the fifteen remaining games of the 2001 season which followed the attacks (at a salary of US$512,000 per year),[6] Tillman turned down a contract offer of $3.6 million over three years from the Cardinals to enlist in the U.S. Army.[7]

    Military career and death

    Tillman and his brother Kevin enlisted on 31 May 2002. Kevin gave up the chance of a career in professional baseball as he had already signed to play for the Cleveland Indians. In September 2002, they completed basic training together[8][9] The two brothers completed the Ranger Assessment and Selection Program in late 2002 and were assigned to the 2nd Ranger Battalion in Fort Lewis, Washington. Tillman resided in University Place with his wife before being deployed to Iraq. After participating in the initial invasion of Operation Iraqi Freedom, in September 2003, he entered Ranger School at Fort Benning, Georgia, and graduated on November 28, 2003.[10]

    Tillman was subsequently redeployed to Afghanistan. On April 22, 2004, he was initially reported to have been killed by enemy combatants. An Afghan Militia Forces allied soldier was also killed in the action. Tillman’s platoon leader first lieutenant David Uthlaut and his radio telephone operator (RTO), 19-year old Jade Lane, were wounded in the incident. The Army initially claimed that Tillman and his unit were attacked in an apparent ambush on a road outside of the village of Sperah about 25 miles (40 km) southwest of Khost, near the Pakistan border. It wasn't until after his burial that investigations by the Department of Defense and US Congress were launched, eventually ruling his death as friendly fire.

    The Army Special Operations Command initially claimed that there was an exchange with hostile forces. After a lengthy investigation conducted by Brigadier General Gary M. Jones, the U.S. Department of Defense concluded that both the Afghan militia soldier's and Pat Tillman's deaths were due to friendly fire aggravated by the intensity of the firefight.

    An investigation by the U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command (CID) concluded that Tillman and the Afghan militia soldier were killed by friendly fire when one allied group fired upon another in confusion after nearby gunfire was mistakenly believed to be from enemy combatants. The CID Report summary, dated 19 March 2007, stated that: "during their movement through the canyon road, Serial 2 [Tillman's platoon had to split up because of a broken Humvee; the parts were called Serial 1 and 2] was ambushed and became engaged in a running gun battle with enemy combatants. Serial 1 [Tillman's portion of the platoon] had just passed through the same canyon without incident and were approximately one kilometer ahead of Serial 2. Upon hearing explosions, gunfire, and sporadic radio communication from Serial 2, Serial 1 dismounted their vehicles and moved on foot, to a more advantageous position to provide overwatch and fire support for Serial 2's movement out of the ambush." Upon exiting the gorge, and despite attempts by Serial 1 to signal a "friendly position," occupants of the lead vehicle of Serial 2 opened fire on Tillman's position, where he was fatally shot.[11]

    Awards and decorations

    Silver Star
    Purple Heart
    Meritorious Service Medal
    Army Achievement Medal
    National Defense Service Medal
    Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal
    Global War on Terrorism Service Medal
    Army Service Ribbon
    Presidential Unit Citation
    Joint Meritorious Unit Award
    Army Superior Unit Award
    US Army Airborne basic parachutist badge.gif Parachutist Badge
    RangerTab TIoH.gif Ranger Tab
    Combat Infantry Badge.svg Combat Infantryman Badge


    Surrounding Tillman's death

    Misleading tribute to CPL. Tillman at the National Infantry Museum. The plaque inaccurately says he was killed in an enemy ambush.

    A report described in The Washington Post on May 4, 2005, prepared at the request of Tillman's family by Brigadier General Gary M. Jones revealed that in the days immediately following Tillman's death, Army investigators were aware that Tillman had been killed by friendly fire, shot three times in the head.[12] Jones reported that senior Army commanders, including General John Abizaid, knew of this fact within days of the shooting, but nevertheless approved the awarding of the Silver Star, Purple Heart, and a posthumous promotion to the rank of Corporal.[13]

    Lieutenant General Stanley McChrystal approved the Silver Star citation on April 28, 2004, which gave a detailed account of Tillman's death including the phrase "in the line of devastating enemy fire," but the next day he sent a P4 confidential memo warning senior government members that Tillman might actually have been killed by friendly fire.[14] Senior commanders within the US Central Command, including former Commander of the United States Central Command (CENTCOM) General John Abizaid, were notified by the P4 memo,[15] which described Tillman's "highly possible" fratricide, four days before Tillman's nationally televised memorial service during which he was lauded as a war hero for dying while engaging the enemy.[16][17]

    Jones reported that members of Tillman's unit burned his body armor and uniform in an apparent attempt to hide the fact that he was killed by friendly fire.[18] His notebook, in which – according to author Jon Krakauer – Tillman had recorded some of his thoughts on Afghanistan, was also burned; "a blatant violation of protocol".[19] Several soldiers were subsequently punished for their actions by being removed from the United States Army Rangers. Jones believed that Tillman should retain his medals and promotion, since, according to Jones, he intended to engage the enemy and behaved heroically.[18]

    Tillman's family was not informed of the finding that he was killed by friendly fire until weeks after his memorial service, although at least some senior Army officers knew of that fact prior to the service.[18] According to Krakauer in his book Where Men Win Glory, the extensive cover-up that followed Tillman's death included the military's order to Tillman's comrades to lie to his family at the funeral.[19] Tillman's parents have sharply criticized the Army's handling of the incident; Tillman's father charges that the Army "purposely interfered in the investigation" because of the effect it could have on their recruiting efforts, while Tillman's mother charges that "this lie was to cover their image."[20]

    After it happened, all the people in positions of authority went out of their way to script this. They purposely interfered with the investigation; they covered it up. I think they thought they could control it, and they realized that their recruiting efforts were going to go to hell in a handbasket if the truth about his death got out. They blew up their poster boy.[20]

    He also blamed high-ranking Army officers for presenting "outright lies" to the family and to the public.[21]

    On March 4, 2006, the US Defense Department Inspector General directed the Army to open a criminal investigation of Tillman's death. The Army's Criminal Investigative Division was to determine whether Tillman's death was the result of negligent homicide.[22]

    On March 26, 2007, the Pentagon released their report on the events surrounding Tillman's death and coverup. The report reads in part:

    ...we emphasize that all investigators established the basic facts of CPL Tillman's death – that it was caused by friendly fire, that the occupants of one vehicle in CPL Tillman's platoon were responsible, and that circumstances on the ground caused those occupants to misidentify friendly forces as hostile. None of the investigations suggested that CPL Tillman's death was anything other than accidental. Our review, as well as the investigation recently completed by Army CID, obtained no evidence contrary to those key findings.[23]

    On April 24, 2007, Iraq veteran Jessica Lynch, who had been captured by the Iraqis after a fire fight, gave testimony before the United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform that the Pentagon had erroneously portrayed her as a "Rambo from the hills of West Virginia," when in fact, she never fired a shot after her truck was ambushed.[24] Tillman's brother Kevin Tillman testified at the same hearing that: "The deception surrounding this [Tillman] case was an insult to the family: but more importantly, its primary purpose was to deceive a whole nation. We say these things with disappointment and sadness for our country. Once again, we have been used as props in a Pentagon public relations exercise."[25]

    After Kevin's testimony Pete Geren, acting secretary of the Army stated to reporters, "We as an Army failed in our duty to the Tillman family, the duty we owe to all the families of our fallen soldiers: Give them the truth, the best we know it, as fast as we can."[25]

    Tillman's diary was never returned to his family, and its whereabouts are not publicly known.[26]

    One investigation of the autopsy report and photographs by two forensic pathologists in November 2006 concluded that Tillman was most likely killed as a result of fire from a M249 light machine gun. The M249 uses the same ammunition as the M16 rifle and M4 carbine, but is capable of greater accuracy during higher rates of fire. This would allow a competent user to place three bullets within a several-inch target from forty or fifty yards away more easily, even from a moving vehicle.[3]

    On July 26, 2007, Chris Matthews reported on Hardball that Tillman's death may have been a case of deliberate murder by Tillman's fellow soldiers – specifically that the bullet holes were tight and neat, suggesting a shot at close range. Matthews based his speculation on a report from the doctors who examined Tillman's body. The following day the Associated Press reported that a doctor who examined Tillman's body after his death wrote, "The medical evidence did not match up with the scenario as described,"[27] also noting that the wound entrances appeared as though he had been shot with an M16 rifle from fewer than 10 yards (9.1 m) away. A possible motive was not identified. When officers and soldiers were asked during a criminal investigation, they said they were certain the shooting was accidental. According to one of his fellow soldiers, Tillman "was popular among his fellow soldiers and had no enemies."[27][28]

    In addition, in response to a Freedom of Information Act request filed by the Associated Press, the Defense Department released 2,300 pages of documents which were reported to indicate:[27]

    • There has never been evidence of enemy fire found on the scene, and no members of Tillman's group had been hit by enemy fire.
    • The three-star general who withheld details of Tillman's death from his parents for a number of months told investigators approximately 70 times that he had a bad memory and couldn't recall details of his actions.
    • Army attorneys sent each other congratulatory e-mails for keeping criminal investigators at bay as the Army conducted an internal friendly-fire investigation that resulted in administrative, or non-criminal, punishments.
    • Army doctors told the investigators that Tillman's wounds suggested murder because "the medical evidence did not match-up with the scenario as described."[29]
    • There were special forces snipers in the group immediately behind Tillman's platoon.[29]

    Despite his fame, Tillman did not want to be used for propaganda purposes. He spoke to friends about his opposition to President Bush and the Iraq war, and he had made an appointment with notable government critic Noam Chomsky for after his return from the military. The destruction of evidence linked to Tillman's death, including his personal journal, led his mother to speculate that he was murdered.[30] General Wesley Clark agreed that it was "very possible".[31][32]

    Congressional inquiries

    On April 24, 2007, Specialist Bryan O'Neal, the last soldier to see Pat Tillman alive, testified before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform that he was warned by superiors not to divulge information that a fellow soldier killed Tillman, especially to the Tillman family. Later, Pat Tillman's brother Kevin Tillman, who was also in the convoy traveling behind his brother at the time of the 2004 incident in Afghanistan but did not witness it, testified that the military tried to spin his brother's death to deflect attention from emerging failings in the Afghan war.[33]

    On August 13, 2007, Sports Illustrated reported that twenty U.S. military veterans who fought in Iraq and Afghanistan asked the NFL commissioner, Roger Goodell, to help secure the release of all documents relating to the death of Pat Tillman.[34]

    On July 14, 2008, the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform released a proposed report titled "Misleading Information from the Battlefield: The Tillman and Lynch Episodes".[35][36] The committee stated that its "investigation was frustrated by a near universal lack of recall" among "senior officials at the White House" and the military. It concluded:

    The pervasive lack of recollection and absence of specific information makes it impossible for the Committee to assign responsibility for the misinformation in Specialist Tillman’s and Private Lynch’s cases. It is clear, however, that the Defense Department did not meet its most basic obligations in sharing accurate information with the families and with the American public.

    Memorials and tributes

    File:Tillman - portrait.JPG

    Tillman's portrait – Faces of the Fallen gallery – Arlington National Cemetery.

    After his death, the Pat Tillman Foundation was established to carry forward its view of Tillman's legacy by inspiring and supporting those striving for positive change in themselves and the world.

    A highway bypass around the Hoover Dam has a bridge bearing Tillman's name. Completed in October 2010, the Mike O'Callaghan – Pat Tillman Memorial Bridge spans the Colorado River between Nevada and Arizona.

    Lincoln Law School of San Jose has established the Pat Tillman Scholarship in honor of Tillman. Tillman's father, Patrick Kevin Tillman, earned his Juris Doctor from Lincoln in 1983.

    On Sunday, September 19, 2004, all teams of the NFL wore a memorial decal on their helmets in honor of Pat Tillman. The Arizona Cardinals continued to wear this decal throughout the 2004 season. Former Cardinals quarterback Jake Plummer requested to also wear the decal for the entire season, but the NFL turned him down, saying his helmet would not be uniform with the rest of the Denver Broncos. Plummer later grew a full beard and his hair long in honor of Tillman, who had such a style in the NFL before cutting his hair and shaving his beard off to fit military uniform guidelines.

    A memorial to Pat Tillman was created at Sun Devil Stadium, where he played football for the Sun Devils and the Cardinals.

    The Cardinals retired his number 40, and Arizona State did the same for the number 42 he wore with the Sun Devils. The Cardinals have named the plaza surrounding their University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale Pat Tillman Freedom Plaza. Later, on November 12, 2006, during a Cardinals game versus the Cowboys, a bronze statue was revealed in his honor. ASU also named the football locker room entryway to Sun Devil Stadium the "Pat Tillman Memorial Tunnel" and made a "PT-42" patch that they place on the neck of their uniforms as a permanent feature. In 2011, Pat Tillman Veteran's Center in the lower level of the Memorial Union opened on the Tempe campus.[37] Before the 2013 seaon, the Tillman Tunnel was renovated with graphics, signage, double doors separate the locker room from the tunnel, and television replaying Tillman's career highlights, sound system and a gate opens up to the field featuring an image of him looking as if he's leading the team out.[38]

    On Saturday, April 15, 2006, more than 10,000 participants turned out for 1st Annual Pat's Run (the annual, central fundraising event for the Pat Tillman Foundation) in Tempe, Arizona. The racers traveled along the 4.2-mile (6.8 km) course around Tempe Town Lake to the finish line, on the 42-yard line of Sun Devil Stadium in order to commemorate the number which Tillman wore as a Sun Devil and which was later retired in his honor. A second "shadow" race took place in San Jose, CA, around the country at the same time as Pat's Run. Sponsored by the Pat Tillman Foundation, a total of 14,000 runners took part. In 2005, about 6,000 took part in a single race in Tempe. Since then, Pat's Run has continued to grow every year, with more than 28,000 attendees in April 2010. Various "shadow races", in locations such as Austin, TX, take place around the country at the same time as Pat's Run.

    In 2004, the NFL donated $250,000 to the United Service Organizations to build a USO center in memory of Tillman. The Pat Tillman USO Center, the first USO center in Afghanistan, opened on Bagram Air Base on April 1, 2005.[39]

    The Pacific-10 Conference renamed its annual defensive player-of-the-year award in football to the Pat Tillman Defensive Player of the Year.[40]

    Forward Operating Base Tillman is close to the Pakistan border, near the village of Lwara in Paktika Province, Afghanistan.[41]

    Tillman's high school, Leland High School in San Jose, renamed its football field after him. Just south of San Jose, CA, in the small community of New Almaden where Pat Tillman grew up, a memorial was constructed near the Almaden Quicksilver County Park. This memorial was dedicated in September 2007 during the annual New Almaden Day celebration.[42][43]

    The skateboarding bulldog featured on YouTube and in an Apple iPhone commercial was named after Tillman.[44]

    Two books about Tillman were published in 2009. Jon Krakauer, author of Into Thin Air and Into the Wild, chronicles Tillman's story in Where Men Win Glory: The Odyssey of Pat Tillman, published by Doubleday on September 15. Meanwhile, Tillman's mother, Mary Tillman, also wrote a book about her son, Boots on the Ground by Dusk, which was released in April 2008.

    Following Tillman's death, the Ohio State Linebackers Corp consisting of A.J. Hawk, Bobby Carpenter and Anthony Schlegel, as well as center Nick Mangold, grew their hair in tribute to Tillman, imitating Tillman's trademark locks.[45]

    In September 2008, Rory Fanning, a fellow Army Ranger who was stationed with Tillman in Fort Lewis, Washington, began his "Walk for Pat" — a walk across the United States in an effort to raise money and awareness for the Pat Tillman Foundation. The stated fundraising goal is $3.6 million — the value of the contract Tillman turned down when he decided to enlist in the military.

    Controversial criticisms

    After reports of Tillman's anti-war views became public, Ted Rall, who had previously written a comic calling Tillman a "fool" and "idiot," said that he was wrong to have assumed Tillman to be a "right wing poster child" when Tillman regarded the invasion of Iraq as illegal.[46][47]

    Then-Lieutenant Colonel Ralph Kauzlarich, Regimental Executive Officer at Forward Operating Base Salerno on Khost, Afghanistan, under which Tillman was serving at the time of his death, and who led the second investigation into Tillman's death, made statements about the Tillman family’s search for the truth based on Tillman's atheism. In comments to ESPN, Kauzlarich said: "These people have a hard time letting it go. It may be because of their religious beliefs" and "When you die, I mean, there is supposedly a better life, right? Well, if you are an atheist and you don’t believe in anything, if you die, what is there to go to? Nothing. You are worm dirt. So for their son to die for nothing and now he is no more... I do not know how an atheist thinks, I can only imagine that would be pretty tough."[48]

    Kauzlarich conducted the second investigation into Tillman's death which lasted a week, from May 8 to May 15, 2004.[49] Brigadier General Rodney Johnson, the Commanding General of the United States Army Criminal Investigations Command, testified before Congress that he found these statements "totally unacceptable." Acting Department of Defense Inspector General Thomas Gimble also testified that he was "shocked" that Lieutenant Colonel Kauzlarich would make these statements.[50] According to AP analysis, there are three lower-level officers expected to be punished, and Kauzlarich may be one of the three. Tillman's mother continues to reject the Pentagon's characterization of the officers' offenses as "errors" in reporting Tillman's death, because several officers have said they made conscious decisions not to tell the Tillman family that friendly fire was suspected.[51]

    Media analyses

    A review by New York Times reporter Dexter Filkins of Jon Krakauer's book Where Men Win Glory: The Odyssey of Pat Tillman noted that the book did well to compile the facts and "nauseating" details regarding the cover-up of Tillman's death. "After Tillman’s death, Army commanders violated many of their own rules, not to mention elementary standards of decency, to turn the killing into a propaganda coup for the American side," Filkins wrote.[52]

    A documentary film, The Tillman Story, was shown at the Sundance Film Festival on January 23, 2010, and was released in August 2010.[53]

    On October 19, 2006, Tillman's brother Kevin broke his silence about his brother's death, lashing out at the Iraq War in a 660-word essay published on Truthdig, a progressive online journal of news and opinion.[54] The essay was widely distributed and was cited in The New York Times and Associated Press.[55]

    Religious and political beliefs

    Krakauer described Tillman as "agnostic, perhaps an atheist",[56] while later news reports state he was an atheist.[57][58][59][60] According to speakers at his funeral, he was very well-read, having read a number of religious texts including the Bible, Quran and Book of Mormon as well as transcendentalist authors such as Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. However, responding to religious overtones at the funeral by Maria Shriver and John McCain, his youngest brother, Richard, asserted that "He's not with God, he's fucking dead. He's not religious." Richard added, "Thanks for your thoughts, but he's fucking dead."[61] Another article quotes Tillman as having told then-general manager of the Seattle Seahawks Bob Ferguson in December 2003, "You know I'm not religious."[62]

    The September 25, 2005, edition of the San Francisco Chronicle newspaper reported that Tillman held views which were critical of the Iraq war. According to Tillman's mother, a friend of Tillman had arranged a meeting for Tillman with author Noam Chomsky, a prominent critic of American foreign and military policy, to take place after his return from Afghanistan. Chomsky has confirmed this.[63]

    See also


    1. Rickey, Carrie (September 3, 2010). "Pat Tillman Documentary Follows Family's Quest for Answers". Philadelphia Inquirer. .
    2. "Pat Tillman Biography". 2006 A&E Television Networks. 
    3. 3.0 3.1 Krakauer, Jon (2009). Where Men Win Glory: The Odyssey of Pat Tillman. Doubleday (September 16, 2009); Page 317. ISBN 978-0-385-52226-7
    4. "In football and in life, Tillman was determined, independent". Matthew B. Stannard. March 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-31. 
    5. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Pat Tillman". Retrieved 2012-20-23. {{cite web}}: Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
    6. "Pat Tillman". Salaries Database. USA Today. Retrieved 2006-11-23. 
    7. "Ex-NFL star Tillman makes 'ultimate sacrifice'". MSNBC. Jan 26, 2003. Retrieved 2006-11-23. 
    8. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Army Cpl. Patrick D. Tillman". Military Times. Retrieved 2012-20-23. {{cite web}}: Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
    9. Krakauer, Jon (2009). Where Men Win Glory: The Odyssey of Pat Tillman. Garden City, N.Y: Doubleday. p. 154. ISBN 0-385-52226-6. 
    10. Krakauer, Jon (2009). Where Men Win Glory: The Odyssey of Pat Tillman. Garden City, N.Y: Doubleday. p. 220. ISBN 0-385-52226-6. 
    11. Military Times .PDF Document copies Copy of US Army CID report; Pages 1–3
    12. "U.S. military probes soldier's death". CNN. July 1, 2006. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
    13. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Army Cpl. Patrick D. Tillman – Honor The Fallen – Honoring those who fought and died in Iraq and Afghanistan". Military Times. Retrieved 2010-10-23.
    14. Scott Lindlaw and Martha Mendoza (August 4, 2007). "General's memo voiced doubts in Tillman's death". 
    15. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Full text of Tillman memo to top generals".
    16. Robert Collier (April 11, 2007). "New questions raised over timing of Army's disclosure of killing by friendly fire". San Francisco Chronicle. 
    17. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Krakauer, Jon (October 14, 2009). "Gen. McChrystal's Credibility Problem". The Daily Beast.
    18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Josh White (May 4, 2005). "Army Withheld Details About Tillman's Death:Investigator Quickly Learned 'Friendly Fire' Killed Athlete". Washington Post. p. A-3. Retrieved 2006-11-23. 
    19. 19.0 19.1 Sarah Seltzer (September 17, 2009). "Inside Pat Tillman's Life, and the Bush Administration's Cover-Up of His Death". Alternet.'s_life,_and_the_bush_administration's_cover-up_of_his_death/?page=entire. Retrieved 2009-09-17. 
    20. 20.0 20.1 Josh White (May 23, 2005). "Tillman's Parents Are Critical Of Army". Washington Post. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
    21. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Annie Gottlieb (May 5, 2005). "Pat Tillman: It's Even Worse UPDATED". Retrieved 2006-11-23.
    22. "Army to open criminal probe of Tillman death". CNN. Retrieved May 21, 2010. 
    23. "Review of matters related to the death of Specialist Patrick Tillman" (PDF). Office of the Inspector General. March 28, 2006. 
    24. "Soldier: Army ordered me not to tell the truth about Tillman". CNN. April 24, 2007. .
    25. 25.0 25.1 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Family blasts latest investigation of Pat Tillman's friendly fire death as "shamefully unacceptable"". Mercury News.
    26. Monica Davey; Eric Schmitt (March 21, 2006). "2 Years After Soldier's Death, Family's Battle Is With Army". The New York Times. 
    27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 Martha Mendoza (July 27, 2007). "AP: New Details on Tillman's Death". USA Today. Retrieved 2007-07-27. 
    28. Robert Collier (September 25, 2005). "Family Demands The Truth". San Francisco Chronicle:. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
    29. 29.0 29.1 Laurence, Charles (August 3, 2007). "Was the pin-up boy of Bush's War on Terror assassinated?". London: The Daily Mail. 
    30. "Countdown with Keith Olbermann". NBC. .
    31. Krakauer, Jon (September 11, 2009). "Where Men Win Glory: The Odyssey of Pat Tillman". The Los Angeles Times. .
    32. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Second Soldier Alleges Former Tillman Commander Ordered "360 Rotational Fire" in Iraq". Truth out. Retrieved 2010-10-23.
    33. "Soldier: Army ordered me not to tell truth about Tillman". CNN. Retrieved May 21, 2010. 
    34. Associated Press (August 13, 2007). "Military vets ask Goodell to help release Tillman report". Sports Illustrated. 
    35. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform (July 14, 2008). "Misleading Information from the Battlefield: The Tillman and Lynch Episodes" (PDF). United States Congress. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-05-30.
    36. Seibel, Mark (July 14, 2008). "Bush officials' 'lack of recall' thwarted Tillman, Lynch probes". 
    39. Landers, Jim, "Tillman's Legacy Lives On At Center", Dallas Morning News, January 18, 2009, p. 22.
    40. "Pac-10 Names Award for Pat Tillman". Pac-10. June 8, 2004. Archived from the original on June 21, 2011. "The Pac-10 has renamed its annual defensive player of the year award in football the Pat Tillman Defensive Player of the Year Award, Commissioner Tom Hansen announced today." 
    41. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"The Last Outpost". Archived from the original on 2008-04-05.
    42. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Memorial to honor Pat Tillman, a kid New Almaden knew well, San Jose Mercury News, August 4, 2007".
    43. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Horii, Ronald (September 8, 2007). "Pat Tillman Memorial Dedication". New Almaden Day 8/8/07. Retrieved April 30, 2012.
    44. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Tillman the Skateboarding Bulldog". YouTube. Video removed by user.
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    • Krakauer, Jon (2009). Where Men Win Glory: The Odyssey of Pat Tillman. Doubleday (September 15, 2009). ISBN 978-0-385-52226-7. 
    • Tillman, Mary; Narda Zacchino (2008). Boots on the Ground by Dusk: My Tribute to Pat Tillman. Modern Times. ISBN 1-59486-880-8. 
    • Tillman, Mary; Narda Zacchino (2010). Boots On The Ground By Dusk: Searching for Answers in the Death of Pat Tillman. Blurb, Inc.. 

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