|Panhard AML 60/90|
Panhard AML 90 armoured car at Saumur armour museum
|Type||Light armoured car|
|Place of origin||France|
|Used by||numerous, see text|
|Wars||Portuguese Colonial War|
Six Day War
Angolan Civil War
Lebanese Civil War
Salvadoran Civil War
Western Sahara War
Second Congo War
First Ivorian Civil War
|Number built||over 4,000|
|Variants||AML 60, AML 90, AML 20, M3|
|AML 60: 60 mm breech loading mortar |
AML 90: 90 mm GIAT F1 gun
AML 20: 20 mm G12 cannon
|2 × 7.62 mm MG|
|Engine||Panhard 1.99 l (121 in3) Model 4 HD flat 4-cylinder air-cooled petrol|
•90 hp at 4,700 rpm
•compression ratio 7.5:1
|Ground clearance||330 mm|
The Panhard AML (called the AML 245 by Panhard) 60/90 is a light armoured car, with permanent 4×4 drive for mobility. It can carry either a 90 mm quick firing low pressure gun, or a 60 mm breech loading mortar as main weapons. Night vision equipment enables night-time operations, and it is provided with a modern telecommunications system.
During the 1950s, the French Army used the Daimler Ferret in large numbers but decided to build their own armoured car and Panhard started the production of the AML in 1960. Since then over 4000 vehicles have been completed and manufacture continues for the export market. The AML 60/90 have been sold to over 30 countries. In addition to the French production, 1300 AML 60/90 were built under licence by South Africa under the name of Eland 60/90.
An armoured personnel carrier (APC) version was also developed, the Panhard M3. The M3 and the AML share 95% of working parts, encouraging many countries to employ both the M3 and the AML in order to reduce operational costs.
All Irish Army versions were re-engined with diesel engines.
Fitted with coil spring suspension and drum brakes, the AML lacks hydraulic assist on either brakes or steering; only front wheels steer. It also uses nitrogen-filled inner tubes (in this case Hutchinson V.P.-P.V.s), similar to the EBR, providing run-flat capability, on 16 in (41 cm)-diameter wheels; its 11 in (280 mm)-wide Michelin tires can be deflated to reduce ground pressure to as low as 70 to 110 kPa (10 to 16 psi).
All the versions have a common configuration: the driver is seated in front with a two-seater turret on top. There is a door on each side and the power unit in the back.
- AML 60: 60 mm breech loading mortar and a 7.62 mm machine gun
- AML 60 HE 60-7: 60 mm breech loading mortar and 2 × 7.62 mm machine guns
- AML 60 HE 60-12: 60 mm breech loading mortar and a 12.7 mm machine gun
- AML 60 HE 60-20: 60 mm breech loading mortar and a 20 mm cannon
- AML 60 S530: self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon with dual 20 mm cannons used in Venezuela
- AML 90: 90 mm gun
- AML 90 Lynx: Hispano-Suiza designed turret with a 90 mm GIAT F1 gun, night equipment of vision, and telemeters laser
- Eland 60: South African version of the AML 60 HE60-7
- Eland 90: South African version of the AML 90
- AML 20: Irish Army version which replaced the AML 60 armament with a 20mm cannon.
- Panhard M3: An armoured personnel carrier variant of the Panhard AML.
In the Falklands War, the Argentines deployed 12 AML-90s from Escuadron de Exploracion Caballeria Blindada 181 (181st Armoured Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron) and an unknown additional number from Escuadron de Exploracion Caballeria Blindada 10 near Port Stanley. During the Battle of Wireless Ridge the only armour versus armour engagement of the war was fought when these units encountered FV101 Scorpions and FV107 Scimitars of the Blues and Royals. The armoured cars were abandoned in Stanley after the conflict ended.
AMLs of the Irish Army (under UNIFIL) were involved in actions against Lebanese militia armour at Atiri in South Lebanon in 1980. Two crewmen received one of Ireland's highest military honours, the Military Medal for Gallantry, for their actions at Atiri.
This section is about operators of the Panhard AML. For operators of the South African variant, see Eland Mk7.
- Algeria: 54 AML-60
- Argentina: 50 AML-90
- Bahrain: 23 AML-90
- Bosnia and Herzegovina: 10 AML-90
- Burkina Faso: 15
- Burundi: 30
- Cameroon: 31; ex-Bosnian Army
- Chad: 85; likely replaced by the Eland
- Côte d'Ivoire: 20
- Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Dominican Republic: 20 AML-90
- Djibouti: 24
- Gabon: 18
- Ecuador: 27
- El Salvador: 12 AML-90
- Iraq: 170 delivered between 1967 and 1976
- Israel: 29
- Kenya: 82
- Lebanon: 74
- Mauritania: 60, 39 AML-90 and 20 AML-60
- Morocco: 210
- Niger: 36
- Nigeria: 137
- Rwanda: 15
- Sahrawi Republic
- Saudi Arabia: 235; purchased from France in 1967 for $95,000,000.
- Senegal: 54
- Somalia: 15 AML-90
- Togo: 10
- Tunisia: 18
- United Arab Emirates: 90 AML-90
- Venezuela: 10
- Yemen: 15
- Cambodia: 15 AML-60s in service between 1965 and 1975.
- FNLA: 1 AML-90; saw service during the Angolan Civil War.
- Ethiopia 56 AML-60s
- Ireland: All of the Irish Defence Forces' AML-90s were retired in 2013.
- Libya: 20 AML-90s
- Malaysia: 140 AML-60 and AML-90s
- Portugal: 50 AML-60s, some AML-90s
- South Africa: 100 AMLs procured in 1962, swiftly replaced by Eland Mk2.
- Spain: 140 AML-60 and AML-90s
- UNITA: 1 AML-90 acquired clandestinely through Zaire.
In popular culture
The Panhard AML has made some major film appearances, most notably in The Living Daylights, when two Moroccan army AML-90s were mocked up as Soviet reconnaissance vehicles pursuing Afghan Mujahadeen. These examples included mounted RPK machine guns and communications not dissimilar to those in the BRDM-2.
AMLs were first portrayed in the 1973 French thriller The Day of the Jackal, and 1974 Italian war film Finché c'è guerra c'è speranza, which featured an AML-90 of the Portuguese Armed Forces during the Guinea-Bissau War of Independence.
Two AML-90s erroneously presented as German scout cars serving with the Afrika Korps appear in the 1984 French war film Les Morfalous.
- Ogorkiewicz, R. M. AFV Weapons Profile 039 Panhard Armoured Cars (Windsor, Berks: Profile Publications).
- Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2003), p. 52.
- Van der Bijl, Nicholas (2005). "Argentine Forces in the Falklands". Osprey Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 1-85532-227-7. http://books.google.com.au/books?id=At4WkVvc7tUC&pg=PA23&lpg=PA23&ots=ZIXcSD6Zj5&sig=qXQ5m9HH67nIhgrvzu2Ted5zyTo&ei=4Jk7TYvpBYOovQPXmejICg&ved=0CBcQ6AEwADgK.
- John Guzman. Reflections behind the Retina (2011 ed.). Xlibris Corporation. pp. 1–612. ISBN 9-781-4653-0943-3.
- Otto Lehrack. America's Battalion: Marines in the first Gulf War (2005 ed.). The University of Alabama Press. pp. 188–89. ISBN 2004016593.
- "Trade Registers". Armstrade.sipri.org. http://armstrade.sipri.org/armstrade/page/trade_register.php. Retrieved 2013-06-20.
- "Panhard AML 60/90 Light Scout Car". militaryfactory.com. http://www.militaryfactory.com/armor/detail.asp?armor_id=146. Retrieved 2013-05-02.
- Nachum Baruchy: The Hare'l (10th) Armoured Brigade In The Six Day War. Ariel Publishing, Jerusalem. 2010 (In Hebrew). Baruchy States that the 10th Brigade had one company (9 vehicles) of Panhard AML's.
- Panhard AML 60/90 Light Armored Scout Car (1960)
- IISS Military Balance 1989-90, Brassey's for the IISS, 1989, 113.
- "Panhard AFV Family". Jason W. Henson. http://www.harpoondatabases.com/encyclopedia/entry2727.aspx. Retrieved 2013-06-20.
- Stephen Zaloga. T-34-85 Medium Tank 1944-94 (2011 ed.). Osprey Publishing. p. 40. ISBN 1-85532-535-7.
- Christopher F. Foss, Jane's Tank and Combat Vehicle Recognition Guide, HarperCollins Publishers, London 2002. ISBN 0-00-712759-6
- Ogorkiewicz, R. M. AFV Weapons Profile 039 Panhard Armoured Cars. Windsor, Berks: Profile Publications.
- Peter Gerard Locke & Peter David Farquharson Cooke, Fighting Vehicles and Weapons of Rhodesia 1965-80, P&P Publishing, Wellington 1995 ISSN 0-473-02413-6
- Steven J. Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2): The wars of 1973 to the present, Concord Publications, Hong Kong 2003. ISBN 962-361-613-9
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