Military Wiki
Ottoman–Portuguese conflicts (1558–1566)
Part of the Ottoman–Portuguese conflicts
Locationthe Indian Ocean
Result Portuguese victory
Flag of Portugal (1521).svg Portuguese Empire

Fictitious Ottoman flag 4.svg Ottoman Empire

Ajuran Sultanate
Commanders and leaders
Estêvão da Gama Seydi Ali Reis
Salih Reis
Sefer Reis

The third Ottoman–Portuguese conflicts (1558–1566) was a period of armed military conflict between the Portuguese Empire and the Ottoman Empire in the Indian Ocean. Portugal had been victorious in the second Ottoman–Portuguese conflicts (1538–1559), however the Ottomans were determined to dominate the Indian Ocean, and curb the continuous expansion of the Portuguese Empire in the Indian Ocean, which threatened the Ottoman monopoly of the spice trade through the Middle East. During this period, the Ottomans attacked Portuguese ships, forts, and settlements in the Indian Ocean, Asia and East Africa. This period came to an end in 1566, with the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, and the Ottoman Empire's following acceptance of Portugal's domination of the Indian Ocean.



After the Portuguese seized Malacca in 1529, the Javanese and Acehense made multiple attempts to take it back. One such attempt took place in 1558, in which 15,000 Acehnese and 400 Ottoman artillerymen laid siege to Malacca for a month, before conceding defeat.[1]

Persian Gulf

One key area of the conflict was Bahrain, which had been conquered by the Portuguese in 1521, and ruled indirectly since then.[2] In 1558, the Governor of Al-Hasa had attempted to invade Bahrain, but was decisively beaten back. After this, the Portuguese effectively controlled the entirety of the naval traffic in the Persian Gulf. They raided the Ottoman coastal city of Al-Katif during this time, in 1559.[3] After this, a tense truce was gradually formed, wherein the Ottomans were allowed to control the overland routes into Europe, thereby keeping Basra, which the Portuguese had been eager to acquire, and the Portuguese were allowed to dominate sea trade to India and East Africa.[4] The Ottomans then shifted their focus to the Red Sea, which they had been expanding into previously, with the acquisition of Egypt in 1517, and Aden in 1538.[5]

See also



  • Clodfelter, Micheal (2017). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492–2015. McFarland. ISBN 9781476625850. 
  • Shillington, Kevin (2013). Encyclopedia of African History. Routledge. ISBN 9781135456702. 
  • Dumper, Michael R.T.; Stanley, Bruce E. (2007). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: a Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-Clio. ISBN 9781576079195. 
  • İnalcık, Halıl; Quataert, Donald (1994). An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1914. Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 9780521343152. 
  • Larsen, Curtis E. (1983). Life and Land Use on the Bahrain Islands: the Geoarcheology of an Ancient Society. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-46906-5. 

Further reading

  • Britannica Hungarica, Hungarian encyclopedia, Hungarian World publisher, Budapest 1994.

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