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Ottoman–Persian War (1775–1776)
Part of the Ottoman–Persian Wars
Karim Khan Zand with the Ottoman Ambassador Vehbi Effendi.png
Karim Khan Zand with the Ottoman envoy Vehbi Efendi.
LocationMesopotamia (Iraq)
Result Persian relative victory (Ottomans lost Basra for three years)[1][2]

Zand dynasty

  • Zand Dynasty flag.svg Velayat of Ardalan

Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire

  • Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1844–1922).svg Mamluk dynasty
Commanders and leaders
Karim Khan Zand
Sadeq Khan Zand
Khosrow Khan Bozorg
Ottoman Empire Abdul Hamid I
Ottoman Empire Suleiman al-Jalili
Southern Persian Military, Zandieh Regiments Unknown
Casualties and losses
Unknown Unknown

The Ottoman–Persian War of 1775–1776 was fought between the Ottoman Empire and the Zand dynasty of Persia. The Persians, ruled by Karim Khan and led by his brother Sadeq Khan Zand,[3] invaded southern Iraq[4] and after besieging Basra for a year, took the city from the Ottomans in 1776.[5] The Ottomans, unable to send troops, were dependent on the Mamluk governors to defend that region.

In an attempt to raise troops and provisions for this war, Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamid I, made Suleiman al-Jalili mubayaaci (official of provisions), ordering him to send provisions to Baghdad, which he ignored, instead he restricted merchants from selling their goods.[6] As a result, the Persians held Basra until 1779 when the Ottomans, under Sulayman Agha,[7] retook the city, following Karim Khan's death.[8]

See also


  1. Encyclopedia Iranica : "In 1775 the Wakil sent his brother (Moḥammad) Ṣādeq Khan to besiege Basra in Ottoman Iraq, which after a yearlong siege was taken and occupied until Karim Khan’s death in 1779"
  2. Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A-E : page 113 : "Jealous of the Turkish port of Basra, Persian Regent Karim Khan sent a siege force under his brother Sadiq Khan. an Omani fleet broke the blocade but a relief force from Baghdad was repulsed and Governor Sulayman Aqa was finally starved into surrender"
  3. Mohibbul Hasan, Waqai-i manazil-i Rum: Tipu Sultan's mission to Constantinople, (Aakar Books, 2005), 19.
  4. Dina Rizk Khoury, State and Provincial Society in the Ottoman Empire: Mosul, 1540-1834, (Cambridge University Press, 2002), 47.
  5. Dina Rizk Khoury, State and Provincial Society in the Ottoman Empire: Mosul, 1540-1834, 44.
  6. Dina Rizk Khoury, State and Provincial Society in the Ottoman Empire: Mosul, 1540-1834, 69.
  7. 'Abd al-Hamid I, M. Cavid Baysun, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, ed. H.A.R. Gibb, J.H. Kramers, E. Levi-Provencal and J. Schacht, (Brill, 1986), 62.
  8. Dionisius A. Agius, In the Wake of the Dhow: The Arabian Gulf and Oman, (Ithaca Press, 2010), 15.


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