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Battle of Fontenoy with key to French and Allied deployments.

The Battle of Fontenoy, 11 May 1745, was a major engagement of the War of the Austrian Succession, fought between the forces of the Pragmatic Allies – comprising mainly Dutch, British, and Hanoverian troops, as well a relatively small contingent of Austrians under the command of the Duke of Cumberland – and a French army under the titular command of King Louis XV of France, with actual field command held by Maurice de Saxe, commander of Louis XV's forces in the Low Countries.

When the two armies met on the field they were approximately equal in numbers.[1] Although there is not complete agreement among historians on the exact numbers, there is general agreement that there were about 50,000 men on each side with the French having more cavalry and the allies having more infantry. Some historians put the French as more numerous while others make the allies more numerous.[2]

Complete agreement on the order of battle, sizes of the armies, precise returns on casualties is not possible as official returns are few and made by different countries with differing criteria and not all are made at the same time so that variations and disagreements will occur even in those returns of the same army. For example, Skrine points out his book in Fontenoy and Great Britain's share in the war of the Austrian Succession that most of the British troops that were listed as missing, in initial returns, turned out to have been killed or wounded.[3] There are detailed, contemporary, official returns in various forms available for most troops in both armies except for the French cavalry for which there are some lists of officer casualties but the returns for the rank and file were apparently not made and the estimate generally accepted for their losses is the one made by Voltaire shortly after the battle. Wherever possible, names of units and numbers of casualties are given without any attempt to reconcile or synthesize the various sources.

Order of Battle for the Army of Louis XV of France at Fontenoy 1745

Historians give various estimates for the French army. With a general lack of primary source information just before the battle on the exact number of soldiers involved, the estimates rely on a better understanding of the numbers of battalions and squadrons present at the battle and multiply the total of battalions and squadrons by an average for each. Skrine arrives at his estimate by multiplying the number of battalions by 690 soldiers and the number of squadrons by 160 troopers. This approach can be flawed. Lucien Moulliard in The French Army of Louis XV[4] states that the regulation strength, or paper strength, of a battalion is 685 men and that of a squadron is 150 to 160. Actual field strength[5] is lower than regulation strength due to various forms of attrition such as illness, straggling, desertion death, wounds or capture in battle prior to the battle in question.

French Army

Unit Commander Complement Killed Wounded Missing Total loses
Army of France Marshal Maurice de Saxe 52,000 ~ 47,000 engaged[6]
32,000 Infantry in 55 battalions[7]
14,000 Cavalry in 101 squadrons
7,000[8]-7,500
5,161 Infantry[9]
2,300 Cavalry[10]
Left of first French Infantry Line General Lutteaux
Rgt. Royal Corse 1 battalion
Rgt. Angoumois 1 battalion 1 off.
Brigade Normandie Comte de Berenger
Rgt. Normandie 4 battalions 4 off. 57 men 19 off. 152 men
Grassins in Bari Wood 2 battalions 98 men 11 off. 132 men
Brigade d'Eu Marquis de Chambonas 4 battalions
Rgt. d'Eu in 2 redoubts 1 battalion 4 guns
each redoubt
1 man 29 men
Irish Brigade Milord Thomond &
Comte de Rooth
6 battalions 13 off. 261 men[11] 58 off. 324 men
Rgt. Dillon 1 battalion 3 off. 51 men 11 off. 70 men
Rgt. Bulkeley 1 battalion 20 men 4 off. 34 men
Rgt. Clare 1 battalion 4 off. 206 men 14 off. 72 men
Rgt. Rooth 1 battalion 2 off. 47 men 8 off. 46 men
Rgt. Berwick 1 battalion 1 off. 52 men 11 off.60 men
Rgt. Lally Thomas Arthur, comte de Lally 1 battalion 3 off. 35 men 11 off. 42 men
Center of first French Infantry Line General Chabannes
Les Gardes Brigade Duc de Grammont 6 battalions
Gardes Françaises 4 battalions 2 off. 96 men 17 off. 296 men
Gardes Suisses 2 battalions 1 off. 66 men 10 off. 149 men
Brigade Aubeterre
Rgt. Aubeterre 1 battalion 129 men 22 off. 177 men
Rgt. Courten 3 battalions 6 off. 75 men[12] 14 off. 206 men
Center of first French Line in Fontenoy
Brigade Dauphin General Vauguyon
Rgt. Dauphin 3 battalions 4 off. 45 men 3 off. 60 men
Rgt. Beauvoisis 1 battalion 15 men 5 off. 30 men
Right of first French Infantry Line General Montagne
Brigade Royal Vaisseaux Comte de Guerchy 4 battalions
Rgt, Royal Vaisseaux 3 battalions 3 off. 146 men 29 off. 291 men
Rgt. Languedoc 1 battalion off. men off. men
Brigade du Roi Duc de Biron
Rgt. du Roi 4 battalions 4 off. 79 men 33 off. 299 men
Brigade Royal
Rgt. Royal 4 battalions 6 off. 136 men 32 off. 509 men
Brigade La Couronne Marquis de Croissy 4 battalions
Rgt. La Couronne Duc d'Havre 3 battalions 2 off.41 men 35 off. 218 men
Rgt. Soissonais 1 battalion 2 off. 30 men 16 off. 101 men
Brigade Bettens 4 battalions
Rgt. Bettens 3 battalions 1 off. 50 men 5 off. 50 men
Rgt. Hainault 1 battalion 1 off. 120 men 18 off. 135 men
Rgt. Diesbach 1 battalion 2 off. 48 men 2 off. 28 men
Rgt. Royal Artillerie 1 battalion 2 off. 18 men 5 off. 36 men
Rgt. Auvergne 1 battalion off. men off. men
Rgt.Tresnel off. men off. men
off. men off. men
off. men off. men
off. men off. men
off. men off. men
Rgt.Touraine 3 battalions off. men off. men
Rgt. Nivernois 1 battalion off. men off. men
Brigade Crillon 4 battalions
Rgt. Crillon 3 battalions 20 men 1 off. 101 men
Rgt. Laval
Right of first French Line in Antoing
Brigade Piedmont 5 battalions
Rgt. Piedmont 4 battalions
Rgt.Royal la Marine 1 battalion off. men off. men
Rgt.Biron 1 battalion off. men off. men
French Horse 31 off.[13] 142 off. 330 men[14] 1,800 - 2,300[15]
Left of first French Cavalry Line
Carabiniers 10 squadrons 60 off.[16] 130 men 22 off. men ?
Maison du Roi 9 squadrons 4 off.[17] men 24 off. men
Gendarmerie 4 squadrons 1 off. men 2 off. men
Royal Rousillon 4 squadrons 1 off. men 7 off. men
Royal Cravattes 4 squadrons 1 off. men 6 off. men
Fiennes 4 squadrons 2 off. men 13 off. men
Penthièvre 4 squadrons off. men 22 off. men
Noailles 4 squadrons 3 off. men 8 off. men
Berry 4 squadrons 1 off. men 8 off. men
Colonel-Général 4 squadrons 1 off. men 6 off. men
Brancas 4 squadrons 1 off. men 2 off. men
Mestre de Camps 4 squadrons 1 off. men off. men
d'Orleans 4 squadrons off. men off. men
de Pons 4 squadrons off. men 7 off. men
Prince Camille 4 squadrons 1 off. men 4 off. men
Dragons du Roi 4 squadrons off. men off. men
Cuirassiers du Roi 4 squadrons off. men off. men
Cavalrie du Roi 4 squadrons off. men off. men
Clermont-Prince 4 squadrons 1 off. men 3 off. men
Clermont-Tonnerre 4 squadrons off. men off. men
Egmont off. men off. men
Fitz-James 4 squadrons 11 off.
or wounded?[18] men
7 off. men
Brienne 2 off. men 2 off. men
Chabrillant 4 squadrons 1 off. men off. men
Royal Étranger 4 squadrons off. men 1 off. men
Talleyrand 4 squadrons off. men off. men
off. men off. men
French Artillery 90-110 guns, sources vary.[19] M. du Brocard 3 battalions[20]
8 X 12-pounders
6 X 8-pounders
36 X 4-pounders
50 X 4-pounder Suédoise[21]
4 off. 34 men 10 off. 73 men
Fontenay 1 battalion 1 off. 13 men 4 off. 29 men
Pumbeque 1 battalion 1 off.
Richecourt 1 battalion 2 off. 21 men 5 off. 43 men

Order of Battle for the Army of the Pragmatic Allies of Britain, Hanover, the Dutch Republic and Austria at Fontenoy 1745

The British army foot and cavalry regiments had a peacetime establishment, a wartime establishment, an effective strength and a field strength. Peacetime establishment was a much reduced strength that was increased during the war by Parliament. However, the wartime establishment was frequently unmet as there was always some variable number of purposely unfilled rank and file to provide the regiment with some flexible funding. The effective strength, therefore, was actual number of rank and file that was initially sent on campaign. The effective strength would immediately begin to vary as the campaign progressed due to sickness, wounds or death in battle, desertion, new reinforcement drafts, etc. and the resultant strengths at any given time are the field strengths. British foot regiments generally consisted of a single battalion made up of a variable number of companies, usually 9 or 10. Some foot regiments, such as the Guards, had more than one battalion but the battalions of a regiment rarely served together in the field. Cavalry regiments consisted of 1 to 4 squadrons.

The Historical memoirs of His late Royal Highness William-Augustus, duke of Cumberland[22] explains in a foot note that, according to a return in 1749, for the 1st Foot Guards wartime establishment strength voted by Parliament was 3,080 while the effective strength was 2,689, the 2nd Foot Guards was 1,980 establishment and effective 1,842, the 3rd Foot Guards 1,980; effective 1,630. There were 3 battalions in the 1st Foot Guards, 2 of 9 companies and one of 10. As can be seen from the above, the average establishment strength of a battalion of the 1st Guards is slightly over 1,000 while the effective strength is about 895 and the 2nd is 990 and 921 while the 3rd is 895 and 815. For the entire army of 43,676 men voted by Parliament the effective strength was 38,200 in 1749.

As for other armies, historians often determine the army's strength based on an average strength for the battalion or squadron. In 1745 Parliament voted 28,107 men in Flanders[23] consisting of: 2 troops of Horse Guards, 1 of Horse Grenadier Guards, 3 regiments of horse, six of dragoons; 21 regiments (battalions) of foot, 3 battalions of Foot Guards.[24] This force, less four regiments of foot and one regiment of dragoons,[25] is the British contingent at Fontenoy. Rolt gives an estimated strength for this force at Fontenoy as 21,000 consisting of 20 battalions of foot and 26 squadrons of horse.[26] Colin is in close agreement with this estimate with a further breakdown of the total with 16,170 foot in 20 battalions and 4,656 horse in 26 squadrons, giving an average battalion strength of 808 men and an average squadron strength of 179.[27] Skrine, who gives impossibly high field strengths for French foot battalions, uses remarkably low average field strengths for British battalions and squadrons: 650 per battalion and 150 per squadron by which he arrives at his total for the British contingent of 16,900 (13,000 foot and 3,900 horse).[28]

Unit Commander Complement Killed Wounded Missing Total Losses
Pragmatic Army William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland 50,000[29]
Infantry in 52 battalions
Cavalry in 85 squadrons
93 guns:[30] 47 British, 34 Dutch, 12 Hanoverian
7,370[31]
In addition, 4,200 captured:
2,368 wounded;[32] 3,000 stragglers
40 cannon

British contingent

Unit Commander Complement Killed[33] Wounded Missing[34] Total Losses
British contingent
of Allied Right Wing
William Augustus,
Duke of Cumberland
21,000[35]
16,170 foot in 20 battalions
4,656 horse in 26 squadrons
48 off. 1,442 men 153 off. 1,926 men 16 off. 295 men 3,879 men[36]
21 guns[37]
British Foot Sir John Ligonier
Guards Brigade Major General John Churchill
1st Foot Guards 1 battalion 4 off. 85 men 7 off. 142 men
2nd Foot Guards 1 battalion 3 off. 112 men 8 off. 116 men
3rd Foot Guards 1 battalion 4 off. 105 men 7 off. 131 men
Ponsonby's Brigade Ponsonby
Royal Scots (1st Foot) 1 battalion 87 men 8 off. 83 men 8 men
Scots Fusiliers(21st Foot) 1 battalion 2 off. 201 men 9 off. 144 men 3 off. 15 men
Handaside's (31st Foot) 1 battalion 4 off. 139 men 5 off. 100 men 13 men
Onslow's Brigade Onslow
Onslow's (8th Foot) 1 battalion 16 men 7 off. 83 men 31 men
Rothe's/Sempill's (25th Foot) 1 battalion 1 off. 59 men 10 off. 76 men 13 men
Johnson's (33rd Foot) 1 battalion 6 off. 42 men 12 off. 84 men 30 men
Howard's (19th Foot) 1 battalion 2 off. 17 men 8 off. 70 men 13 men
Howard's Brigade Howard
Howard's (3rd Foot) 1 battalion 1 off. 11 men 2 off. 32 men 8 men
Welsh Fusiliers (23rd Foot) 1 battalion 4 off. 185 men 10 off. 77 men 8 off. 39 men
Skelton's (32nd Foot) 1 battalion 16 men 5 off. 100 men 1 off. 17 men
Bland's Brigade Bland
Sowle's (11th Foot) 1 battalion 4 off. 49 men 2 off. 112 men 1 off. 46 men
Bragg's (28th Foot) Lieutenant-Colonel
Lord George Sackville
1 battalion 1 off. 27 men 9 off. 76 men 1 off. 12 men
Skelton's Brigade Skelton
Cholmondeley's (34th Foot) 1 battalion off. 27 men 6 off. 84 men 28 men
Bligh's (20th Foot) 1 battalion 1 off. 28 men 5 off. 35 men
Ingoldsby's Brigade Colonel James Ingoldsby
Duroure's (12th Foot) Colonel Duroure[38] 1 battalion 7 off. 153 men 12 off. 149 men 3 men
Pulteney's (13th Foot) 1 battalion 1 off. 37 men 4 off. 41 men 10 men
Sempill's Highlanders (42nd Foot) Colonel Sir Robert Munro 1 battalion 2 off. 30 men 3 off. 88 men 13 men
British Horse Lieutenant General
James Campbell
Earl of Rothes' Brigade
2nd Dragoons (Scots Greys) 3 squadrons 14 men 1 off. 11 men
Hawley's Royal Dragoons (1st Royal Dragoons) 3 squadrons 14 men 4 off. 31 men
Bland's King's Own Dragoons (3rd Hussars) 9 men 2 off. 14 men 1 off. 7 men
Cope's Queen's Own Dragoons (7th Hussars) 3 squadrons 1 off. 10 men 5 off. 35 men 3 men
Stair's 6th Dragoons (6th (Inniskilling) Dragoons) 3 squadrons 1 off. 3 men 11 men 3 men
Brigade
3rd troop Horse Guards (Life Guards) 4 men 1 off. 14 men
4th troop Horse Guards (Life Guards) 2 men 2 off. 12 men
2nd troop Horse Grenadiers (Life Guards) 4 men 4 off. 10 men
Blues (Royal Horse Guards) 3 squadrons 10 men 5 off. 39 men
Honeywood's (1st Dragoon Guards) 7 men 1 off. 4 men 1 man
Ligonier's Black Horse (7th Dragoon Guards) 2 squadrons 3 men 1 off. 4 men 1 man
British Artillery Colonel Lewis 47 guns:[39]
10 6-pounders, 27 3-pounders,
6 1&1/2-pounders, 4 8-inch howitzers
1 off. 4 men 23 men

Hanoverian contingent

Unit Commander Complement Killed Wounded Missing[40] Total Losses
Hanoverian contingent

of Allied Right Wing

General Zastrow 7,000[41] 17 off. 468 men 77 off. 1,125 men 54 men 1,741[42]
Hanoverian Foot [43] General Ilten 4,135[44][45] in 5 battalions 12 off. 420 men 38 off. 912 men 50 men
Rgt. Böschlanger 1 battalion 156 201 20
Rgt. Zastrow 1 battalion 90 209
Rgt. Sporken 1 battalion 65 214
Rgt. Oberg 1 battalion 54 155 28
Rgt. Campen 1 battalion 67 141 2
Hanoverian Horse 2,840[44][46] 4 off. 64 men 28 off. 201 men 3 men
Rgt. d'Acerre 2 squadrons
Rgt. Leib Han 2 squadrons
Rgt. Von Aldeleben 4 squadrons
Rgt. Von Dachenhausen 2 squadrons
Rgt. Von der Bussche 4 squadrons
Rgt. Von Montigny 2 squadrons
Rgt. Von Wendt 4 squadrons
Hanoverian Artillery 12 3-pounder guns[44][47] 1 off. 3 men 2 off. 12 men 1 man

Austrian contingent

Unit Commander Complement Killed Wounded Missing Total Losses
Austrian contingent Marshal Joseph Königsegg 2,000 420[48]
Austrian Horse 1,650 in 11 squadrons 23 47 11 81
Dragoons de Ligne 8 squadrons[49]
Rgt. Karolyi Hussars 3 squadrons, 450 troopers
Austrian Foot
2 Freikorps Companies 250 men

Dutch contingent

Unit Commander Complement Killed[50] Wounded Missing Total Losses
Dutch contingent
of the Allied Left Wing
Karl August,
Prince of Waldeck
22,000[51] 563 757 221 1541[52]
Dutch Foot General Cronström 18 off. 485 men 44 off. 649 men 1 off. 202 men
Garde te Voet (Dutch) 2 battalions 1 off. 11 men 13 men 1 off. 5 men
Waldeck (German) 1 battalion 1 off. 22 men 3 off. 47 men
Cronström (Dutch) 1 battalion 41 men 2 off. 37 men 2 men
Grenadiers van Dorrh (Dutch) 1 battalion 32 men 6 off. 33 men 4 men
Ayla 1 battalion 1 off. 10 men 2 off. 44 men
Van Smissaert (Walloon) 1 battalion 1 off. 18 men 1 off. 10 men 4 men
Schaumberg-Lippe (German) 1 battalion 2 off. 13 men 47 men 21 men
Bentinck (German) 1 battalion 13 men 2 off. 25 men 7 men
Constant-Rebecque (Swiss) 3 battalions 1 off. 58 men 6 off. 119 men 4 men
Buddenbroek (Dutch) 1 battalion 1 off. 24 men 3 off. 67 men 11 men
Bronckhorst (Dutch 1 battalion 18 men 1 off. 22 men 21 men
Oranje-Vriesland (Dutch) 1 battalion 2 off. 28 men 3 off. 35 men 39 men
Oranje-Groningen (Dutch) 1 battalion 2 off. 24 men 4 off. 56 men 36 men
Salis (Swiss) 2 battalions 3 off. 59 men 2 off. 58 men 28 men
Sturler (Swiss) 2 battalions 1 off. 36 men 4 off. 45 men
Broekhuysen (Dutch) 1 battalion 1 off. 44 men 3 off. 45 men 3 men
Grenadiers van Rijssel (Dutch) 1 battalion 1 off. 64 men 2 off. 37 men 47 men
Unnamed Grenadier units 4 battalions
Dutch Horse 3 off. 57 men 3 off. 61 men 18 men
Garde-Dragonder (Dutch) 10 squadrons 2 off. 12 men 1 off. 11 men 9 men
Homburg 3 squadrons 2 men 2 men 4 men
Comte-Maurice
Gincken (Dutch) 3 squadrons 2 men 2 men
Hopp (Dutch) 3 squadrons 1 men 5 men
Schaek (Dutch) 3 squadrons 1 men 3 men 2 men
Sandouville 3 squadrons 2 men 2 men
Hœuft van Oyen Carabiniers (Dutch) 2 squadrons 6 men 14 men
Schlippenbach (Dutch) 7 squadrons 20 men 3 off. 18 men 1 man
Lynden (Dutch) 3 squadrons 1 off. 9 men 3 men 1 man
Buys (Dutch) 1 squadron 1 man
Nassau-Overkirk (Dutch) 5 squadrons 2 men 1 man
Rechteren-Overijssel (Dutch) 3 squadrons
Dutch Artillery 34 guns:
24 3-pounders; 6 6-pounders; 4 howitzers

Footnotes

  1. Browning: Austrian Succession,p. 212
  2. Browning: Austrian Succession, 212, 392 Browning states both Colin and Chandler give the allies the larger force. Strengths differ depending on source. Weigley puts Allies strength at 46,000 and the French at 50,000 in a somewhat brief and garbled account without any attribution, p.204, So too, Black p.66. Townshend, Sir Charles Vere Ferrers. The military life of Field-Marshal George first marquess Townshend, London, 1901, pp. 51-52, gives the British as 21,000. Other sources put the figure of around 52,000–53,000. Duncan, Francis. History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, London, 1879, Vol.1, p. 127, "The strength of the allies did not exceed 53,000".
  3. Skrine, p.190.
  4. Moulliard, Lucien. The French Army of Louis XV in the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years War, Translated by Dr. George Nafziger, USA, 2004, ISBN 1-58545-122-3, pp. 44, 68, 74.
  5. Field strength is the number of men present and under arms and any point in time in the field, such as a battle.
  6. Townshend, p. 178, 5,000 detailed far to the rear at bridges.
  7. Boyle P.. The Irish Brigade at Fontenoy from the The Irish Ecclesiastical Record, Vol. XVII, 1905, Dublin, p. 429.
  8. Townshend, p.189.
  9. Skrine, p.188, cites Pajol and also Voltaire who gives 7,137; 5,337 infantry, 1,800 cavalry. Pajol, p. 386, Les Guerres, gives 5,161; Colin, Pièces Justificatives pp. 380-401, shows this as the official return for the infantry only - there does not appear to be return for the cavalry, other than the officers, an additional 31 killed and 142 wounded. Broglie gives 53 officers and 1,681 soldiers killed and 3282 wounded, including 323 seriously wounded, and estimates 1,800 cavalry casualties.
  10. Colin, Fontenoy.V. 3, p.149.
  11. Boyle P.. The Irish Brigade at Fontenoy from the The Irish Ecclesiastical Record, Vol. XVII, 1905, Dublin, p. 442, infantry totals less Fitz James' cavalry.
  12. Broglie, p.15. Gives 6 off, 75 soldiers killed; 14 off. 200 soldiers wounded. Some sources show killed & wounded numbers reversed.
  13. Colin, pp 399-405
  14. Colin, p.425, gives 330 wounded troopers in hospital at Lille.
  15. Voltaire gives 1800 estimate as does Broglie. Colin gives 2,300, p. 149.
  16. Colin, Revue d'histoire rédigée à l'État-major de l'Armée, section historique, 1905/01 (A7,VOL17,N49)-1905/03 (A7,VOL17,N51), letter to the count of Langeron, p.497. This statement is possibly the source for the estimate of the cavalry losses of 1,800. Broglie, La Journee de Fontenoy, p.20. gives 6 off. killed 21 wounded. Skrine, p.177, likely follows Broglie.
  17. Gailly, Fontenoy
  18. The Irish Ecclesiastical Record, Vol. XVII, 1905, Dublin, p. 442. O'Callaghan, p. 365, gives 24 killed or wounded.
  19. Pichat, Le Campagne du Maréchal de Saxe, Paris, 1909, p. 331, shows an official return for Saxe's army with 100 cannon 8 X12-lb, 6 X 8-lb, 86 X 4 lb.[1]
  20. Casualties from Colin, V.3, Pièces Justificatives, pp. 397 -398 and includes Brocard.
  21. Sources vary for the French from 90 to 110 guns, all show 75-80 4 lb battalion guns in the total.
  22. Rolt, Richard. Historical memoirs of His late Royal Highness William-Augustus, duke of Cumberland, London, MDCCLXVII. p.469.
  23. Rolt, p.176
  24. Rolt, 178.
  25. Townsend lists British reinforcements that quickly reached the army and are likely the units as the numbers correspond: Rich's Dragoons, Barrel's Foot (4th King's Own), Flemming's (36th), Ponsonby's (37th), Price's (14th). p. 72.
  26. Rolt, p.190,191.
  27. Colin, Vol. 3, p. 373.
  28. Skrine, p. 146.
  29. Skrine gives 46,800; 34,500 infantry in 52 battalions and 12,750 cavalry in 85 squadrons. Townsend gives 53,000: 21,000 British, 8,000 Hanoverians, 22,000 Dutch, 2,000 Austrians, pp.51-52.
  30. Skrine gives 80, p.146. Boyle gives 93, p. 428. Individual sources add up to 93.
  31. Townshend gives 7,370; Colin gives 7,280; Gentlemen's Magazine gives 7,347. Rolt gives 7,767, p. 234.
  32. Colin give returns of 2,368 allied wounded in French hospitals of which 310 died, V.3, p. 151. Skrine, p.215, mentions D'Estrées capturing 3,000 stragglers on the 12th and then another 1200 allied wounded.
  33. Townshend, Sir Charles Vere Ferrers. The military life of Field-Marshal George first marquess Townshend, London, 1901. Most British casualties drawn from Townshend. p. and Skrine, Francis Henry. Fontenoy and Great Britain's Share in the War of the Austrian Succession 1741–48. London, 1906, p.190.
  34. According to Skrine, p. 190, almost all the missing were found to have been killed.
  35. Townshend, pp. 51-52. Rolt, p.190. Colin, p. 373.
  36. Townshend gives 4,074, however he does not list Rothe's nor include the 25th's loses (159) in his total; Colin states Waldeck gives 3,993; Gentlemen's Magazine gives 4,041.
  37. Townshend, p.78.
  38. Skrine, p. 369
  39. Skrine, p. 135. Duncan, Francis. History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, London, 1879, Vol.1, p.127, gives a total of 47 cannon for the British contingent : ten 6-pounders, twenty-seven 3-pounders, six 1&1/2 -pounders, four 8-inch howitzers.
  40. According to Skrine, p. , almost all the missing were found to have been killed
  41. Townshend, Sir Charles Vere Ferrers. The military life of Field-Marshal George first marquess Townshend, London, 1901, pp. 51-52, gives 8,000.
  42. Townsend gives 1,742, Gentlemen's Magazine, Vol. XV, 1745, p. 247, gives 1,762, Colin pp. 376-378, gives 1,662.
  43. Individual regimental casualties from Skrine, p.190.
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 Colin, p. 373. Pièces Justificatives.
  45. Skrine gives 3250.
  46. Skrine, p.146, gives 1,200.
  47. The Nafziger Collection of Orders of Battle OB for Allied army in Flanders April–May 1745.[2]
  48. O'Callaghan, John Cornelius. History of the Irish Brigades in the Service of France, London, 1870, p.365.
  49. Skrine, p.146
  50. Colin, Jean Lambert Alphonse. Les Campagnes du Maréchal de Saxe, 1901–06, Vol. 3, pp. 374-375. Dutch individual unit casualties from Colin.
  51. Townshend, Sir Charles Vere Ferrers. The military life of Field-Marshal George first marquess Townshend, London, 1901, pp. 51-52.
  52. Townshend gives 1554

Bibliography

  • Black, Jeremy (1998). Britain as a Military Power, 1688–1815. Routledge. ISBN 1-85728-772-X.
  • Boyle P.. The Irish Brigade at Fontenoy from the The Irish Ecclesiastical Record, Vol. XVII, 1905, Dublin.
  • Broglie, Albert le Duc de. La Journée De Fontenoy, Paris, 1891.
  • Chandler, David G. The Art of Warfare in the Age of Marlborough. Spellmount Limited. 1990. ISBN 0-946771-42-1.
  • Colin, Jean Lambert Alphonse. Les Campagnes du Maréchal de Saxe, 3 volumes. Paris: R. Chapelot, 1901–06, Volumes 1-3: Volume 3 Fontenoy is divided into 2 parts: Colin's narrative of the battle and the some 500 pages of the Piéces Justificatives which are contemporary accounts of the battle, records, returns, letters, etc.. Both parts have their own pagination. Much of this is available in the Revue d'histoire rédigée à l'État-major de l'armée, Section historique, 1905/01 (A7,VOL17,N49)-1905/03 (A7,VOL17,N51). Online: [3]
  • d' Espagnac, Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Damarzit de Sahuguet. Histoire de Maurice, comte de Saxe, duc de Courlande et de Semigalle, Volume 2, Paris, MDCCLXXV.
  • Duncan, Francis. History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, London, 1879, Vol.1.
  • Fortescue, J. W.. A History of the British Army, Macmillan, London, 1899, Vol. II.
  • Hamilton, Lieutenant-General F.W..Origin and History of the First or Grenadier Guards, London, 1874, Vol. II.
  • Mackinnon, Daniel. Origin and services of the Coldstream Guards, London 1883, Vol.I.
  • O'Callaghan, John Cornelius. History of the Irish Brigades in the Service of France, London, 1870.
  • Pajol, Charles Pierre Victor. Les Guerres sous Louis XV', Tome III, Adamant Media Corp. 2006, ISBN 0-543-74378-0.
  • Pichat, Henry. La Campagne du Maréchal de Saxe dans les Flandres, Paris, 1909.[4]
  • Rolt, Richard. Historical memoirs of His late Royal Highness William-Augustus, duke of Cumberland, London, MDCCLXVII.
  • Skrine, Francis Henry. Fontenoy and Great Britain's Share in the War of the Austrian Succession 1741–48. London, 1906.
  • Townshend, Sir Charles Vere Ferrers. The military life of Field-Marshal George first marquess Townshend, London, 1901.
  • Weigley, Russell F (1991). The Age of Battles: The Quest for Decisive Warfare from Breitenfeld to Waterloo. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-36380-2.
  • White, Jon Manchip. Marshal of France, The Life and Times of Maurice de Saxe, Rand McNally & Co., 1962.

Additional reading

  • Gailly de Taurines, Charles. Fontenoy (11 Mai 1745), Liste Par Régiment Des Officiers Tués ou Blessés tirée des archives de la guerre., A. Picard et fils, 1904.

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