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Operation Unified Protector
Part of 2011 military intervention in Libya
NATO Unified Protector logo
Date23 March – 31 October 2011
(222 days)
LocationLibyan airspace and Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Libya

 NATO-led coalition[1]

  •  Belgium
  •  Bulgaria
  •  Canada
  •  Denmark
  •  France
  •  Greece
  •  Italy
  •  Jordan
  •  Netherlands
  •  Norway
  •  Qatar
  •  Romania
  •  Spain
  •  Sweden
  •  Turkey
  •  United Arab Emirates
  •  United Kingdom
  •  United States
 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Commanders and leaders

United States James G. Stavridis[2]

Canada Charles Bouchard[2]
(Operational Commander)

United States Ralph Jodice[2]
(Air Commander)

Italy Rinaldo Veri[2]
(Maritime Commander)

Libya Muammar Gaddafi
(De facto Commander-in-Chief)

Libya Abu-Bakr Yunis Jabr
(Minister of Defense)

Libya Khamis al-Gaddafi
(Khamis Brigade Commander)

Libya Ali Sharif al-Rifi
(Air Force Commander)
See deployed forces

Operation Unified Protector was an NATO operation enforcing United Nations Security Council resolutions 1970 and 1973 concerning the Libyan civil war and adopted on 26 February and 17 March 2011, respectively. These resolutions imposed sanctions on key members of the Gaddafi government and authorized NATO to implement an arms embargo, a no-fly zone and to use all means necessary, short of foreign occupation, to protect Libyan civilians and civilian populated areas.[3] The operation started on 23 March and gradually expanded during the following weeks, by integrating more and more elements of the multinational military intervention, which had started on 19 March in response to the same UN resolutions. As of 31 March 2011 it encompassed all international operations in Libya. NATO support was vital to the rebel victory over the forces loyal to Gaddafi. The operation officially ended on 31 October 2011, after the rebel leaders, formalized in the National Transitional Council, had declared Libya liberated on 23 October.

The operation began with a naval arms embargo, while command of the no-fly zone and the air strikes against Libyan Armed Forces remained under command of the international coalition, led by France, the United Kingdom and the United States, due to lack of consensus between NATO members.[4] On 24 March NATO decided to take control of the no-fly zone enforcement, by integrating the air assets of the international coalition under NATO command, although the command of air strikes on ground targets remained under national authority.[5][6] A few days later, on 27 March NATO decided to implement all military aspects of the UN resolution and formal transfer of command occurred at 06:00 GMT on 31 March 2011, formally ending the national operations such as the U.S.-coordinated Operation Odyssey Dawn.[7][8]

The arms embargo was initially carried out using mainly ships from NATO's Standing Maritime Group 1 and Standing Mine Countermeasures Group 1 already patrolling the Mediterranean Sea at the time of the resolution, enforced with additional ships, submarines and maritime surveillance aircraft from NATO members. They were to "monitor, report and, if needed, interdict vessels suspected of carrying illegal arms or mercenaries". The no-fly zone was enforced by aircraft transferred to Unified Protector from the international coalition, with additional aircraft from NATO and other allied nations. The air strikes, although under central NATO command, were only conducted by aircraft of the nations agreeing to enforce this part of the UN resolution.


Libyan conflict

With Operation Unified Protector, NATO is involved in an internal Libyan conflict, between those seeking to depose the country's long-time national leader Muammar Gaddafi and pro-Gaddafi forces. The conflict began as a series of non-peaceful disorders, part of the broader Arab Spring movement, which Gaddafi's security services attempted to repress, but which soon developed into a widespread uprising.

The situation further escalated into armed conflict, with rebels establishing a provisional government named the National Transitional Council based in eastern city of Benghazi and controlling the eastern part of the country and the western city of Misrata. The International Criminal Court warned Gaddafi that he and members of his government may have committed crimes against humanity. The United Nations Security Council passed an initial resolution 1970, freezing the assets of Gaddafi and ten members of his inner circle, and restricting their travel. The resolution also referred the actions of the government to the International Criminal Court for investigation.

In early March, Gaddafi's forces rallied, pushed eastwards and re-took several coastal cities and finally began attacking the rebel stronghold of Benghazi on 19 March 2011. Two days earlier a second U.N. resolution, UNSC Resolution 1973, was passed which authorized member states to establish and enforce an arms embargo, a no-fly zone over Libya and to use all means necessary, short of foreign occupation, to protect Libyan civilians.[3] In response to the resolution, the Gaddafi government announced a ceasefire, but failed to uphold it and continued to advance on the rebels and the Second Battle of Benghazi began.

International intervention

In response to the U.N. resolution, voted on 17 March 2011, an international coalition was established and naval and air forces were quickly deployed in and around the Mediterranean Sea. Two days later, on 19 March, France intervened in the imminent Second Battle of Benghazi with air strikes on Gaddafi armor and troops and eventually forced them back. On the same day 110 Tomahawk cruise missiles were launched from UK and US ships, further air strikes against ground targets were executed and a naval blockade was established. The initial coalition consisted of Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Italy, Norway, Qatar, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. The official names for the interventions by the coalition members are Opération Harmattan by France; Operation Ellamy by the United Kingdom; Operation Mobile for the Canadian participation and Operation Odyssey Dawn for the United States.

The U.S. initially coordinated the effort and took strategic and tactical command at UCC USAFRICOM, led by Carter Ham, and the Joint Task Force Odyssey Dawn, led by Samuel J. Locklear aboard the command ship USS Mount Whitney (LCC-20), respectively. From there on command was split between the air and naval components of the operation at which level the different participating countries commanded their assets in accordance with their rules of engagement and through liaison officers.

After the initial intervention, the U.S. wanted to scale down their involvement significantly to a supporting role. Due to lack of consensus within NATO, the only other body capable of commanding a multinational operation of this size, however, this was not possible immediately. As consensus grew during the next days, NATO took more and more parts of the operation under its command until taking command of all military operations on 31 March.

Command structure

Political direction is provided by the North Atlantic Council to the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe. The chain of command is from Supreme Allied Commander Europe, Admiral James G. Stavridis (US Navy), to the Deputy Commander of Allied Joint Force Command Naples, Lt. General Charles Bouchard (Royal Canadian Air Force) acting as operational commander. From the operational level, command is further delegated to the Commander of Allied Maritime Command Naples, Vice Admiral Rinaldo Veri (Italian Navy) for the naval operations and Commander of Allied Air Command Izmir, Lieutenant General Ralph J. Jodice II (US Air Force) for air operations.[9]

Deployed forces

Allied Maritime Command

Allied Air Command

Contributions and expenses by country

  • USA: from 1 April to 22 August, the US flew 5,316 sorties over Libya, including 1,210 strike sorties, with munitions deployed 262 times.[64] By 31 July, the US had spent US$896 million in the conflict.[64]
  • France: By the end of August, French forces flew 4,500 sorties, had hit 2,500 military targets, including 850 logistics centers, 170 command and control facilities, 480 tanks, 250 vehicles and 160 pieces of artillery.[65] As of 12 July, France had spent about €320 million for operations in Libya.[66][67] By the end of operations on 31 October 2011, France had deployed 4200 Army, Air Force and Navy personnel, with 40 jet fighters and 27 combat ships.[68] About 5600 air missions from the Air Force and Navy were flown, of which 3100 were offensive sorties, 1200 reconnaissance, 400 defensive, 340 air traffic control, and 580 refueling.[68] About a thousand targets were destroyed by French aircraft.[68]
  • UK: By 12 July, the UK had spent about €136 million on operations in Libya.[66]
  • Norway: Royal Norwegian Air Force F-16 fighters flew daily missions, and as of the end of July 2011, when Norway ceased its participation in military operations, the Air Force had dropped up to 600 bombs during the conflict and flown about 10% of the sorties to that point.[69]
  • Italy: by 31 October, the Italian Air Force had dropped 715 bombs and approximately 30 Storm Shadow missiles during the conflict.

See also



  1. [1] NATO fact sheet on contributing nations as of 6 April 2011
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 [2] Nato fact sheet on command and control
  3. 3.0 3.1 [3] United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973
  4. [4] NATO arms embargo fact sheet
  5. [5] NATO no fly zone fact sheet
  6. Traynor, Ian; Watt, Nicholas (25 March 2011). "Nato to control no-fly zone after France gives way to Turkey". London: Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  7. [6] NATO protection of civilians fact sheet
  8. "Odyssey Dawn, Unified Protector? Here’s what it means...". US EUCOM. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Narcis keert terug uit Libië (Dutch)". Belgian Armed Forces. 27 July 2011. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 "De Belgische deelname aan de operatie Unified Protector m.b.t. Libië (Dutch)". Belgian Armed Forces. 22 October 2011. 
  12. "Bulgaria's Drazki Frigate Ready to Set sail for Libya". Standart News. 23 March 2011. 
  13. "NATO ships move to enforce UN arms embargo". NATO. 23 March 2011. 
  14. "Operation MOBILE". DND. 2011-09-01. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 "Libye : point de situation opération Harmattan n°13". French Ministry of Defense. 31 March 2011. 
  16. "Libye : première mission aérienne pour la TF 473". French Ministry of Defense. 22 March 2011. 
  17. "Libye : point de situation opération Harmattan n°16". French Ministry of Defense. 3 April 2011. 
  18. "L’opération Harmattan". French Ministry of Defense. 26 March 2011. 
  19. "French nuclear submarine arrives in Malta". Malta Independent. 30 March 2011. 
  20. "Odyssey Dawn-Greece: Updates from Souda Bay military buildup". Keep Talking Greece. Retrieved 25 March 2011. 
  21. "Operazione "Unified Protector": navi italiane partecipano all'embargo". Italian Ministry of Defense. 25 March 2011. 
  22. "La Marina Militare in Unified Protector". 1 April 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2011. 
  23. "Dutch news – Defence Team Leaves to Reconnoitre Airfields". Retrieved 25 March 2011. 
  24. "SNMCMG1 Task Force 2011". Retrieved 25 March 2011. 
  25. "Netherlands MoD, Libya Operation". NLD Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 11 november 2011. 
  27. "SNMG1 Ships". NATO. 24 March 2011. 
  28. Sills, Ben (22 March 2011). "Spanish Fighter Jets Complete First Patrol Over Libya". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 24 March 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2011. 
  29. "Tezkere bugün Meclis'te". Sabah. 24 March 2011. 
  30. HMS Bangor. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  31. "Libya: RAF Tornados destroy seven Libyan tanks". BBC News. 9 April 2011. Archived from the original on 9 April 2011. Retrieved 9 April 2011. 
  32. 32.0 32.1 Apaches get ready to help protect Libyan civilians - Announcements - GOV.UK. (2011-05-27). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  33. Reporting from the Fleet. Navy News. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 34.4 "Task force sent to Libya to ratchet up the pressure on Gaddafi". Navy News. 3 June 2011. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2011. 
  35. "Libya: RAF 'comfortable' with outcome of airstrikes". BBC News. 20 March 2011. 
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3
  37. [7][dead link]
  38. "Ships Offered To Police NATO's Libya Arms Embargo". Defense News. 23 March 2011. Archived from the original on 24 March 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2011. 
  39. U.S. Naval Forces Open Odyssey Dawn, Prepare No-Fly Zone. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  40. "Terugkeer laatste F16's uit Libië (Dutch)". Belgian Armed Forces. 31 October 2011. 
  41. "Update on CF Operations in Libya" Canadian Forces website, 22 March 2011
  42. "Canadian patrol planes to join Libya mission". CBC. 24 March 2011. [dead link]
  43. "Canadian warship en route, JTF2 sent to Libya". 2 March 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2011. 
  44. "Denmark to send squadron on Libya op" (in da). 14 March 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  45. "Libye : la base aérienne de Solenzara sous haute protection". French Ministry of Defense. 28 March 2011. 
  46. "Operazione Unified Protector". Italian Ministry of Defense. 31 March 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2011. 
  47. "Her letter de på vei mot Libya". 22 March 2011. 
  48. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". 
  49. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". 
  50. "Vet ikke hvilke farer som møter dem – nyheter". 20 March 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  51. "Exit Libya for norske jagerfly" (in Norwegian). 30 July 2011. Archived from the original on 31 July 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2011. 
  52. "Faremo: – Ikke aktuelt å væpne libyske opprørere – Nyheter – Innenriks". Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  53. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named norway_exit
  54. "New coalition member flies first sortie enforcing no-fly zone over Libya". Joint Task Force Odyssey Dawn Public Affairs. 25 March 2011. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2011. 
  55. "Ministerio de Defensa – Dos cazas y el avión de reabastecimiento realizan la primera patrulla aérea en Libia". Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  56. "Les moyens de l’opération d’embargo sur les armes. Nom de code: Unified Protector". Bruxelles2. 22 March 2011. 
  57. Foto: Petr David Josek. "Sverige skickar Jas Gripen till Libyen – Nyheter – Senaste nytt , Expressen – Nyheter Sport Ekonomi Nöje". Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  58.[dead link]
  59. "Sweden sends Gripens to join Unified Protector" By Craig Hoyle, FlightGlobal, 4 April 2011
  60. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". 
  61. AFP: UAE fighter jets arrive in Italy for Libya operations. (2011-03-27). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  62. "International Institute for Strategic Studies Allied assets deployed to Libya". Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  63. "AFRICOM: AF, Navy still flying Libya missions". Air Force Times. Retrieved 22 August 2011. 
  64. 64.0 64.1 "War in Libya cost United States US$896 million". Defence Web. 24 August 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011. 
  65. "Les aviateurs français poursuivent leurs missions sur Tripoli". Le 22 August 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011. 
  66. 66.0 66.1 "Guerre en Libye : Paris a dépensé 160 millions d'euros". Le 12 July 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011. 
  67. La guerre en Libye devrait coûter environ 320 millions d'euros. (2011-09-06). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  68. 68.0 68.1 68.2 "Libye : point de situation n° 50 - bilan de l’opération Unified Protector". French Ministry of Defense. 8 November 2011. Archived from the original on 11 December 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  69. "Exit Libya for norske jagerfly". Aftenposten. 30 July 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011. 

External links

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