Photograph taken milliseconds after detonation of nuclear device from the "Tumbler-Snapper" test series. (The shot tower is faintly visible below fireball; downward spikes are termed "rope tricks").
|Test site||Nevada Test Site|
|Number of tests||8|
|Test type||Atmospheric tests|
|Max. yield||31 kt|
|Previous test||Operation Buster-Jangle|
|Next test||Operation Ivy|
Operation Tumbler-Snapper was a series of atomic tests conducted by the United States in early 1952 at the Nevada Test Site. The Tumbler-Snapper series of tests followed Operation Buster-Jangle, and preceded Operation Ivy.
The Tumbler phase, sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission consisted of three airdrops which were intended to help explain discrepancies in the actual and estimated blast shock wave damage noted on previous detonations, and to establish more accurately the optimum height of burst. The Snapper phase, sponsored by the Department of Defense consisted of one airdrop and four tower shots intended to test various new weapons developments.
The military exercise Desert Rock IV, involving 7350 soldiers, took place during the test series. They trained during the Charlie, Dog, and George shots and observed shot Fox.
The individual shots were:
|Name||Date, Time (UT)||Location||Yield||Notes|
|Able||1 April 1952 17:00:07.5||NTS Area 5,, altitude 240m||1 kT||Free airdrop, weapon effects test, Mark 4 with U-235 core.|
|Baker||15 April 1952 17:29:57.1||NTS Area 7,, altitude 340m||1 kT||Free airdrop, weapon effects test, Mark 4.|
|Charlie||22 April 1952 17:30:10.0||NTS Area 7,, altitude 1050m||31 kT||Free airdrop, weapon development test, Mark 4; live on TV; Desert Rock IV.|
|Dog||1 May 1952 16:29:59.1||NTS Area 7,, altitude 320m||19 kT||Free airdrop, weapon development test, TX-7, deuterium boosted; Desert Rock IV.|
|Easy||7 May 1952 0:14:59.3||NTS Area 1,||12 kT||90m tower; weapon development test; Mark 12; first use of beryllium as a tamper.|
|Fox||25 May 1952 11:59:59.6||NTS Area 4,||11 kT||90m tower; weapon development test; Mark 5.|
|George||1 June 1952 11:54:59.8||NTS Area 3,||15 kT||90m tower, weapons development test, Mark 5; tested external neutron initiator; Desert Rock IV.|
|How||5 June 1952 11:55:00.3||NTS Area 2,||14 kT||90m tower; weapon development test; TX-12; Desert Rock IV.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Operation Tumbler-Snapper.|
- "Probing the earth with nuclear explosions". 1961. pp. 237–258. http://www.agu.org/journals/ABS/1961/JZ066i001p00237.shtml.
- "United States Nuclear Tests: July 1945 through September 1992 (Revision 15)". Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office. December 2000. http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/historical/DOENV_209_REV15.pdf. Retrieved 10/26/2013.
- "CMR Nuclear Explosion Database (Revision 3)". SMDC Monitoring Research. August 2000. http://www.rdss.info/database/nucex/report/explosion.pdf. Retrieved 10/26/2013.
- Hansen, Chuck (1995). The Swords of Armageddon, Vol. 8. Chukelea Publications (Sunnyvale, CA). ISBN 978-0-9791915-1-0.
- "Operation TUMBLER SNAPPER Fact Sheet". Defense Threat Reduction Agency. http://www.dtra.mil/documents/ntpr/factsheets/Tumbler_Snapper.pdf. Retrieved 10/26/2013.
- Robert Standish Norris and Thomas B. Cochran. "United States Nuclear Tests July 1945 to 31 December 1992". http://docs.nrdc.org/nuclear/nuc_02019401a_121.pdf. Retrieved 12/11/2007.
- Universal Time at the Nevada Test Site is 8 hours after local time; UT dates are one day after local date for UT times after 16:00.
- Troops shown three miles from 'ground zero' of bomb
- The short film Nuclear Test Film - Operation Tumbler-Snapper (1952) is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more]
- The short film A-Bomb Blast Effects (1959) is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more]
- Video clip: Historic footage of troops observing airdrop "Dog" from Camp Desert Rock
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