|Part of Iran–Iraq War|
|Casualties and losses|
Operation Dawn-1 (also known as Operation Valfajr-1) was an Iranian offensive in the Iran–Iraq War. On April 10, 1983, Iran struck Ein Kosh with the immediate objective of Fuka (east of al-Amarah) to capture the Baghdad-Basra Highway. The operation was fought mostly by Pasdaran forces and was one of the three costly human wave offensives of 1983, although despite heavy losses on both sides the operation failed to defeat the Iraqis.
In early February 1983, 50,000 Iranian forces attacked westward from Dezful and were confronted by 55,000 Iraqi forces. The Iranian objective was to cut off the road from Basra to Baghdad in the central sector. They the attack on a rainy day and had hoped cloud cover would shield them from Iraqi air attacks. Once the clouds lifted, Iraq conducted 150 air sorties, which generated a 3 to 1 kill ratio of Iranians to Iraqis. The Iraqis, sensing the efficacy of close air attacks, directed aerial bombings on the cities of Dezful, Ahvaz, and Khorammshahr in retribution for the Iranian Dawn 1 offensive. The Iranians continued to order up more forces, and the 92nd Armoured Division pushed forward from Dezful to rout one Iraqi armoured division and destroy another.
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