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Opération Chammal
Part of 2014 military intervention against ISIS
Location Northern Iraq
Planned by France François Hollande
(President)
France Denis Mercier
(Chief of Staff of the Air Force)
Objective Quarantine the expansion of the Islamic State
Date 19 September - present
(7 years, 4 months, 1 week and 1 day)
Executed by Logo of the French Air Force (Armee de l'Air).svg French Air Force
Outcome Ongoing
Casualties Islamic State Causalties
  • 100 Islamic state militants killed
  • 1 depot destroyed

France French Causalties

  • 1 French civilian executed in Algeria


Opération Chammal is the name of the military operation which is currently ongoing in Iraq to contain the expansion of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and to support the Iraqi Army. Its name comes from the Shamal (Chammal in French), a northwesterly wind blowing over Iraq and the Persian Gulf states.[1] The operation is limited to airstrikes, French president François Hollande reiterated that no ground troops would be used in the conflict.[2] The French frigate FS Jean Bart has joined the US CTF 50 as an escort.[3]

Background

On 10 June, the terrorist group of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and several other Sunni insurgents took control of the second most populous city of Iraq, Mosul.[4] ISIS carried lots of battles against the Iraqi Army, seizing cities and committing mass murder crimes and massacres. The most prominent massacres are the Persecution of Assyrians, the Persecution of Yazidis and the Camp Speicher massacre, killing about 2,000 innocent people.[5][6][7][8] Until August, ISIS had controlled almost one-third of Iraq.

On 7 August, US President, Barack Obama, authorized airstrikes in Iraq.[9] A day after the authorizing, the US Air Force launched airstrikes targeting the ISIS fighters, with the humanitarian aid support from the United Kingdom and France.[10] On 10 September, Barack Obama outlines plans to expand the US operations to include Syria.[11]

Air strikes

On 18 September, the United States Secretary of State, John Kerry, announced in front of the United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs in the United States House of Representatives that President François Hollande had announced that he authorized airstrikes in Iraq, in response to a request by the Iraqi government.[12]

On 19 September, the French Air Force carried out their first airstrike using two Rafale jets armed with GBU-12 Paveway II,[13] beginning the French intervention. It conducted the airstrikes on an ISIS depot in Mosul, dropping 4 GBU-12 bombs.[14] Hollande's office said that the ISIS depot that was targeted was hit and completely destroyed.[15] The airstrikes resulted in killing 75 fighters from the Islamic State.[16] A spokesman of the Iraqi military, Qassim al-Moussawi, stated that four French airstrikes had hit the town of Zumar, killing dozens of militants.[17]

On 21 September, two Rafale jets provided air support for the Iraqi Army near Baghdad in a reconnaissance mission.[18] A day after, France conducted another reconnaissance mission over Mosul with two Rafale jets.[19] Another reconnaissance mission conducted on 23 September.[20] On 24 September, two reconnaissance and dynamic targeting missions were conducted in Mosul and Baghdad, supporting the Iraqi forces.[20]

On 25 September, while in a reconnaissance mission, two Rafale jets conducted France's second airstrike after the jets received information about targets near them by the Coordination air operation center,[21] a day after the beheading of the French hostage, Hervé Gourdel, by the Jund al-Khilafah terrorist group in Algeria.[22] Stéphane Le Foll said "This morning [France] carried out airstrikes on the territory of Iraq."[22] The jets destroyed 4 warehouses of ISIS near Fallujah.[21] French/American jets conducted airstrikes at night in Kirkuk, killing 15 ISIS fighters and injuring 30.[23]

Two reconnaissance missions were conducted by two Rafale jets and an Atlantique 2 over Ninawa Province on 26 September.[24]

See also

References

  1. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Iraq: The French Operation is called Chammal". Le Figaro (in French). 2014-09-20. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
  2. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"France plans further air strikes against IS: President". Mathrubhumi. 2014-09-19. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
  3. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Chammal : La Frégate Jean Bart Intègre la Task Force 50". colsbleus.fr (in French). 30 October 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  4. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Militants seize Iraq's second city of Mosul". BBC. 2014-06-10. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
  5. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"4000 unarmed soldiers fell into the hands of ISIS". Buratha News Agency (in Arabic). 2014-07-09. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
  6. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"US forces arrive in Baghdad to advise Iraqi troops". BBC. 2014-06-24. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
  7. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"The killing fields of Iraq: ISIS massacred up to 190 prisoners in just four days, according to analysis of satellite images and horrific pictures posted by jihadists". Mail Online. 2014-06-27. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
  8. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Iraq army 'routs Isis rebels' in offensive on Tikrit". BBC. 2014-06-28. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
  9. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Obama authorizes targeted airstrikes in Iraq against Islamic militants, along with airdrops". The Big Story. 2014-07-08. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
  10. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Obama Says Iraq Airstrikes Effort Could Be Long-Term". The New York Times. 09/08/2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014. {{cite web}}: Check date values in: |date= (help)
  11. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Obama: 'Relentless' campaign to destroy ISIS". Washington Examiner. 2014-09-10. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
  12. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Washington welcomes the declaration of France of joining the airstrikes campaign in Iraq". Al Wasat (in Arabic). 2014-09-18. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
  13. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Iraq: First French strikes". Ministry of Defense (in French). 2014-09-19. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  14. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Iraq: First French strikes (Updated)". Ministry of Defense (in French). 2014-09-19. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  15. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"First French airstrikes in Iraq hit ISIL depot". USA Today. 2014-09-19. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
  16. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"The French airstrikes resulted in killing 75 ISIS fighter in Mosul". ONA (in Arabic). 2014-09-20. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
  17. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"France launches first air strike on IS in Iraq". BBC. 2014-09-19. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
  18. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Iraq: Mission Air Support (Updated)". Ministry of Defense (in French). 2014-09-23. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  19. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Operation Chammal: New reconnaissance mission in Iraq". Ministry of Defense (in French). 2014-09-23. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  20. 20.0 20.1 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Operation Chammal: New air support missions in Iraq". Ministry of Defense (in French). 2014-09-24. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  21. 21.0 21.1 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Chammal operation: Second French strikes in Iraq". Ministry of Defense (in French). 2014-09-26. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  22. 22.0 22.1 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"French Air Forces Strike Islamic State Targets in Iraq: Paris". Ria Novosti. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 25/9/2014
  23. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"American-French airstrikes killed and injured 45 ISIS fighter in South-Western Kirkuk". Al Sumaria (in Arabic). 2014-09-25. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  24. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Operation Chammal: continued flying missions". Ministry of Defense (in French). 2014-09-26. Retrieved 28 September 2014.

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