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Object 478
Object 478 3.JPG
Type Main battle tank
Place of origin  Soviet Union
Production history
Designer KMDB
Designed 1976–1981
Manufacturer Malyshev Factory
Produced 1981
Weight 41.6 tonnes (45.9 short tons; 40.9 long tons)
Length 9.648 m (31 ft 7.8 in) (gun forward)
Height 2.223 m (7 ft 3.5 in)
Crew 3

Armour Glass-reinforced plastic sandwiched between layers of steel.
D-81-3 (aka 2A46M-1) 125 mm smoothbore gun
7.62 mm PKMT coax machine gun, 12.7 mm NSVT antiaircraft machine gun
Engine 6DT-1 6-cyl. multifuel diesel engine
1000 hp
Suspension Torsion bar
Ground clearance 0.514 m (1 ft 8.2 in)
677 km
Speed 70 km/h

Object 478 (Russian: Объект 478) was a Soviet main battle tank prototype. It was developed in the KMDB of the Malyshev Factory and never commercially produced.

Development history[]

After the adoption of a T-80 tank, work started on improving its design. The work was done by two design bureaus. The KMDB of Malyshev Plant designed the "Object 478" prototype and the design office of the LKZ the "Object 219" prototype. The Kharkov version of modernization of the T-80 chassis involved equipping Object 219 with a 6TD-1 1000 hp diesel engine, as well as installing of a new combat compartment being developed for the modernization of the T-64A under the designation of Object 476. In 1976, this project was carried out on the machine, but further work on it was not continued, as the main focus at the time was on the gas turbine engine. After the death of Ustinov, the strength of the design bureau of the LKZ began to weaken and the Ministry of Defense started to think seriously about the equipping the T-80 tanks with diesel engines. The chassis of the T-64A was completely exhausted of its potential for modernization that further development was inappropriate. Work on equipping the T-80 tanks with diesel engines were carried out in several design offices. In Omsk Transport Engineering Design Bureau, was tasked to equip T-80 with the B-46-6 engine (tank received index "Object 644"). KB-3 of the LKZ was tasked to equip the T-80 with the 2B-16-2 engine, but both projects failed. At the same time, work was intensified on the creation of the Object 478 tank. In 1985, work began on the Object 478B. It was subsequently adopted into service under the name T-80UD.[1]


Tanks Object 478 establishes a new cast turret, spent when creating the Object 476 tank. The chassis was borrowed from the "Object 219A" tank, but the engine was replaced with the 6TD-1 diesel engine . The main armament of the tank was the 125 mm 2А46М-1 smooth-bore tank gun with 42 rounds of ammunition. The gun was equipped with the "Vector-4" stabilizer. A 7.62-mm PKT machine gun with 1,500 rounds of ammunition was paired with the smooth-bore tank gun. To combat air targets and light armored vehicles, the commander was equipped a 12.7 mm caliber turret-mounted NSV anti-aircraft heavy machine gun with 450 rounds of ammunition. In addition, Object 478 was equipped with the 9K112 "Cobra" (NATO reporting name: AT-8 Songster) guided weapon.


  • Object 478 - Basic Version
  • Object 478M - A radically modified version with a 1,500 hp diesel engine
  • Object 478B - The T-80UD main battle tank


  •  Ukraine - The only surviving example is located at the National Museum of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 in Kiev.


Object 478 in Museum of the Great Patriotic War, Kiev:


External links[]

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