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Treaty between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms

Договор между Российской Федерацией и Соединёнными Штатами Америки о мерах по дальнейшему сокращению и ограничению стратегических наступательных вооружений
Obama and Medvedev sign Prague Treaty 2010.jpeg
Presidents Obama and Medvedev after signing the Prague Treaty.
Type Strategic nuclear disarmament
Drafted 19 May–9 November 2009
Signed 8 April 2010
Location Prague, Czech Republic
Effective 5 February 2011[1][2]
Condition Ratification of both parties
Expiration 5 February 2021
(Option to extend until 2026)
Signatories Barack Obama
Dmitry Medvedev
Parties United States
 Russian Federation
Ratifiers United States Senate
Federal Assembly of Russia
Languages English, Russian

Signing the New START Treaty

New START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) (Russian: СНВ-III, SNV-III) is a nuclear arms reduction treaty between the United States of America and the Russian Federation with the formal name of Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms. It was signed on 8 April 2010 in Prague,[3][4] and, after ratification,[5][6] entered into force on 5 February 2011.[1] It is expected to last at least until 2021.

New START replaced the Treaty of Moscow (SORT), which was due to expire in December 2012. In terms of name, it is a follow-up to the START I treaty, which expired in December 2009, the proposed START II treaty, which never entered into force, and the START III treaty, for which negotiations were never concluded.

Under terms of the treaty, the number of strategic nuclear missile launchers will be reduced by half. A new inspection and verification regime will be established, replacing the SORT mechanism. It does not limit the number of operationally inactive stockpiled nuclear warheads that remain in the high thousands in both the Russian and American inventories.[7]


Under the terms of the treaty, the number of strategic nuclear missile launchers will be reduced by half. The treaty limits the number of deployed strategic nuclear warheads to 1,550, which is down nearly two-thirds from the original START treaty, as well as 10% lower than the deployed strategic warhead limit of the 2002 Moscow Treaty.[8] The total number of deployed warheads, however, could exceed the 1,550 limit by a few hundred because per bomber only one warhead is counted regardless of how many it actually carries.[8] It will also limit the number of deployed and non-deployed inter-continental ballistic missile (ICBM) launchers, submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) launchers, and heavy bombers equipped for nuclear armaments to 800. The number of deployed ICBMs, SLBMs, and heavy bombers equipped for nuclear armaments is limited to 700.[9] The treaty allows for satellite and remote monitoring, as well as 18 on-site inspections per year to verify limits.[8]

Summary of New START Limits[10]
Type Limit
Deployed missiles and bombers 700
Deployed warheads (RVs and bombers) 1550
Deployed and Non-deployed Launchers (missile tubes and bombers) 800

These obligations must be met within seven years from the date the treaty enters into force. The treaty will last ten years, with an option to renew it for up to five years upon agreement of both parties.[11] The treaty entered into force on 5 February 2011, when the United States and Russia exchanged instruments of ratification, following approval by the U.S. Senate and the Federal Assembly of Russia.[12] However, the United States began implementing the reductions even before the treaty was ratified.[13]

Documents made available to the U.S. Senate described[Clarification needed] removal from service of at least 30 missile silos, 34 bombers and 56 submarine launch tubes, though missiles removed would not be destroyed and bombers could be converted to conventional use. While four of 24 launchers on each of the 14 ballistic missile nuclear submarines would be removed, none would be retired.[14]

The treaty places no limits on tactical systems, such as the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II, which will most likely be replacing the F-15E and F-16 in the tactical nuclear delivery role.[15]

The treaty does not cover rail-mobile ICBM launchers because neither party currently possesses such systems. ICBMs on such launchers would be covered under the generic launcher limits, but the inspection details for such systems would have to be worked out between the parties if such systems were reintroduced in the future.[16]


Drafting and signature

The New START treaty is the successor to the START I. The START II was signed, but not ratified. The START III negotiating process was not successful.

The drafting of the treaty commenced in April 2009 immediately after the meeting between the presidents of the two countries, Barack Obama and Dmitry Medvedev, in London.[17] Preliminary talks were already held in Rome on 27 April,[18] although it was originally planned to have them held in the middle of May.[19]

Prolonged talks were conducted by U.S. and Russian delegations, led on the American side by U.S. State Department Assistant Secretary Rose Gottemoeller. The Russian delegation was headed by Anatoly Antonov, director of security and disarmament at the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.[20]

Talks were held on:

  • First round: 19–20 May, Moscow[21]
  • Second round: 1–3 June, Geneva[22]
  • Third round: 22–24 June, Geneva[22]
  • Fourth round: 22–24 July, Geneva[22]
  • Fifth Round: 5–7 September, Geneva[23]
  • Sixth round: 21–28 September, Geneva[24][25]
  • Seventh round: 19–30 October, Geneva[26]
  • Eighth round: 9 November, Geneva[27]

On the morning of 6 July, the agreement on the text of the "Joint Understanding on Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms" was announced,[28][29] which was signed by Medvedev and Obama during the US Presidential visit to Moscow the same day. The document listed the intention of both parties to reduce the number of nuclear warheads to 1,500 – 1,675 units, as well as their delivery weapons to 500 – 1,100 units.[30]

Presidents Obama and Medvedev announced on 26 March 2010 that they had reached an agreement, and they signed the treaty on 8 April 2010 in Prague.[3]

Ratification process

United States

On 13 May, the agreement was submitted by U.S. President Barack Obama for ratification in the U.S. Senate. Ratification required 67 votes in favor (out of 100 Senators). On Tuesday, 16 September 2010 the Senate Foreign Relations Committee voted 14–4 in favor of ratifying New START. The measure had support from three Senate Republicans: Richard Lugar of Indiana, Bob Corker of Tennessee, and Johnny Isakson of Georgia.[31] Senator John Kerry[32] and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton expressed optimism that a deal on ratification was near.[33]

Republicans in the Senate generally deferred to Jon Kyl (R-AZ), a leading conservative on defense issues, who sought a strong commitment to modernize U.S. nuclear forces, and questioned whether there was time for ratification during the lame duck session, calling for an opening of the negotiation record before a vote is held.[34] Senator Ben Nelson (D-NE) joined Kyl in expressing skepticism over the timing of ratification,[35] and Senator Kit Bond (R-MO) expressed opposition.[36]

Obama made New START ratification a priority during the 2010 post-election lame duck session of Congress, and Senators John Kerry (D-MA) and Richard Lugar (R-IN), the Democratic Chairman and senior Republican on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, were leading supporters of the treaty.[37][38][39]

On 22 December 2010, the U.S. Senate gave its advice and consent to ratification of the treaty, by a vote of 71 to 26 on the resolution or ratification.[40] Thirteen Republican senators, all 56 Democratic senators, and both Independent senators voted for the treaty.[41]

Obama signed documents completing the U.S. ratification process on 2 February 2011.[42]


On 28 May 2010, the document was introduced by Medvedev for consideration in the State Duma. On 6 July, the State Duma held parliamentary hearings on the treaty, which was attended by representatives from the Foreign Ministry and General Staff. On 8 July, the Duma Defense Committee and the International Affairs Committee recommended that the State Duma ratify the treaty.

However, on 29 October, the chairman of the Duma International Affairs Committee, Konstantin Kosachev, called for the return of the document to committee hearings, noting that the agreement does not restrict the activities of the United States on missile defense, as well as the fact that ballistic missiles with non-nuclear warheads are not covered under the agreement. At the same time, Federation Council Chairman Sergei Mironov proposed not to rush to the amendment, or vote on the treaty, and to monitor the discussions in the U.S. Senate.

Following ratification by the U.S. Senate, the formal first reading of the treaty was held on 24 December and the State Duma voted its approval. The State Duma approved a second reading of the treaty on 14 January 2011.[43] 349 deputies out of 450 voted in favor of ratification.

The third and final reading by the State Duma took place on 25 January 2011 and the ratification resolution was approved by a vote of 350 deputies in favor, 96 against, and one abstention.[44] It was then approved unanimously by the Federation Council on the next day.[5][45]

On 28 January 2011, Medvedev signed the ratification resolution passed by the Federal Assembly, completing the Russian ratification process.[6] The treaty went into force when Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov and U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton exchanged the instruments of ratification at the Security Conference in Munich, Germany, on 5 February 2011.[1][5][6]


The New START Treaty requires a number of specific actions within periods after Entry into Force (EIF) (5 February 2011)[46]

  • No Later than (NLT) 5 days after EIF
Exchange Inspection Airplane Information:
Lists of the types of airplanes intended to transport inspectors to points of entry will be exchanged.
  • NLT 25 days after EIF
Exchange Lists of Inspectors and Aircrew Members:
Lists of initial inspectors and aircrew will be exchanged.
  • NLT 45 days after EIF
Exchange databases:
Databases will provide information on the numbers, locations, and technical characteristics of weapon systems and facilities that are covered under the Treaty.
  • NLT 60 days after EIF
Exhibition: Strategic Offensive Arms:
If a type, variant, or version of a strategic offensive arm (SOA) that was not exhibited in connection with the START Treaty is declared, then the SOA's features and technical characteristics must be demonstrated and confirmed.
  • 60 days after EIF
Right to Conduct Inspections Begins:
Parties may begin inspections, 18 on-site inspections per year are provided in the Treaty. Each Party is allowed ten Type One Inspections and eight Type Two Inspections.
  1. Type One Inspections focus on deployed and non-deployed SOAs sites. Activities include confirming accuracy of data on SOAs, the number of warheads located on designated deployed ICBMs and SLBMs, and the number of nuclear armaments to be on designated deployed heavy bombers.
  2. Type Two Inspections focus on sites with non-deployed SOAs. They can involve confirmation of the conversion/elimination of SOAs, and confirming the elimination of facilities.
  • NLT 120 days after EIF
Exhibition: Heavy Bombers at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base:
The United States will conduct a one-time exhibition of each type of environmentally-sealed deployed heavy bombers located at the storage facility at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base in Arizona.
  • NLT 180 days after EIF
Initial Demonstration of Telemetry Playback Equipment:
Parties will conduct an initial demonstration of recording media and playback equipment for telemetric information, information that originates on a missile during its initial motion and flight.
  • NLT 225 days after EIF
Exchange Updated Databases:
Parties will exchange updated databases and every six months thereafter for the duration of the Treaty.
  • NLT 1 year after EIF
Exhibition: B-1B Heavy Bomber:
The United States will conduct a one-time exhibition of a B-1B heavy bomber equipped with non-nuclear armaments to demonstrate it no longer can employ nuclear armaments.
  • NLT 3 years after EIF
Exhibition: Previously Converted Missile Launchers:
The United States will conduct a one-time exhibition of its four SSGNs, which are equipped with cruise missile launchers and were converted from nuclear ballistic submarines, to confirm that SSGNs cannot launch SLBMs. The United States will also hold an exhibition of the five converted ICBM launcher silos at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, now used as missile defense interceptor launchers. This will confirm that the converted launchers are no longer able to launch ICBMs and determine the features to distinguish converted silo launchers from unconverted ones.
  • NLT 7 years after EIF
Meet Central Treaty Limits:
Parties are required to meet the limits laid out in the Treaty for deployed strategic warheads, and deployed and non-deployed strategic delivery vehicles and launchers.
  • 10 years after EIF
Treaty Expires:
Unless Parties agree with an extension for up to five years.

U.S. public debate

In the United States, a debate about whether to ratify the treaty took place during the lead-up to the 2010 midterm elections and in the lame-duck congressional session afterward. While one public opinion poll showed broad support for ratification,[47] another showed general skepticism over nuclear arms reductions.[48][49][unreliable source?]

Obama administration officials discussing the New START Treaty at a meeting.

The Arms Control Association led efforts to rally political support, arguing that the treaty is needed to restore on-site verification and lend predictability to the U.S.-Russian strategic relationship.[50] Other organizations supporting the treaty include the Federation of American Scientists,[51] and disarmament expert Peter Wilk of Physicians for Social Responsibility called the New START treaty “essential” to ensuring a safer world and stronger diplomatic ties with Russia.[52] Republican supporters included former President George H. W. Bush[53] and all six former Republican Secretaries of State, who wrote supportive op-eds in the Washington Post[54] and the Wall Street Journal.[55] Conservative columnist Robert Kagan, who supported the treaty, says its goals are actually modest compared to previous START treaties and that the treaty should not fail because of partisan disagreements. Kagan said the Republican insistence on upgrading the U.S. nuclear arsenal was reasonable but would not be affected by the current language of the treaty.[56]

The Heritage Action for America advocacy group, an affiliate of the Heritage Foundation, took the lead in opposing New START, lobbying the Senate along with running a petition drive and airing political advertisements before November's midterm elections. The effort drew the support of likely presidential candidate Mitt Romney, and has been credited by former Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle as changing some Republican votes.[57] According to Heritage Foundation President Ed Feulner, the language of the New START treaty would "definitely" reduce America's nuclear weapon capacity but "wouldn't necessarily" reduce Russia's, and Russia would maintain a 10–1 advantage in tactical nuclear weapons, which are not counted in the treaty.[58] Arms control experts critical of the treaty included Robert Joseph, former undersecretary of state for arms control and international security, and Eric Edelman, undersecretary of defense for policy, who have written that the treaty weakens U.S. defenses.[59] Former CIA Director James Woolsey also said that "concessions to Russian demands make it difficult to support Senate approval of the new treaty".[60]

Senators Jon Kyl and Mitch McConnell complained about a lack of funding for the Next-Generation Bomber during the treaty debate even though this platform would not be constrained by this treaty.[61][62] During the Senatorial debate over the US ratification of the New START Treaty with Russia, Senator James Inhofe (R-OK) stated that "Russia cheats in every arms control treaty we have with them", which caused an uproar in Russian media.[63] Additionally, there were concerns about the possibility of restrictions being imposed on the deployment of missile defense systems by the U.S.[64][65]

The Pentagon's "Report on the Strategic Nuclear Forces of the Russian Federation Pursuant to Section 1240 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012" found that even if Russia did cheat and achieved a total surprise attack with a breakout force, it would have "little to no effect" on U.S. nuclear retaliatory capabilities.[66]

Status of the strategic forces of Russia and the U.S.

Current information on the aggregate numbers and locations of nuclear weapons have been made public under the New START treaty,[67] and on 13 May 2011 three former U.S. officials and two non-proliferation experts signed an open letter to both sides asking that the information be released, in order to promote transparency, reduce mistrust, and support the nuclear arms control process in other states.[68]

New START Treaty Strategic Arms Numbers as of 1 September 2011[69]
State Deployed ICBMs, Deployed SLBMs, and Deployed Heavy Bombers Warheads on Deployed ICBMs, Deployed SLBMs, and Nuclear Warheads Counted for Deployed Heavy Bombers Deployed and Non-deployed Launchers of ICBMs and SLBMs, and Deployed and Non-deployed Heavy Bombers
Russian Federation 516 1,566 871
United States of America 822 1,790 1,043

The data that follows were made public under the prior START treaty.

Memorandum of Understanding data for the expired START 1 on 1 July 2009
State Deployed ICBMs and Their Associated Launchers, Deployed SLBMs and Their Associated Launchers, and Deployed Heavy Bombers Warheads Attributed to Deployed ICBMs, Deployed SLBMs, and Deployed Heavy Bombers Warheads Attributed to Deployed ICBMs and Deployed SLBMs Throw-weight of Deployed ICBMs and Deployed SLBMs (Mt)
Russian Federation[70] 809 3,897 3,289 2,297.0
United States of America[70] 1,188 5,916 4,864 1,857.3
Operative Russian strategic nuclear forces, 2009[71]
Delivery Vehicles Warheads
R-36M UTTH / M2 (SS-18 M4/M5) 68 680
UR-100N UTTH (SS-19) 72 432
RT-2PM Topol mobile (SS-25) 180 180
RT-2PM2 Topol M silo (SS-27) 50 50
RT-2PM2 Topol M mobile (SS-27 M1) 15 15
RS-24 Yars mobile (SS-29 Mod-X-2) 0 0
ICBM (total) 383 1,355
R-29 RL (SS-N-18) 4/64 192
R-29 RM (SS-N-23) 3/48 192
R-29 RMU Sineva (SS-N-23) 3/48 192
RSM-56 Bulava (SS-NX-30) (2/0) 0
SLBM (total) 10/160 576
TU-95 MS6 (Bear H6) 32 192
TU-95 MS16 (Bear H16) 31 496
TU-160 (Blackjack) 14 168
Bomber force (total) 77 856
Strategic forces (total) 620 2,787
Operative American strategic nuclear forces, 2009[72]
Delivery Vehicles Warheads
Minuteman III W78/Mk12A 250 350
Minuteman III W87/Mk21 200 200
ICBM (total) 450 550
UGM-133A Trident II D-5 W76-0/Mk4 288 718
UGM-133A Trident II D-5 W76-1/Mk4A 50
UGM-133A Trident II D-5 W88/Mk5 384
SLBM (total) 288 1,152
B-2 20 na
B-52H 93 na
B61-7 na 150
B61-11 na
B-83 na
ALCM/W80-1 na 350
Bomber force (total) 113 500
Strategic forces (total) 851 2,202

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "U.S.-Russia nuclear arms treaty finalized". USA Today/The Associated Press. 5 February 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011. 
  2. "New RF-US START Treaty comes into effect". ITAR-TASS. Retrieved 5 February 2011. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Jesse Lee (26 March 2010). "President Obama Announces the New START Treaty , The White House". Retrieved 9 April 2010. 
  4. "US and Russian leaders hail nuclear arms treaty". BBC News. 8 April 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Fred Weir. "With Russian ratification of New START, what's next for US-Russia relations?". Retrieved 2011-09-11. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "Medvedev signs law ratifying Russia-U.S. arms pact". 28 January 2011. 
  7. Baker, Peter (26 March 2010). "Twists and Turns on Way to Arms Pact With Russia". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 April 2010. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 O'Hanlon, Michael E. New START Shouldn't Be Stopped", Brookings Institution, 18 November 2010
  11. White House, Key Facts about the New START Treaty
  12. Treaty text, Article XVI, section 1.
  13. United States Moves Rapidly Toward New START Warhead Limit
  14. Peter Baker, "Obama Expands Modernization of Nuclear Arsenal", The New York Times, 13 May 2010
  15. Grant, Rebecca. "Nukes for NATO". Airforce Magazine, July 2010
  16. "Rail-Mobile Launchers of ICBMs and their Missiles". United States Department of State, 2 August 2010.
  17. "Медведев и Обама решили продолжить сокращение вооружений" (in рус). 1 апреля 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2009. 
  18. "Начались переговоры между США и Россией о сокращении ядерных вооружений" (in рус). 27 апреля 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2009. 
  19. "Россия и США определили дату начала переговоров по СНВ" (in рус). 24 апреля 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2009. 
  20. Twists and Turns on Way to Arms Pact With Russia, Peter Baker, New York Times, 26 March 2010.
  21. "В Москве начались переговоры по СНВ" (in рус). 19 мая 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2009. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 "США и РФ достигли прогресса в ходе переговоров по СНВ в Женеве" (in рус). 24 июля 2009. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  23. "РФ и США приступили к отработке конкретных статей договора по СНВ" (in рус). 5 сентября 2009. Retrieved 19 September 2009. 
  24. "Календарь событий 19 сентября – 20 октября" (in рус). 24 апреля 2009. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  25. "Очередной раунд переговоров России и США по СНВ пройдет в Женеве" (in рус). 21 сентября 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2009. 
  26. "На выработку нового договора по СНВ у США и России остался месяц" (in рус). 8 ноября 2009. Retrieved 8 November 2009. [dead link]
  27. "МИД РФ о новом раунде российско-американских переговоров по СНВ" (in рус). 8 ноября 2009. Retrieved 8 November 2009. 
  28. "Россия и США согласовали текст договора по СНВ" (in рус). 6 июля 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2009. 
  29. "Медведев и Обама подписали рамочный документ по СНВ" (in рус). 6 июля 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2009. 
  30. "Медведев и Обама договорились сократить стратегическое вооружение" (in рус). 6 июля 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2009. 
  31. "Key Senate committee passes nuclear arms treaty, CNN, 16 September 2010.
  32. John Kerry more optimistic now about START, by Scott Wong & Shira Toeplitz, Politico, 2 December 2010.
  33. Clinton: Deal on New START Imminent, by Daniel Foster, National Review Online, 3 December 2010.
  34. Jon Kyl (8 July 2010). "The New Start Treaty: Time for a Careful Look". 
  35. Robert Costa. "Nelson: ‘I Think We Can Hold Off on START’". 
  36. Eli Lake. "GOP senator cites new intel, won't back New START". 
  37. John Kerry (7 July 2010). "How New-START will improve our nation's security". 
  38. Zimmerman, Eric (8 July 2010). "Lugar takes shot at Romney over START". Retrieved 10 July 2010. 
  39. Lugar on New START and TacNukes, Arms Control Wonk, 8 July 2010.
  40. Mark Memmott (22 December 2010). "Senate Ratifies START". Retrieved 22 December 2010. 
  41. Senate Passes Arms Control Treaty With Russia, 71-26 New York Times
  42. Zengerle, Patricia (2 February 2011). "Obama signs New START treaty documents". 
  43. "Duma Sends 'New Start' To Third Reading". 2011-01-14. Retrieved 2011-09-11. 
  44. "Duma adopts bill on ratification of New START — RT". Retrieved 2011-09-11. 
  45. "Russian Ratification of Start Follow-on Treaty". Nukes of Hazzard. Retrieved 22 December 2010. 
  47. CNN Poll: Three-quarters say ratify START treaty, by CNN Political Unit, 16 November 2010.
  48. 77% Think U.S. Nuclear Weapons Arsenal is Important to National Security, Rasmussen Reports, 12 August 2010
  49. New Poll Shows More Trouble for New START, by Conn Carroll, The Foundry, 18 August 2010
  50. New START, Arms Control Association.
  51. "Responding to Senator Bond on New START." Federation of American Scientists, 23 November 2010
  52. Peter Wilk (19 November 2010). "Don't play politics with new START treaty". CNN. 
  53. [1], by Mary Beth Sheridan, The Washington Post, 9 December 2010.
  54. The Republican case for ratifying New START, by Henry A. Kissinger, George P. Shultz, James A. Baker III, Lawrence S. Eagleburger and Colin L. Powell, The Washington Post, 2 December 2010.
  55. New Start: Ratify, With Caveats, by Condoleezza Rice, The Wall Street Journal, 7 December 2010.
  56. Robert Kagan (30 July 2010). "New START: Too modest to merit partisan bickering". The Washington Post. 
  57. Desmond Butler (23 July 2010). "US-Russia nuke treaty facing hurdles in US Senate". The New York Times. 
  58. Ed Feulner (9 June 2010). "Stop the New START". The Washington Times. 
  59. Robert Joseph and Eric Edelman (10 May 2010). "New START: Weakening Our Security". 
  60. R. James Woolsey (15 November 2010). "Old Problems with New START". 
  61. Kyl, Jon. "The New Start Treaty: Time for a Careful Look." Wall Street Journal, 8 July 2010.
  62. Trinko, Katrina. "McConnell on new START: ‘A Flawed, Mishandled Treaty’." National Review, 20 December 2010.
  63. "Republican.Senate.Gov". Republican.Senate.Gov. 2011-07-17. Retrieved 2011-09-11. 
  64. US poised to approve nuclear arms pact with Russia
  65. Arms Treaty With Russia Headed for Ratification
  66. Kristensen, Hans. "DOD: Strategic Stability Not Threatened Even by Greater Russian Nuclear Forces". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 12 October 2012. 
  67. "New START Data Exchange: Will it Increase or Decrease International Nuclear Transparency?". 
  68. "Letter Urges Release of New START Data". 
  70. 70.0 70.1 START data for 1 July 2009 on
  71. Russian nuclear forces, 2009
  72. – US Nuclear Forces 2009

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