|Op. 269/A I|
|Part of Naval Operations in the First World War|
|Planned||24 October 1918|
|Planned by||German Naval Staff|
|Target||Southern North Sea|
|Date||30–31 October 1918|
|Executed by||High Seas Fleet under Admiral Hipper|
|Outcome||Cancellation following outbreak of mutiny in the German Fleet|
The Naval Order of 24 October 1918 was a plan made by the German Admiralty at the end of World War I to provoke a decisive battle between the German High Seas Fleet and the British Grand Fleet in the southern North Sea. When the order to prepare for the sortie was issued on 29 October, mutiny broke out aboard the German ships. Despite the operation being cancelled, these in turn led to the more serious Kiel mutiny, which was the starting point of the November Revolution and the proclamation of the Weimar Republic.
The origin of this operation was the exchange of diplomatic notes beginning on 5 October 1918 between the new German government under Prince Max of Baden and President Woodrow Wilson, in which Germany asked the President to mediate an armistice. One of Wilson's preconditions was the cessation of Germany's submarine war. Despite the objections of Admiral Scheer, the Chief of the German Admiralty Staff, the German Government made this concession on 20 October. The U-boats at sea were recalled on 21 October. In response, on 22 October Scheer ordered Admiral Hipper, commander of the High Seas Fleet, to prepare for an attack on the British Fleet, utilizing the main battle fleet, reinforced by the newly available U-boats. Hipper's order was promulgated on 24 October, and approved by Scheer on 27 October. The Fleet then began to concentrate at Schillig Roads off Wilhelmshaven to prepare for the battle.
The German plan
State of the German fleet
The High Seas Fleet in October 1918 was built around the core of 18 battleships and 5 battlecruisers, most of which had been completed before the outbreak of war. Since the Battle of Jutland in May 1916, the obsolete pre-Dreadnoughts had been de-commissioned, two new battleships with 15-inch guns (Baden and Bayern) and the new battlecruiser Hindenburg had joined the fleet, but one Dreadnought battleship Rheinland had been damaged beyond repair by running aground in the Baltic. The fleet had undertaken only three sorties into the North Sea at full strength since June 1916: 18–19 August 1916, 18–19 October 1916, and 22–25 April 1918. This prolonged period of relative inactivity, at a time when all other branches of Germany's armed forces were very heavily engaged, did much to undermine the morale of the crews and the self-respect of the officers. Acts tantamount to mutiny took place on various occasions during 1917, the most noteworthy being the arrest of 200 men from the battleship Prinzregent Luitpold in August, resulting in two executions.
Full text of the order
The order of 24 October for the High Seas Fleet's attack is as follows[lower-alpha 1]:
The plan called for 25 U-boats to be deployed in six lines in the southern North Sea, in the hope of ambushing British ships sailing to counter-attack the German Fleet raiding forces. Other U-boats were to undertake special operations involving British Naval Bases. On 23 October seven U-boats at large in the North Sea (U-108, UB-86, UB-121, UB-125, UB-96, UC-58 and U-60) were diverted by wireless signals to take up positions off Rosyth, in order to give the alarm when the British Fleet sailed, and hopefully launch attacks[lower-alpha 8]. In addition,U-43, also at sea, was directed to take up a watching position near the Tyne. Starting on 24 October, the other U-boats began departing from Heligoland to their patrol areas.
Two of these U-boats were lost. The first, U-78 (Oblt. Johann Vollbrecht), sailed on 27 October from Heligoland for a minelaying mission off the Scottish East Coast, but she was torpedoed and sunk the same day by the British submarine G2 in the central North Sea, roughly 280 nautical miles east of the Firth of Forth. All 40 crewmen were lost.
The other submarine to be sunk was UB-116, which sailed from Heligoland on 25 October with special orders to attack the British fleet anchorage at Scapa Flow. She was commanded by the 26-year-old Oberleutnant zur See Hans Joachim Emsmann who, since first becoming a U-Boat captain in February 1918, had sunk a total of 26 ships[lower-alpha 9]. She attempted to enter Scapa Flow submerged by the southern passage, Hoxa Sound, on the evening of 28 October. Hydrophones mounted ashore at Stanger Head, Flotta, alerted the British defenses, and the sea-bed magnetometer loops, designed to detect the magnetic signatures of incoming vessels and thus trigger remote-controlled mines, were activated. Emsmann raised his periscope at 11:30 pm, presumably to check his position, and was spotted by look-outs on shore; the mines detonated shortly thereafter, leaving the submarine disabled on the sea bed. There are reports that at least some of the crew survived the initial mine detonation and that tapping could be heard from the disabled vessel. She was finished off by depth-charges from defense trawlers shortly thereafter; all 36 crew members were lost[lower-alpha 10].
Two other submarines, UB-98 and UB-118 were damaged in collision with each other on 28 October, and had to return to port. Two others, UB-87 and UB-130 also aborted their missions due to breakdowns.
State of the Grand Fleet
In late October 1918 the British Grand Fleet, based at Rosyth in the Firth of Forth, had some 35 Dreadnought battleships and 11 battlecruisers (including two of the very lightly armored Courageous class). Twenty of these ships had been completed since the outbreak of war, and a third of them were armed with the highly effective 15-inch gun; the oldest capital ship in the fleet was Indomitable (commissioned in June 1908). Five of these ships were from the United States Navy and one from the Royal Australian Navy.
The materiel problems which beset the Grand Fleet at the Battle of Jutland and beyond, (i.e. poor flash-protection in ammunition handling, lack of deck armour over magazines, deficient armour-piercing shells, and too few destroyers) had all been remedied to various extents. In particular, the newly designed "Green Boy" shells for the fleet's heavy guns were thought to be such a great improvement in offensive power that they nullified the advantage of the heavier armour protection of German battleships. Moreover, the fleet possessed new weapons (such as ship-borne torpedo aircraft, and fast steam-driven submarines) for which the German fleet had no match. The morale in the British Fleet was high in anticipation of a re-match for Jutland, the personality and leadership of the Commander-on-Chief, Admiral Sir David Beatty, being an important reason for this.
In the First World War British Naval Intelligence in general, and code-breaking in particular, was highly efficient. It played a very important role in the battles of Dogger Bank and Jutland, in the American entry into the war on the Allied side, and the defeat of the U-boats in 1917-18. By late 1917 improvements in German communications security had made intelligence gathering more difficult, at least as far as the High Seas Fleet was concerned. Between October 1917 and April 1918, the Germans were able to launch three surprise sorties into Norwegian waters against mercantile traffic, on the last occasion (22–25 April 1918) employing their whole fleet. Each time the British did not receive sufficiently timely warning to mount an effective counter-attack.
High-power wireless communications were essential for the control of U-boats at sea; but this also allowed efficient triangulation-based location of the U-boats by the Allies. In addition, U-boats employed a simpler cypher system than that used by the surface fleet, which Room 40, the British Admiralty's code-breaking section, could usually read with few difficulties. In October 1918 these methods allowed the Admiralty to track the U-boats sent to blockade Rosyth. As early as the afternoon of 23 October the Admiralty alerted Admiral Beatty that the situation was abnormal and that they would reinforce him by sending destroyers from the anti-submarine Flotillas based at Plymouth and Buncrana. By late on 28 October the situation was reaching a climax, and Vice Admiral Sydney Fremantle, the Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff and Rear Admiral Reginald Hall, the Director of Naval Intelligence sent Beatty a full appreciation which read, in part:
″Dispositions of enemy submarines combined with positions of their large minefield recently laid and now clear constitutes fairly decisive evidence of his desire to draw the Grand Fleet out ... No evidence of how he proposes to achieve this object but evidence that no move of his battlefleet can take place before ... tomorrow night. No objective of the enemy is apparent that will not involve great risk for him. Therefore he may confine himself to emerging from the Bight and returning after making us aware of his exit by W/T signals. Unlikely the enemy will risk fleet action until the Armistice negotiations are settled one way or another. Press reports of German submarines proceeding home via the Norwegian Coast probably emanate from Germany and are intended to conceal existence of submarine trap.″
Throughout the following 48 hours, Fremantle was able to keep Beatty well informed of developments in a timely manner, correctly describing the concentration of the High Seas Fleet at Schillig Roads on the evening of the 29 October, and its intention to sail on the 30 October [lower-alpha 11]. Hipper's unexpected postponement of the operation on 30 October was initially ascribed to fog.
Comparison of forces
The detailed orders of battle are given in the Appendix, and are summarized in the table below. The disparity in forces was roughly 2-to-1 in favor of the British. Had the battle been joined, it would have involved some 69 capital ships (in comparison with 58 involved at Jutland).
|Grand Fleet||Other British Forces||German Fleet|
|flotilla leaders, destroyers [lower-alpha 13]||146||99||60|
A realistic plan or pointless sacrifice?
Writing postwar, Admiral Scheer asserted that this plan might have achieved a favorable result for Germany, with any German losses balanced by losses to the British, so that the Germans would retain sufficient surface forces to protect a renewed U-Boat offensive. The High Seas Fleet had undertaken similar diversionary attacks intended to draw British units into a submarine/mine ambush before: the Action of 19 August 1916 was the one occasion when this tactic came closest to succeeding. A surface engagement off Terschelling near dusk on the second day offered some tactical advantages for the Germans[lower-alpha 15] and, if surprise were achieved, the Germans would have had a reasonable chance of inflicting more losses than they received before retiring with the bulk of their force intact. On 27 October the German Government had agreed to the surrender the fleet as part of the armistice; thus in strictly material terms, the German Navy had nothing to lose.
Admiral Beatty's specific intentions are not recorded, but there seems no doubt that he would have sailed as soon as the Germans were reported to be at sea, and would have aggressively pursued battle. With the war as good as won, there was no need of the prudence which had characterized Grand Fleet operations until then. Given the distances involved[lower-alpha 16], if the German sortie were reported promptly[lower-alpha 17] and the Grand Fleet sailed immediately on receipt of such a report, there was every possibility that they could have cut off the German line of retreat and forced a fight to the finish. Admiral Hipper seemed well aware of the risk in this plan, and expressed a sanguinary attitude about it: "a battle for the honour of the fleet in this war, even if it were a death battle, it would be the foundation for a new German fleet.".
Henry Newbolt, the official historian of the Royal Navy during the First World War, compared Hipper's planned operation with Michiel de Ruyter's Raid on the Medway in June 1667, when the Dutch Fleet launched a surprise attack on the English naval bases in the Thames estuary, inflicting a serious defeat and in consequence securing a more favorable peace treaty for the Netherlands at the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War.
More recently, it has been argued that the plan was a deliberate act of counter-revolution by the German Naval High Command against Prince Max of Baden and the peace party: regardless of the outcome of the battle, the launching of the attack would have hopelessly compromised the armistice negotiations and the credibility of Prince Max's government.
Cancellation of the plan
The High Seas Fleet had assembled in Schillig Roads on the afternoon of 29 October in preparation for sailing the following day, 30 October. A ruse that operation was a training sortie was employed for security, as was usual practice. The raid on the Thames and the Flanders Coast were thus scheduled for dawn, 31 October, and the battle with the British Fleet in the afternoon and evening of the same day.
However the evening of 29 October was marked by unrest and serious acts of indiscipline in the German Fleet, as the men became convinced their commanders were intent on sacrificing them in a deliberate attempt to sabotage the Armistice negotiations. A large number of stokers from Derfflinger and Von der Tann failed to return from liberty ashore and were rounded up by the authorities; insubordination was rampant on board Thüringen, Kaiserin, Helgoland and Regensberg; and mutinous demonstrations took place in König, Kronprinz Wilhelm and Markgraf. Even in the fleet flagship Baden the mood of the crew was dangerous. The mutinous behavior was confined to the crews of the larger ships; the crews of torpedo-boats, submarines and minesweepers remained loyal 
Bowing to the inevitable, Admiral Hipper cancelled the operation on 30 October and ordered the fleet dispersed in the hope of quelling the insurrection. However, the damage had been done: ships of the III. Battle Squadron, arrived at Kiel via the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal on 1 November, carrying with it the glowing ember of mutiny which would ignite with full force on 3 November.
Appendix: Orders of battle
Had this operation resulted in a battle between the British and German fleets, it would have been one of the largest Naval Battles in history. The following lists give details of the ships which would potentially have been involved.
High Seas Fleet
Commander-in-Chief, High Seas Fleet: Admiral Franz Ritter von Hipper in battleship Baden
- Commander, Scouting Forces: RAdm Ludwig von Reuter in battle cruiser Hindenburg
- I. SG (RAdm Reuter) battlecruisers: Hindenburg (F), Derfflinger, Moltke, Von der Tann, Seydlitz
- II. SG (Cdre Viktor Harder) light cruisers: Königsberg (F), Karlsruhe, Pillau, Nürnberg, Köln, Dresden, Graudenz
- Deputy Leader of Torpedo-Boats FKpt Hans Quaet-Faslem in light cruiser: Frankfurt
- II. TBF destroyers: (3. hf) G101, G104, V100, G103, G102; (4. hf) destroyers: B97, B111, B109, B110, B112
- I. TBF (detachment) torpedo boats: (2. hf) V130, S133, S135, S134, S139
- VII. TBF (detachment) torpedo boats: (13. hf) S138, V83, S65, V78, S56
Main body (under Commander-in-Chief)
- III. BS (VAdm Hugo Kraft), battleships: König (F), Bayern, Grosser Kurfürst, Kronprinz Wilhelm, Markgraf
- Fleet Flagship battleship: Baden (F, Adm Hipper)
- I. BS (VAdm Friedrich Bödicker) battleships: Ostfriesland (F), Thüringen, Posen, Nassau, Oldenburg, Westfalen[lower-alpha 18], Helgoland
- IV. BS (VAdm Hugo Meurer) battleships: Friedrich der Grosse (F), König Albert, Kaiserin, Prinzregent Luitpold, Kaiser
- Leader of Torpedo-Boats Cdre Paul Heinrich(GE) in light cruiser Emden
- I. TBF torpedo boats: (1. hf) V129, G39, G86, G40, G38, S32
- V. TBF torpedo boats: (9. hf) G11, V6, V3, V2; (10. hf) G8, G10, V5
- VI. TBF torpedo boats: (11. hf) V128, V127, S132, S131, V126, V125; (12. hf) V43, V45, V44, S49, S50, V46
- IX. TBF (17. hf) torpedo boats: V80, S52, S51, S60, S36
- IV. SG (RAdm Johannes von Karpf(GE)) light cruisers: Regensburg (F), Bremse, Brummer, Strassburg, Stralsund; attached minelayers: Arcona, Möwe
- VIII. TBF torpedo boats: (15. hf) T180, T193, T192, T195, T190, T189; (16. hf) torpedo boats: T178, T179, T176, T186
Airships: L65, L64, L63, L52, L61, L56, SL22
Submarines: thirty U-boats were assigned to this operation, in six patrol lines: U-43, U-52, U-53, U-60, U-62, U-78, U-86, U-91, U-94, U-96, U-100, U-107, U-108, U-113, U-162, UB-64, UB-67, UB-80, UB-86, UB-87, UB-93, UB-96, UB-98, UB-116, UB-118, UB-121, UB-125, UB-126, UB-130, UB-131, UC-58.
This is the administrative order of battle of the Grand Fleet and other important commands in Home Waters in late October 1918.  We have excluded minesweepers, sloops and older vessels employed on patrol duties, confining ourselves only to forces likely to have been engaged had the German sortie gone ahead. Some of these ships may not in fact have been available to sail on 30 October due to breakdowns or routine maintenance. The Grand Fleet was based at Rosyth, with usually one Squadron detached to Scapa Flow for gunnery training.
- 1st BS (Adm Sir Charles Madden) battleships: Revenge (F), Resolution, Royal Sovereign, Royal Oak, Ramillies, Emperor of India, Benbow, Iron Duke, Marlborough, Canada (attached cruiser: Bellona)
- 2nd BS (VAdm Sir John de Robeck) battleships: King George V (F), Ajax, Centurion, Erin, Orion, Thunderer, Monarch, Conqueror, Agincourt (attached cruiser: Boadicea)
- 4th BS (VAdm Sir Montague Browning) battleships: Hercules (F), Neptune, St. Vincent, Colossus, Bellerophon, Collingwood (attached cruiser: Blonde)
- 5th BS (VAdm A C Leveson) battleships: Barham (F), Malaya, Valiant, Warspite
- 6th BS (RAdm H Rodman) battleships: New York(USN) (F), Texas(USN), Arkansas(USN), Wyoming(USN), Florida(USN)
Cruisers (with main body)
- 2nd CS (RAdm E F Bruen) armoured cruisers: Minotaur (F), Achilles, Cochrane, Shannon
- 4th LCS (RAdm A F Everett) light cruisers: Calliope (F), Cambrian, Constance, Comus, Cordelia, Caroline
- 7th LCS (RAdm G H Borrett) light cruisers: Carysfort (F), Cleopatra, Penelope, Aurora, Undaunted
- Flying Squadron (RAdm R F Phillimore) aircraft carriers: Furious (F), Campania, Argus, Vindictive, Nairana, Pegasus[lower-alpha 19]
- Commander-in-Chief: VAdm Sir William Pakenham in battle cruiser Lion
- 1st BCS (RAdm Sir Henry Oliver) battle cruisers: Repulse (F), Renown, Princess Royal, Tiger
- 2nd BCS (RAdm Sir Lionel Halsey) battle cruisers: Australia(RAN) (F), New Zealand, Indomitable, Inflexible
- 1st CS (VAdm T D W Napier) battle cruisers: Courageous, Glorious
- 1st LCS (RAdm W H Cowan): Caledon (F), Inconstant, Galatea, Phaeton, Royalist
- 2nd LCS (RAdm J A Fergusson): Birmingham (F), Dublin, Melbourne(RAN), Sydney(RAN), Yarmouth
- 3rd LCS (RAdm A T Hunt): Chatham (F), Birkenhead, Chester, Southampton
- 6th LCS (RAdm E S Alexander-Sinclair): Cardiff (F), Calypso, Caradoc, Cassandra, Ceres
- Commodore (Destroyers): Cdre H J Tweedie in light cruiser: Castor
- 3rd DF leaders: Nimrod, Talisman; destroyers: Maenad, Mameluke, Marvel, Menace, Michael, Munster, Napier, Noble, Nonsuch, Onslaught, Petard
- 11th DF leaders: Valorous, Seymour, Kempenfelt; destroyers: Romola, Sarpedon, Tenacious, Tormentor, Tancred, Vivacious, Vittoria, Vortigern, Watchman, Versatile, Walker, Vancouver, Viscount, Walrus, Vanessa, Vanity, Voyager
- 12th DF leaders: Valhalla, Saumarez; destroyers: Simoom, Winchester, Wrestler, Scimitar, Torch, Vivien, Wolsey, Scotsman, Scout, Scythe, Tomahawk, Waterhen, Sepoy, Speedy, Seabear, Sirdar, Trinidad, Tryphon
- 13th DF light cruiser: Champion, leaders: Valentine, Valkyrie; destroyers: Vimiera, Vega, Vectis, Violent; Vendetta, Verulam, Wakeful, Westminster; Verdun, Viceroy, Vesper, Venetia; Wolfhound, Ursa, Ursula, Urchin; Umpire, Ulster, Tower, Tristram; Vidette, Winchelsea, Westcott; Windsor, Whitley, Woolston, Walpole, Wessex, Wryneck
- 14th DF leaders: Vampire, Anzac; destroyers: Ophelia, Relentless, Medina, Nonpareil, Observer, Opportune, Orestes, Pellew, Peyton, Plover, Patriot, Offa, Peregrine, Plucky, Norman, Orford, Pylades, Warwick, Velox, Whirlwind, Paladin, Penn, Octavia, Patrician, Tyrant, Splendid, Tobago, Sabre, Seafire, Seraph
- 15th DF leaders: Parker, Grenville; destroyers: Rapid, Sabrina, Radstock, Rowena, Ready, Raider, Restless, Rocket, Rigorous, Sable, Rob Roy, Salmon, Sorceress, Rosalind, Trenchant, Undine, Tirade
- 21st DF leaders: Botha, Douglas, Swift; destroyers: Miranda, Matchless, Milne, Morris, Murray, Mentor, Mansfield, Moorsom
- 5th LCS (RAdm Sir Reginald Tyrwhitt) light cruisers: Curacoa (F), Centaur, Concord, Conquest, Coventry, Curlew, Danae, Dragon
- 10th DF leaders: Montrose, Bruce, Shakespeare, Spenser; destroyers: Starfish, Sybille, Redgauntlet, Satyr, Skate, Stork, Sturgeon, Sylph, Radiant, Redoubt, Skilful, Tempest, Thruster, Retriever, Sharpshooter, Springbok, Truculent, Sceptre, Torrid, Taurus, Tetrarch, Thisbe, Teazer, Sparrowhawk, Swallow, Tactician
- 20th DF (Immingham) leaders: Abdiel, Gabriel, destroyers: Ferret, Sandfly, Lawford, Legion, Prince, Tarpon, Telemachus, Vanquisher, Vanoc, Venturous
Destroyer reinforcements The following are the modern vessels in Buncrana, Devonport and Dover flotillas in October 1918. These flotillas were ordered to provide reinforcements to the Grand Fleet after 23 October. There were 16 L-class/M-class destroyers temporarily attached to the Grand Fleet on 11 November 1918.
- 2nd DF (Buncrana) destroyers: Mandate, Marne, Martial, Michael, Milbrook, Minos, Moresby, Nicator, Ossory, Pelican, Pigeon, Magic, Manners, Medway, Mindful, Mons, Mounsey, Mystic, Musketeer
- 4th DF (Devonport) leader: Faulknor; destroyers: Nereus, Oberon, Onslow, Oracle, Oriole, Orpheus, Pasley, Laertes, Lance, Laurel, Laverock, Lennox, Leonidas, Liberty, Lochinvar, Loyal, Lysander, Lookout, Minion, Narwhal, Nepean, Nerissa, Morning Star, Nizam, Norseman, Obdurate, Obedient, Oriana, Osiris, Rival
- 6th DF (Dover) leader: Broke; destroyers: Afridi, Amazon, Cossack, Crusader, Saracen, Viking, Zubian, Manly, Myngs, Melpomene, Termagant, Trident, Nugent, Phoebe
operating with the Battle Fleet
North Sea patrols
- 8th S/MF (Yarmouth) submarines: H21, H28, H29, H30
- 9th S/MF (Harwich) submarines: E29, E31, E41, E43, E45, E51, E52, E53, E56, L9, L15, L14, L17, C23, C25
- 10th S/MF (Tees) submarines: E27, E33, E39, E40, E42, E44, G6, G12, G13, L11, L12, L16
- 11th S/MF (Blyth) submarines: G1, G2, G3, G4, G5, G10, J2, J3, J4, J5, J6, J7
- 14th S/MF (Blyth) submarines: H8, H11, H12, H14, H15, H22, H23, H24, H25, H26, L8, R1, R2, R9, R12
Notes and references
- Based on the English text given by Grant modified with reference to the partial German text and additional details found in the German official history.
- Old battleship of the Kaiser Friedrich III class (launched 1897), acting as a static command ship in Wilhelmshaven.
- The complete German header of the message reads as follows: "Kommando der Hochseeflotte/Op. 269/A I/SMS KAISER WILHELM II den 24.10.1918/GANZ GEHEIM/O. SACHE/O.-BEFEHL Nr.19."
- German: Hochseestreitkräfte, literally: "high sea armed forces"; Admiral Hipper's formal title was Chef der Hochseestreitkräfte. Hochseeflotte (High Seas Fleet) presumably referred to surface forces alone, while Hochseestreitkräfte included U-boats and aircraft.
- German: Flottenteile, literally "fleet parts". To even the odds, the Germans would have preferred to engage isolated detachments of the Grand Fleet rather than the whole force; the British command would have endeavored to keep the fleet concentrated to avoid this possibility, keeping faster units such as battlecruisers tied to the slower battleships.
- Both Grant and Gladisch spell her name this way. The only mine-warfare ship with the name Arkona listed in Gröner's standard reference work on German warships is the minesweeper M115, which bore that name in 1935-41. Thus presumably this is the old Gazelle-class cruiser Arcona (launched 1902), which was used as a mine-layer and base ship in the Ems.
- a disguised raider which had undertaken two very successful cruises in 1916 and 1917. She was also used as a mine-layer in the North Sea.
- The captain of UB-96, OLtzS. Walter Krastel, reportedly received sealed orders when he sailed from Heligoland on 12 October to be opened in the event of the cancellation of the U-boat war, instructing him to take up this position. This indicates that Hipper's plan may well have been in preparation for some time before 22 October.
- Contrary to some sources, UB-116 did not have an all-officer volunteer crew.
- Emsmann's attempt was repeated more successfully 21 years later, when on 14 October 1939 Günther Prien entered Scapa Flow via the eastern channel, Holm Sound, and sank the battleship Royal Oak.
- This close and continuous exchange of important intelligence between Room 40, the Naval Staff and the Commander-in-Chief was a noticeable improvement over the situation earlier in the war.
- Only including flat-deck vessels.
- Only including destroyers built after 1913 (i.e. the Laforey class and later ships).
- The German Navy's large torpedo boats (großer torpedoboote) were of similar size and function to the destroyers in the Royal Navy; the vessels of the German II. TBF were special larger vessels officially classified as destroyers (zerstörer) .
- Specifically: the location was in range of the naval aircraft based at Borkum, which would have helped reconnaissance; British fleet, approaching from the west, would have been silhouetted in the sunset while the Germans were in darkness (an advantage used at the Battle of Coronel to great effect); and the German Fleet could break off the engagement at will by retiring into their own minefields, (into which the British, ignorant of the swept channels, could follow only at great peril), a factor which had been used to German advantage before at the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight in November 1917.
- The distance from Rosyth to Terschelling is approximately 350 nautical miles, while the distance that the German forces would have had to cover, from Wilhelmshaven to the Thames and then back to Terschelling is roughly 400 nautical miles; Further, the Germans would have been delayed some hours by their attacks on the Thames and along the Flanders coast, and presumably in fighting with the British forces based at Harwich and Dover.
- The British relied on submarines patrolling in the German Bight to give warning of German fleet sorties. This was far from infallible: the failure of the British to intercept the High Seas Fleet sortie to Norway in April 1918 was principally due to the failure of a British submarine commander (Lt. Cdr. Geoffrey Warburton DSO of HMS J6) to send a sighting report when he spotted the German fleet sailing through his patrol area.
- Westfalen had been allocated as a gunnery training ship since August 1918; she was however listed in the tactical order of battle for this operation.
- embarked aircraft: Furious: 6 Sopwith Camel fighters, 14 Sopwith 1½ Strutter spotter aircraft; Vindictive: 4 Grain Griffin reconnaissance aircraft, 1 Sopwith Pup fighter; Argus: landing trials with 1½ Strutters and Pups; No. 185 Squadron RAF was formed on 19 October at East Fortune with 18 Sopwith Cuckoo torpedo bombers for service in Argus, although these do not seem to have embarked before the armistice; Campania: 4 Fairey Campania reconnaissance seaplanes, 7 1½ Strutters; Nairana: 5 Campanias, 2 Sopwith Baby fighter seaplanes; Pegasus: 3 Campanias, 1 Short Type 184 reconnaissance seaplanes, 5 Camels; battleships: 47 fighters, 19 reconnaissance aircraft; battle-cruisers: 13 fighters, 8 reconnaissance aircraft; light cruisers: 16 aircraft; total: 155 aircraft embarked.
BCS: Battle Cruiser Squadron
BS: Battle Squadron (German: Geschwader)
Cdre: Commodore (German: Kommodore)
CS: Cruiser Squadron
DF: Destroyer Flotilla
FKpt: Frigate Captain (German: Fregattenkapitän)
hf: half-flotilla (German: halbflottille)
LCS: Light Cruiser Squadron
RAdm: Rear Admiral (German: Kontreadmiral)
(RAN): Denotes a ship of the Royal Australian Navy
S/MF: Submarine Flotilla
SG: Scouting Group (German: Aufklärungsgruppe)
TBF: Torpedo-Boat Flotilla (German: Torpedoboot Flottille)
(USN): Denotes a ship of the United States Navy
VAdm: Vice Admiral (German: Vizeadmiral)
- Newbolt, Naval Operations, vol.5 pp. 367
- Marder, Dreadnought to Scapa Flow vol.5 pp. 171
- Grant,U-Boat Intelligence pp. 163-64
- Die Opferung der Hochseeflotte im Oktober 1918?, accessed 10 May 2013.
- Gladisch, Nordesee, Bd.7 pp. 344-347 Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Gladisch" defined multiple times with different content
- Grant,U-Boat Intelligence p. 164
- Gladisch,Nordsee, Bd.7. p. 346
- Gröner, Kriegsschiffe, vol.2p.166
- Spindler Handelskrieg, Bd.5, pp.338-340.
- Grant, U-boat Intelligence pp.161-163.
- Grant, U-boat Intelligence p.164.
- Scapa Flow Wrecks (accessed 13 May 2013).
- U-boat Net.
- Spindler Handelskrieg, Bd.5, p.419
- The loss of the U116 on 28 October 1918
- Marder, Dreadnought to Scapa Flow vol.5 pp. 129.
- Beesly, Room 40 p.274
- Grant, U-boat Intelligence, pp.161-163.
- Newbolt, Naval Operations vol.5 pp. 367-368.
- quoted in Beesly, Room 40 p.294-295.
- Beesly, Room 40 p.295.
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- Marder, Dreadnought to Scapa Flow vol.5 pp. 172, footnote 11.
- Marder, p.150
- Philbin, Hipper p.155
- Newbolt, Naval Operations, vol.5 pp. 369
- Leonidas E. Hill, Signal zur Konterrevolution? Der Plan zum letzten Vorstoß der deutschen Hochseeflotte am 30. Oktober 1918 Vierteljahreshefte für Zeitgeschichte 1/1988, p.113
- Marder, Dreadnought to Scapa Flow, vol.5 pp. 172.
- Marder, Dreadnought to Scapa Flow, vol.5 pp. 174.
- Dave Alton, Commanders of the High Seas Fleet Battle Squadrons 1914-1918, The World War I Document Archive, accessed 7 May 2013.
- Gladisch, Nordsee Bd.7 p.344.
- Spindler, Handelskrieg mit U-booten, Bd.5, pp.338-340
- Dittmar & Colledge, British Warships, pp.22-23
- Graham E Watson, Royal Navy Destroyer Flotillas, November 1918, accessed 10 May 2013.
- Graham E Watson, Royal Navy Submarine Disposition, November 1918, accessed 10 May 2013.
- Patrick Beesly (1984) Room 40: British Naval Intelligence, 1914-1918 (Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-281468-0).
- F. J. Dittmar and J. J. Colledge (1972), British Warships 1914-1919 (Shepperton: Ian Allan Ltd. SBN 7110 0380 7).
- Admiral Walter Gladisch (GE) (1965), Der Krieg zur See 1914-18/Nordsee Bd.7 (Frankfurt: Verlag E S Mittler & Sohn).
- Robert M. Grant (1969), U-Boat Intelligence 1914-1918 (London: Putnam).
- Erich Gröner(GE)(1983), Die deutschen Kriegsschiffe 1815-1945, Bd.2: Torpedoboote, Zerstörer, Schnellboote, Minensuchboote, Minenräumboote (Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe Verlag. ISBN 3-7637-4801-6).
- Prof. Arthur J. Marder (1969), From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow, Vol.5: Victory and Aftermath (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
- Henry Newbolt (1931),The History of the Great War: Naval Operations Vol.5 (London: Longmans, Green and Co.)
- Tobias R. Philbin III (1982), Admiral von Hipper: The Inconvenient Hero (Amsterdam: B. R. Grüner Publishing Co. ISBN 90-6032-200-2).
- Reinhard Scheer (1920), Germany's High Seas Fleet in the World War, English edition (London: Cassell and Company, Ltd.), Ch.18.
- Rear Admiral Arno Spindler (1966), Der Krieg zur See 1914-18/Handelskrieg mit U-booten, Bd.5 (Frankfurt: Verlag E S Mittler & Sohn).
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