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The Military of New France consisted of a mix of regular soldiers of the French Army, French Navy and Canadien volunteer militia units.

Prior to 1690 most French troops were sent from france , but localization meant that by 1690, (In 1669 Louis XIV orderd that all valid men of New France between the ages of 16 and 60 must do mandatory military service so every parish would have its own militia) more were Canadien volunteers and by 1720s mostly Canadiens.[1]

Installations

Château Saint-Louis

The French and Canadiens built forts from Newfoundland to Louisiana and others captured from the British from the 1600s to the late 1700s. Some were a mix of military post and trading forts.

Fort Chambly 1840

Virtual Museum of Canada Fort Lachine (1913)

Fort Niagara

Fort Saint Jean

Units

File:Carignan-Salières.jpg

Régiment Carignan-Salières soldier

  • French Army
    • Carignan-Salières Regiment (Régiment de Carignan-Salières) - volunteer army unit (1665–1668)
      • François Cottineau, dit Champlaurier, a member of this unit and ancestor of PM Sir Wilfrid Laurier
    • Régiment suisse de Karrer 1722-1745 (Louisbourg); 1747-1749 (Quebec)
      • 176 soldiers and 4 officers 1740s
    • Canadian Voyageurs - militia unit
    • militia artillery corps (2 brigades) - 1723
    • Reserve companies (2 units) - 1750s
    • The Governor General's Guard 1672-1682 - 20 mounted men-at-arms or carabineers for Comte de Frontenac
    • Compagnie des canonniers-bombardiers de Quebec (Gunner and Bombardier Company) 1750-1760 - consisted of 43 gunners/bombers
    • Régiment de la Reine 1755-1760
    • Régiment de Guyenne 1755-1760
    • Régiment de Berry 1755-1760
    • Régiment de Béarn 1755-1760
    • Régiment La Sarre 1755-1760

Régiment de Languedoc soldier

  • French Navy
    • 28 Compagnies Franches de la Marine (Naval Corps) 1683-1755
      • 30 companies 1750s with 1500 soldiers and 120 officers
    • Compagnies franches de la Marine of Acadia
      • 4 companies with 200 soldiers and 12 officers by 1702
    • Compagnies franches de la Marine of Plaisance
      • 3 companies with 150 soldiers and 9 officers by 1690s
    • Compagnies franches de la Marine on Ile Royale 1710s
      • 24 companies with 1200 soldiers and 96 officers by 1749

Compagnies Franches de la Marine

    • Bombardiers de la Marine (Navy Bombardiers) 1702-1760s - 108 bombardiers
    • Troupes de la marine (Troops of Marines) 1682-1755 - 1759 - 1000 soldiers
    • Galley Troops (Pertuisaniers des Galères)
  • Canadian Militia
    • District of Québec: 1759 - 5,640 miliciamen
    • District of Montréal: 1759 - 5,455 miliciamen 4,200 sent to Quebec City
    • District of Trois-Rivière: 1759 - 1,300 miliciamen 1,100 to Quebec City
    • Canadian Cavalery: 200 cavalerymen
  • Acadian Militia 1759 - 150 miliciens
  • Native Indians 1759 - 1,800

Military commanders

General Montcalm

French Royal Navy

Duc d'Anville

Le Pélican

Ships built in New France

A list of ships posted to New France:

File:Algonquin.tif

Algonquin

  • La Tempête

Ship building in New France 1650s and repair facilities were available in Quebec and Louisburg.

Ships built in Quebec shipyard include:

  • 500-tonne store ship launched on June 4, 1742
  • Caribou, a 700-tonne store ship launched on May 13, 1744
  • Castor, a 26-gun frigate launched on May 16, 1745
  • Carcajou, a 12-gun corvette built in 1744-45
  • Martre, a 22-gun frigate launched on June 6, 1746
  • Saint-Laurent, a 60-gun vessel launched on June 13, 1748
  • Original, a 60-gun vessel - sank when launched on September 2, 1750
  • Algonquin, a 72-gun ship launched in June 1753
  • Abénaquise, a 30-gun frigate launched in the spring of 1756
  • 30-gun frigate begun in 1756 but not completed

Ranks

Carabineer

  • mounted men-at-arms (carabineers)
  • lieutenant
  • pikeman
  • captain
  • corporal
  • drummer
  • bombardier
  • Sergeant
  • grenadier or artilleryman
  • cornet
  • master gunner
  • gunner
  • archers

Weapons

  • muskets
    • light hunting musket by militia units
    • flintlock muskets by marines
    • matchlock muskets with bayonets by marines
  • swords
  • pike - used by pikemen
  • hatchet - used by militiamen
  • halbard

See also

References

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).
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