USMC M46 in the Korean War.
|Place of origin||United States|
|In service||1950 to mid- to late-1950s|
|Manufacturer||Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant|
|Number built||800 + 360 M46A1|
|Variants||M46 A1, M47 Patton|
|Weight||44 metric tons|
|Crew||5 (commander, gunner, loader, driver, assistant driver)|
|Armor||102 mm/4 inches maximum|
|90 mm gun M3A1 |
|0.5 in (12.7 mm) M2 machine gun |
2x .30 cal M1919A4 machine guns
|Engine||Continental AVDS-1790-5A V12, air-cooled Twin-turbo gasoline engine|
810 hp (604 kW)
|Transmission||General Motors CD-850-3 or -4, 2 ranges forward, 1 reverse|
|Suspension||Torsion bar suspension|
|Ground clearance||478 mm|
|Fuel capacity||878 liters|
The M46 was an improved M26 Pershing tank and one of the U.S Army's principal medium gun tanks of the early Cold War, with models in service from 1949 to the mid 1950s. On 30 July 1948, the M46 was named the Patton, in honor of General George S. Patton Jr. It was not widely used by U.S. Cold War allies, being exported only to Belgium, and only in small numbers to train crews on the upcoming M47. The M46 tank was designed to replace the M26 Pershing and M4 Sherman.
After World War II, most US Army armored units were equipped with a mix of M4 Sherman and M26 Pershing tanks. Designed initially as a heavy tank, the M26 Pershing tank was reclassified as a medium tank postwar. The M26 was a significant improvement over the M4 Sherman in firepower and protection. Its mobility, however, was deemed unsatisfactory for a medium tank, as it used the same engine that powered the much lighter M4A3. Its underpowered engine was also plagued with an unreliable transmission.
Work began in January 1948 on replacing the original power plant with the Continental AV1790-3 engine and Allison CD-850-1 cross-drive transmission. The design was initially called M26E2, but modifications continued to accumulate, and eventually the Bureau of Ordnance decided that the tank needed its own unique designation. When the rebuild began in November, 1949, the upgraded M26 received not only a new power plant and a main gun with bore evacuator, but a new designation along with a name - simply M46. In total, 1,160 M26s were rebuilt: 800 to the M46 standard, 360 to the M46A1.
The only US combat use of the M46 was in the Korean War. On 8 August 1950 the first M46 Patton tanks belonging to the 6th Tank Battalion landed in South Korea. The tank proved superior to the much lighter North Korean T-34-85, which were encountered in relatively small numbers. By the end of 1950, 200 M46 Pattons had been fielded, forming about 15% of US tank strength in Korea; the balance of 1,326 tanks shipped to Korea during 1950 included 679 M4A3 Shermans, 309 M26 Pershings, and 138 M24 Chaffee light tanks. Subsequent shipments of M46 and M46A1 Pattons allowed all remaining M26 Pershings to be withdrawn during 1951, and most Sherman equipped units were also reequipped.
Known M46 series operators include: 1st Marine Tank Battalion and regimental Antitank Platoons of the 1st Marine Division by 1952, 72nd Tank Battalion of the 2nd Infantry Division by January 1952, 64th Tank Battalion of the 3rd Infantry Division, 73rd Tank Battalion of the 7th Infantry Division by January 1951, 6th Tank Battalion of the 24th Infantry Division, 140th Tank Battalion (took over the tanks of the 6th Tank Battalion) and regimental tank companies of the 40th Infantry Division (CA ARNG) by October 1951, and the 245th Tank Battalion of the 45th Infantry Division (OK ARNG) by 1952. Several other regimental tank companies gained M46/M46A1s by the end of the war, including the 7th and 65th Infantry Regiments of the 3rd Infantry Division.
In the 1950s, small numbers of M46s were leased, at no cost, to some European countries for training purposes, including Belgium, France and Italy, in preparation for the introduction of the M47. US instruction teams used the vehicles to train European tank crews and maintenance personnel.
- M26E2/M46 - M26/A1 Pershing upgraded with Continental V-12 engine and cross-drive transmission. Used the same M3A1 90 mm gun as the M26A1 Pershing, and differed mainly in the position of the exhausts.
- M46A1 - Product improved variant with improved braking, cooling and fire suppression systems, as well as, improved electrical equipment, AV-1790-5B engine and CD-850-4 transmission.
- M46 equipped with M3 dozer kit.
- United States
- List of armored fighting vehicles
- M47 Patton
- M48 Patton
- M60 Patton
- M103 heavy tank
- G-numbers SNL G244
- Hunnicutt, p. 35
- Hunnicuttp, 14
- Steven J. Zaloga "M26/M46 Pershing Tank 1943-1953" ISBN 1-84176-202-4 pp.39-40
- Donald W Boose Jr."US Army Forces in the Korean War 1950-53" ISBN 1-84176-621-6 pp.52,75-86
- all Donald W Boose Jr. ibid
- Simon Dunstan "Armour of the Korean War 1950-53" ISBN 0-85045-428-X pp.29-32
- Troy D. Thiel "The M26 Pershing and Variants" ISBN 0-7643-1544-7 pp.64-84
- "JED The Military Equipment Directory"
- Steven J Zaloga, Tony Bryan, Jim Laurier - M26–M46 Pershing Tank 1943–1953, 2000 Osprey Publishing (New Vanguard 35), ISBN 1-84176-202-4
- Abraham Rabinovich - The Battle for Jerusalem June 5–7, 1967, 2004 Sefer Ve Sefer Publishing, Jerusalem, ISBN 965-7287-07-3
- Nolan, Keith W. "Into Lao's, Operation Lam Son 719 and Dewey Canyon II." 1986. Presidio Press. Account of the US Army's final offensive of the Vietnam War
- Hunnicutt, R. P. "Patton: A History of the American Main Battle Tank." 1984. Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-230-1
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