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In most wars, some territory is placed under the martial law of a hostile army. Most belligerent military occupations end with the cessation of hostilities. In some cases, the occupied territory is returned and in other cases, the land remains under the control of the occupying power, but usually not as militarily-occupied territory.

For the purpose of selectivity, only military occupations since the customary laws of belligerent military occupation were first clarified and supplemented by the Hague Convention of 1907 Laws and Customs of War on Land (Hague IV); October 18, 1907 are included in this article.

Before World War I

World War I

World War II

After World War II


  • Occupation of the Gaza Strip by Israel (1967–present) [lower-alpha 4]
  • Occupation of the Golan Heights region of Syria by Israel (1967–present). [lower-alpha 5]
  • Occupation of the West Bank and East Jerusalem by Israel (1967–present)[13] [lower-alpha 6]
  • Occupation of northern Cyprus by Turkey and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, 1974–present
  • Occupation of Barxudarlı, Karki and Yuxarı Əskipara by Armenia, 1994–present
  • Occupation of Artsvashen by Azerbaijan, 1994–present
  • Occupation of the area surrounding Nagorno Karabakh of Azerbaijan by Armenia, 1994–present
  • Occupation of Kosovo by NATO, 1999–present
  • Occupation of Badme by Ethiopia, 2002–present
  • Occupation of Abkhazia and South Ossetia by Russia (disputed), 2008–present

Secessionist states and territorial disputes

  • For a list of states that have seceded unilaterally see List of states with limited recognition
  • For a list of cases where territory is disputed between countries, see List of territorial disputes

See also

  • Peacekeeping - military deployments for peace-keeping purposes
  • CSDP missions – foreign non-belligerent military missions of the European Union
  • Annexation
  • Revanchism

Footnotes and references

  1. On March 26, 1949, the US department of State issued a circular letter stating that the Baltic countries were still independent nations with their own diplomatic representatives and consuls.[4]
  2. From Sumner Wells' declaration of July 23, 1940, that we would not recognize the occupation. We housed the exiled Baltic diplomatic delegations. We accredited their diplomats. We flew their flags in the State Department's Hall of Flags. We never recognized in deed or word or symbol the illegal occupation of their lands.[5]
  3. Berlin remained under formal military occupation until September 12, 1990 when the Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany was signed
  4. In 2005, Israel disengaged its military forces from the Gaza Strip and no longer considers itself to be occupying the territory. However, in a Spokesperson's Noon Briefing" on 19 January 2012, Martin Nesirky, Spokesperson for the Secretary-General, stated "under resolutions adopted by both the Security Council and the General Assembly on the Middle East peace process, the Gaza Strip continues to be regarded as part of the Occupied Palestinian Territory. The United Nations will accordingly continue to refer to the Gaza Strip as part of the Occupied Palestinian Territory until such time as either the General Assembly or the Security Council take a different view."
  5. Israel applied civilian law to the Golan Heights in an act of de facto annexation. That action was ruled null and void by the United Nations Security Council in UNSC Resolution 497, and the international community continues to regard the Golan Heights as Syrian territory held under Israeli occupation.
  6. East Jerusalem was placed under Israeli civil law in 1980 in an act of de facto annexation. That action was ruled null and void by the United Nations Security Council in United Nations Security Council Resolution 478 and the international community continues to regard East Jerusalem as being held under Israeli occupation.
  1. 1.0 1.1 Die Militärverwaltung in den von den österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen besetzten Gebieten, Vol. 4
  3. Under the terms of two decrees by Hitler (October 8 and October 12, 1939), large areas of western Poland were annexed by Germany. Much of the rest of Poland was organized into the Generalgouvernement (General Government) of Poland, under German administration, while eastern Poland was annexed by the Soviet Union. The annexations were not recognized by any other State.
  4. Feldbrugge, Ferdinand; Gerard Pieter van den Berg, William B. Simons (1985). Encyclopedia of Soviet law. BRILL. p. 461. ISBN 90-247-3075-9. 
  5. Fried, Daniel (June 14, 2007). "U.S.-Baltic Relations: Celebrating 85 Years of Friendship". Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  6. "Far East (Formosa and the Pescadores)". U.K. Parliament. May 4, 1955. Retrieved 2010-09-01. "The sovereignty was Japanese until 1952. The Japanese Treaty came into force, and at that time Formosa was being administered by the Chinese Nationalists, to whom it was entrusted in 1945, as a military occupation." 
  7. Charney, Jonathan I.; Prescott, J. R. V. (2000). "Resolving Cross-Strait Relations Between China and Taiwan". pp. 453–477. JSTOR 2555319. "After occupying Taiwan in 1945 as a result of Japan's surrender, the Nationalists were defeated on the mainland in 1949, abandoning it to retreat to Taiwan." 
  8. Jordan annexed the West Bank and East Jerusalem in 1950
  9. On this Day: 23 December: 1956: Jubilation as allied troops leave Suez, BBC. Retrieved 22 June 2008.
  10. The occupation of Sinai (1956)
  11. Congo, Democratic Republic of the CIA Factbook
  12. Joe De Capua Ethiopia marks yearlong occupation in Somalia, Voice of America, 24 December 2007
  13. The Golan Heights and East Jerusalem regions have been de facto annexed by Israel. These annexations have not been recognised by the United Nations.

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