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Alexander the Great was recognised as a great commander by both Hannibal and Napoleon.

This is a list of military commanders. These include the "great captains" of history, as they were styled by military historian Liddell Hart; the major leaders of the armies in the most decisive battles of world history. Also included are those who were notoriously flamboyant, incompetent or otherwise famous, such as General Custer.

Napoleon advised military men to study the campaigns of Alexander, Hannibal, Gustavus, Turenne, Eugene and Frederick.[1] Hannibal, after his defeat by Scipio, said that Alexander was the greatest of generals and that Pyrrhus was next to him in greatness.[1] Many others since then have discussed who was the greatest. In 2011, a poll of experts considered who was Britain's greatest general and divided between the Duke of Wellington and William Slim.[2][3]

Contents

Achaemenid Empire

Classical Athens

Sparta

Ancient Carthage

Roman Republic

Carthage

Macedon

Numidia

Optimates

Populares

Augustus

Mark Antony

Ptolemaic Egypt

Cherusci

Roman Empire

Goths

Byzantine Empire

Vandals

East Francia

Hungarian people

Anglo-Saxons

Duchy of Normandy

Estonians

Latgallians

Livonian Brothers of the Sword

Semigallians

 Denmark

 Sweden

Brabant

Counts of Dreux

County of Boulogne

County of Flanders

Duchy of Burgundy (Ancient)

France in the Middle Ages

Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou

House of Welf

Lorraine (duchy)

Ponthieu

Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia

[[File:|23x15px|border |alt=|link=]] Mongol Empire

Principality of Chernigov

Principality of Kiev

Vladimir-Suzdal

Dreux

Kingdom of England

Kingdom of Scotland

Moray

England (1340)

France (Dauphins)

France in the Middle Ages

Philip of Valois, Duke of Orléans

Albret (Modern)

Boucicaut

Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York

Kingdom of England (1399-1603)

Orléans (Duchy)

Poland (Kingdom)

House of Lancaster

Jasper Tudor

Redvers

Richard III of England (1483-1485)

Stanley family

Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk

Kingdom of Hungary (14th century)

 Ottoman Empire (1453)

 Bohemia

Catholic League (German)

Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Electoral Palatinate (1604)

Hungarian Anti-Habsburg Rebels

Principality of Transylvania (1570–1711)

 Electorate of Saxony (Electorate)

 Sweden (1562)

Zaporozhian Cossacks

 Kingdom of England (Kingdom)

 Dutch Republic

 Holy Roman Empire

 Spain (1506)

 Kingdom of France (Kingdom)

Cavalier

Roundhead

Crimean Khanate

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Zaporozhian Cossacks

 Bavaria

 Portugal (1707)

 Duchy of Savoy (Duchy)

 Spain (1701)

 Kingdom of Great Britain (Kingdom)

 Habsburg Monarchy

 Duchy of Parma (Duchy)

 Piedmont-Sardinia (Kingdom)

 Russian Empire (Empire)

British America (1707)

 New France

Kingdom of Mysore

Mohawk

 Spain (1748)

 United States (1777)

 Hesse

Vermont Republic

 Kingdom of France (Royal Navy)

 Kingdom of Great Britain (Royal Navy)

 United States (1795)

 France

 France (Republic)

 Austrian Empire (Empire)

Grand Duchy of Tuscany

 Netherlands

 Papal States (Old)

Portuguese Empire (1750)

 Kingdom of Prussia (1803)

 Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

 Spain (1785)

 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (Great Britain and Ireland)

 Russia

 United Kingdom (Navy)

Shawnee

 United Kingdom

 Mexico

 Texas

Eureka Rebellion

 Confederate States of America (1861)

 United States (1863)

 Confederate States of America (1863)

 United States (1861)

Kingdom of Prussia (1816)

 Kingdom of Italy (Kingdom)

 Ethiopian Empire (Old Empire)

Katipunan

 United States (1896)

 Cuba

 Orange Free State

 South African Republic (Republic)

 Russian Empire (Imperial Navy)

 Empire of Japan (Imperial Army)

 Empire of Japan (Imperial Navy)

 Empire of Japan (Empire)

 Kingdom of Bulgaria (Kingdom)

 Kingdom of Greece (Kingdom)

 Kingdom of Montenegro (Kingdom)

 Ottoman Empire

 Kingdom of Serbia (Kingdom)

 Kingdom of Romania (Kingdom)

Ireland

 German Empire (Imperial Navy)

Russia (Emperor 1858-1917)

Socialism

 German Empire (Empire)

Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine

 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1918)

Finland (State 1918)

Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic

 Republic of China (1912–1949) (Republic 1912-1949)

 Nazi Germany (Nazi)

 Soviet Union (1923)

 United States (1912)

 Finland

 Soviet Union

 Nazi Germany (Nazi Navy)

 Independent State of Croatia (Independent State)

 Kingdom of Hungary (1920–46) (Kingdom)

 Nazi Germany (Nazi 1935)

 All-Palestine Government

Army of the Holy War

 Kingdom of Egypt (Kingdom)

 Kingdom of Iraq (Kingdom)

 Arab League

 Syria (1932)

 Jordan

 Israel

 North Korea

 United Nations

 China

 South Korea

 New Zealand

 North Vietnam

 Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam

 South Vietnam

 Australia

 United States

 Turkey

 India

 Egypt (UAR)

 Syria (1963)

 Iraq (1963)

 Egypt (1972)

 Syria (1972)

 Iran

Iraq

  • Abdul Aziz al-Hakim
  • Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim

People's Mujahedin of Iran

Peshmerga

 Libya (1977)

 Albania (1946)

 Germany

 Italy

Kosovo Liberation Army

 NATO

 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Federal Republic)

 Afghanistan (Taliban)

Al-Qaeda

Jihad

Ancient

Armenia

Tigranes - the great Armenian warrior-king who fought against Parthia, Rome and the Seleucids.

  • Artaxias I (189 BC–159 BC) Armenian king, founded the Artaxiad Dynasty, the beginnings of the Armenian Golden Age.
  • Tigranes the Great (95 BC–55 BC) Armenian king, extended the Kingdom of Armenia to its greatest extent.
  • Vartan Mamikonian (d. 451) Sparapet, commander of Armenian forces during the Battle of Avarayr against the Sassanids which preserved Christianity in Armenia.
  • Ashot II (914–928) Armenian king, defeated Arabs.
  • Leo I, King of Armenia

Berbers

  • Lusius Quietus governor of Judaea and one of Trajan's chief generals. See Kitos War.
  • Masinissa (c. 238 BC – c. 148 BC) was the first King of Numidia, an ancient North African nation of ancient Libyan peoples, and is most famous for his role as a Roman ally in the Battle of Zama.

Britons

  • Boudica c. 25 AD – c. 62 AD, Queen of the Iceni, led an uprising against the invading forces of the Roman Empire.

Carthage

China

  • Sun Tzu (Warring States period) General, author of "The Art of War"
  • Wu Qi (Warring States period) General, author of "Wu-tzu"
  • Sun Bin (Warring States period) General, author of "Sun Bin Bing Fa"
  • Yue Yi (Warring States period) General, who almost single-handedly destroyed Qi
  • Tian Dan (Warring States period) General, who single-handedly resurrected Qi from destruction
  • Xiang Yu (Qin) General and rebel against Qin
  • Ban Chao Han Dynasty general who led campaigns against the Xiongnu Confederation into Western Asia.
  • Han Xin (Han Dynasty) Considered the best general of his time, helped Liu Bang defeat Xiang Yu
  • Wei Qing (Han Dynasty) General under Emperor Wu of Han, best known for his decisive campaigns against the Huns
  • Huo Qubing (Han Dynasty) General under Emperor Wu of Han
  • Cao Cao (Three Kingdoms period) prime minister, military governor, and de facto ruler of the Wei Kingdom, military strategist
  • Guan Yu (Three Kingdoms period) Legendary for his loyalty and martial prowess, and deified as the God of War in the Sui Dynasty
  • Zhou Yu (Three Kingdoms period) Military strategist
  • Zhuge Liang (Three Kingdoms period) Military strategist, adviser to Liu Bei
  • Xie Xuan (Jin Dynasty (265–420)) Military strategist
  • Ran Min (Southern and Northern Dynasties) One of few Chinese warlords in the north, well known for his genocide against the Jie people
  • Li Jing (Tang Dynasty) General, military strategist, best known for his decisive campaign against the Göktürks
  • Li Shiji (Tang Dynasty) General, military strategist, best known for conquering Goguryeo
  • Yue Fei (Song Dynasty) General, military strategist

Egypt

Gaul

Germania

  • Arminius (16 BC–21 AD), war chief of the Germanic tribe of the Cherusci.
  • Alaric I (375–410), Gothic King, defeated several Roman armies and sacked the city of Rome.

Goths

  • Fritigern (Western Gothic chieftain whose military victories in the Gothic War of 376–382)
  • Alatheus (Greuthung chieftain and general)
  • Saphrax (Ostrogoth duke and war leader)
  • Theodoric the Great (King of Ostrogoths and ruler of Italy)

Greece

  • Miltiades the Younger (550 BC–489 BC), Athenian general during the Persian Wars.
  • Callimachus, Athenian general during the Greco-Persian Wars.
  • Themistocles (525 BC–460 BC), Athenian admiral during the Persian Wars.
  • Leonidas (d. 480 BC), Spartan king, leader of the 300 Spartans in the Battle of Thermopylae.
  • Eurybiades, Spartan general during the Persian Wars.
  • Pausanias – Spartan general during the Persian Wars.
  • Cimon (Athenian general)
  • Callias (Athenian general)
  • Pericles (Athenian politician and general during the Peloponnesian War)
  • Pyrrhus of Epirus (king of the Greek tribe of Molossians(from ca. 297 BC), Epirus (306–301, 297–272 BC) and Macedon (288–284, 273–272 BC))
  • Demosthenes (Athenian general during the Peloponnesian War)
  • Cleon (Athenian general during the Peloponnesian War)
  • Nicias (Athenian general during the Peloponnesian War)
  • Thucydides (Athenian general during the Peloponnesian War), author of History of the Peloponnesian War
  • Brasidas (Spartan general during the Peloponnesian War)
  • Alcibiades (Athenian general during the Peloponnesian War)
  • Phormio (Athenian admiral during the Peloponnesian War)
  • Thrasybulus (Athenian admiral during the Peloponnesian War)
  • Lysander (Spartan admiral during the Peloponnesian War)
  • Xenophon – Elected Commander of the Ten Thousand Greek mercenaries against Artaxerxes II of Persia
  • Epaminondas; Theban general that defeated the spartans at the battle of Leuctra.
  • Philip II of Macedon (Macedonian king and father of Alexander the Great). He united many of the Greek city-states and assembled the army that his son would eventually use too conquer Persia.
  • Alexander the Great, King of Macedon who conquered the Achaemenid Empire and the Punjab and Indus. He is largely considered one of the greatest military commanders in history.
  • Ptolemy I Soter, One of Alexander's generals, founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty, he was the first ruler of the Ptolemaic Egypt.
  • Demetrius I of Bactria, a Greek-born king who conquered much of what is now Iran, Pakistan and northern India. He was nicknamed "The Invincible".
  • Memnon, Greek mercenary in Persian service.
  • Xanthippus, Greek Mercenary General, fought for Carthage against Pyrrhus of Epirus.
  • Antigonus I Monophthalmus, founder of the Antigonid Dynasty.
  • Seleucus I Nicator, founder of the Seleucid Dynasty.
  • The Diadochi

Huns

Modun (233–192), king of the Huns

  • Attila the Hun (406–453), king of the Huns, often referred as "Scourge of God" by the Romans.
  • Bleda (390–445), a Hun ruler, the brother of Attila the Hun.

Illyria

  • Agron (250 BC–230 BC) The first king to unite the Illyrian tribes together and form a kingdom. During his rule Illyria was a strong kingdom which had a strong military force, especially naval. He stopped the attacks of the Roman Empire and the Aetolians by keeping his kingdom free till his death.

India

  • Divodas 'Atithingva' (15th century BC) He defeated the Shamber,who was the biggest enemy of Aryans .
  • Sudas (circa 15th century BC), Indian king who defeated the ten Rigvedic tribes in the Battle of the Ten Kings
  • Mahapadmnanda (4th century BC) He uprooted all local Kshatriya dynasties and republics and form strongest Magadha empire of that time.
  • Chandragupta Maurya (Sandrocottus) (c. 340–293 BC), Maurya King who conquered the Nanda Empire and northern Indian subcontinent, and defeated Seleucus I Nicator of the Seleucid Empire and other former generals of Alexander the Great.
  • Ashoka the Great (c. 304 BC–232 BC), Maurya King who conquered Kalinga and become the emperor of largest empire in Asia and India at its time.
  • Kharavela (c. 193 BC) Emperor of Kalinga from Chedi Dynasty, who led many successful campaigns against Kingdoms of Magadha, Anga, Satavahanas and regions of Pandyan Empire. He is known to have forced the Indo-Greek king Demetrius to retreat from Mathura.
  • Vasumitra (between approx 130 to 110 BC) He was the grand son of Pushyamitra, founder of Shunga dynasty. He defeated Greeks on the bank of river Indus .
  • Vikramaditya (58–10 BC) He was the president of Republic of Malavas and organized a successful national resistance against Scythian invaders . He established 'Malav calendar' which is still practiced by Hindus as 'VIKRAM SAMVAT' or Vikram's calendar
  • Kanishka(Kanishka the Great) was an emperor of the Gurjar Kushan Empire, ruling an empire extending from Bactria to large parts of northern India in the 2nd century of the common era, and famous for his military, political, and spiritual achievements.He defeated Chinese and controlled Silk-route .
  • Karikala Chola (c. AD 270), Chola king who defeated the Pandya and Chera kings in the Battle of Venni and conquered the Singhalese kingdom.
  • Samudragupta 'the Napoleon of India' (319–380 AD), Gupta Empire king who conquered over 20 Indian, Scythian and Kushan kingdoms. His supremacy was used to accept by whole INDIAN SUBCONTINENT .
  • Chandragupta II 'Vikramaditya (380–415 AD), Gupta king who conquered 21 Indian, Greek, Persian, Kamboja, Kirata and Transoxianan kingdoms . It is said that he reached up to Oxus river, according to Raghuvansham of Kaalidas and Mehroli iron pillar inscription
  • Skandgupta (455–467 AD) He saved India from first Hun attack (Bheetari pillar inscription)
  • Yashodharman (approx 550 AD) He led national resistance against Mihirgul ' the Hun ' and terminated Huns power from India
  • Harshvardhana (606–650 AD) He won whole north India and established strongest empire of India at that time
  • Lalitaditya 'Muktaapeed' (mid 8th century AD) He stopped the invasion of Arabian and Tibetian invasion and established a large empire to defeat his north Indian rival ruler Yashoverman
  • Govind 'the third ' (8th century AD) He not only sprayed Rashtrkuta empire in whole south India but defeated the Pratiharas and Palas also and impelled them to accept his supremacy . He was the strongest king of India at that time
  • Mihirbhoj Pratihar (836–889 AD) He not only stopped Arabian invasion but did counterattack on Arabians of Sindh. As a result importance of Arabians as a political power terminated for ever . An Arabian traveler described him as 'biggest enemy of Islam on the Earth'
  • Rajendra Chola (1012–1044 AD) Conquered south India and defeated the Northern Singhalese kingdoms of Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Andmaan, and a major part of the Shailendra empire [ Today's Indonesia and Malaysia]. He also had some success against Udisa and Bengal. He was also known for his naval ability.

Israel

  • Joshua (circa 1200 BC), led Hebrew forces against Amalek and Canaan
  • David (d. 965 BC), former mercenary commander, established an empire from Homs to Eilat
  • Judas Maccabeus (d. 160 BC), leader of Maccabean revolt against the Seleucid Empire
  • Jonathan Maccabeus (d. 143 BC)
  • Simon Maccabeus (d. 132 BC), took part in the Jewish revolt against the Seleucid Empire led by his brothers. First prince of the Hasmonean Dynasty
  • Simon Bar Giora (d. AD 70), was a leader of revolutionary forces during the First Jewish-Roman War in the 1st century Judea
  • John of Giscala (d. AD 70), was a leader of revolutionary forces during the First Jewish-Roman War in the 1st century Judea
  • Simon Bar Kokhba (d. AD 135), leader of the second Jewish rebellion against Rome

Japan

Korea

Mesopotamia

  • Gilgamesh King of Uruk
  • Hammurabi King of Babylon conquered many native peoples.
  • Nebuchadrezzar II King of the Chaldeans and conqueror of Judah.
  • Tiglath-Pileser III King of Assyria. Conqueror of Israel, Syria, other lands that became Assyria, force Judah to pay tribute.
  • Sargon King of Akkad. Created strong Akkadian kingdom.
  • Ben-hadad King of Aram. Often fought Israel and, on occasion, Judah.

Persia

Persian Empire

  • Cyrus the Great (590 BC–529 BC), who conquered the Median Empire, Neo-Babylonian Empire, Lydian Empire and Asia Minor founding the Persian Empire.
  • Mardonius, Persian general during the Greco-Persian Wars
  • Darius I of Persia (Darius the Great) (549 BC–486 BC), conquered all the territories between Asia Minor, Egypt, northern Greece and the Danube
  • Xerxes I of Persia (Xerxes the Great) (519 BC–465 BC), conqueror of several Greek cities, burning Athens.
  • Artaphernes, Persian general, brother of Darius I
  • Darius III of Persia (Artashata) (380 BC–330 BC), It was under his rule that the Persian Empire was conquered during the Wars of Alexander the Great.
  • Ariobarzan (d. 330 BC), Persian satrap. He commanded 700 Persian immortals who fought against Alexander the Great at the Battle of the Persian Gate. In this battle Ariobarzan held the army of Alexander at bay for 30 days. Some historians have described him as the Leonidas of Persia.

Seleucid Empire

  • Seleucus I Nicator (358BC–281BC),One of Alexander the Great's officers that fought in the Wars of the Diadochi after his death.
  • Antiochus III the Great (241–187), Ruler of the Seleucid empire, fought aganist Ptolemaic Egypt and Rome. Also lead expeditions into Bactria and India.

Parthian Empire

  • Mithridates the Great, expanded Parthia's control eastward by defeating King Eucratides of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. During his reign the Parthians took Herat (in 167 BC), Babylonia (in 144 BC), Media in (141 BC) and Persia in (139 BC). In 139 BC, Mithridates I captured the Seleucid King Demetrius II, and held him captive for 10 years while consolidating his conquests.
  • Phraates II,defeated and killed Antiochus VII Sidetes in a battle in Media in 129 BC, which ended the Seleucid rule east of the Euphrates.
  • Mithridates II, the Parthian Empire reached its greatest extent during his reign. He protected the kingdom from the Saka tribes, who occupied Bactria and the east of Iran and killed two of his predecessors in battle. He defeated King Artavasdes I of Armenia and conquered seventy valleys, making the heir to the Armenian throne, prince Tigranes, a political hostage. In 123 BC and 115 BC he received Chinese ambassadors sent by the Han emperor Wu Di to reopen the Silk Road through negotiations.
  • 'Surena, Parthian general who defeated Marcus Licinius Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae.
  • Phraates IV,initially lost territory to Roman general Mark Antony in 36 BC but quickly recovered Media Atropatene and drove Artaxias, the son of Artavasdes, back into Armenia when Mark Antony's war with Octavian broke out.
  • Artabanus II, after a civil war with his predecessor Vonones I he succeeded to the throne.
  • Vardanes I, in 43 he forced the city of Seleucia on the Tigris to submit. Civil war with his brother Gotarzes II of Parthia resulted in his assassination.
  • Vologases IV, he reunited the two halves of the empire. He also reconquered the kingdom of Characene. He might have been the king who began compiling the writings of Zoroaster. In about 155 BC with a dispute over the kingdom of Armenia war began with Rome which Parthia lost in 166.
  • Artabanus IV, defeated the Roman Empire under Marcus Opellius Macrinus at the Battle of Nisibis (217) after which the Romans gave up all their ambitions in the region, restored the booty, and paid a heavy contribution to the Parthians.

Sassanid Empire

  • Ardashir I, established the Sassanid Empire by conquering the Parthian Empire and defeating King Artabanus IV after several years of brutal warfare. Artabanus IV was killed in 216 ending the 400-year rule of the Parthian Empire. Ardashir I conquered the provinces of Sistan, Gorgan, Khorasan, Margiana (in modern Turkmenistan), Balkh, and Chorasmia. Bahrain and Mosul were also added to Sassanid possessions later as well. He defeated Roman Emperor Alexander Severus in 232 at the Battle near Ctesiphon.
  • Shapur I conquered the Mesopotamian fortresses Nisibis and Carrhae and advanced into Syria. But was defeated by Timesitheus at the Battle of Resaena in 243. He defeated Roman emperor Philip the Arab (244–249) at the Battle of Misiche. In 253 he defeated Roman Emperor Valerian at the Battle of Barbalissos. This resulted in the conquest of Armenia and invasion of Syria, and he plundered Antioch. Valerian marched against him, but was defeated and captured at the Battle of Edessa by Shahpur I. The outcome of the battle was an overwhelming victory, with the entire 70,000-strong Roman force being slain or captured.
  • Narseh, in 296, fed up with incursions made by the Armenian monarch Tiridates III, Narseh invaded Armenia.Surprised by the sudden attack, Tiridates fled his kingdom. The Roman emperor Diocletian dispatched his son-in-law Galerius with a large army to Tiridates's aid. Galerius invaded Mesopotamia, which Narseh had occupied hoping to check his advance. Three battles were fought subsequently, the first two of which were indecisive. In the third fought at Callinicum, Galerius suffered a complete defeat and was forced to retreat. Later Galerius would have his revenge and defeat Narseh. The end result was a peace treaty.
  • Shapur II, led an expedition through Bahrain, defeated the combined forces of the Arab tribes of "Taghleb", "Bakr bin Wael", and "Abd Al-Qays" and advanced temporarily into Yamama in central Najd. He resettled these tribes in Kerman and Ahvaz. Arabs named him Shabur Dhul-aktaf which means "The owner of the shoulders" after this battle. A twenty-six year conflict (337–363) began in two series of wars with Roman Empire, the first from 337 to 350 against Constantius II. Although often victorious, Shapur II made scarcely any progress. The second series of war began in 359 with Shahpur II conquering Amida and he took Singara and some other fortresses in the next year (360). In 363 Emperor Julian defeated a superior Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, but was killed during his retreat at the Battle of Samarra. His successor Jovian (363–364) made an ignominious peace, by which the districts beyond the Tigris which had been acquired in 298 were handed over along with Nisibis and Singara, and the promise not to interfere in Armenia. The outcome was a strategic victory for Shahpur II. Shapur II invaded Armenia, where he took King Arshak II prisoner and forced him to commit suicide. Shapur II subdued the Kushans and took control of the entire area now known as Afghanistan and Pakistan. By his death in 379 the Sassinid Empire was stronger than ever before, considerably larger than when he came to the throne, the eastern enemies were pacified and had gained control over Armenia.

Rome

  • Cincinnatus (519 BC – 430 BC?) was an ancient Roman political figure, serving as consul in 460 BC and Roman dictator in 458 BC and 439 BC. He saved Roman army and defeated the Aequians.
  • Fabius Maximus (275 BC–203 BC), Roman general remembered for intimidating Hannibal with a stalking technique still known today as Fabian strategy.
  • Scipio Africanus (Scipio Africanus Major) (235 BC–183 BC), defeated Hannibal at the Battle of Zama in Second Punic War. He defeated Rome's biggest ever rival, Carthage, once and for all.
  • Lucius Aemilius Paullus, known as "Macedonicus" for subduing and annexing the Kingdom of Macedon.
  • Spartacus, known for leading a rebel slave upraising in the Third Servile War
  • Marcus Licinius Crassus, suppressed the slave revolt led by Spartacus and entered into the political alliance known as the First Triumvirate.
  • Scipio Asiaticus (2nd century BC), he was a brother of Scipio Africanus Maior, he got his nickname "Asiaticus" when he defeated Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid Empire
  • Titus Quinctius Flamininus (228 BC–174 BC), Roman general
  • Scipio Aemilianus Africanus (Scipio Africanus Minor) (185 BC–129 BC), adopted grandson of Scipio Africanus, he was active during the Third Punic War
  • Cato the Elder (234 BC, Tusculum–149 BC).
  • Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus (d. 115 BC), Roman Consul, conqueror of Macedon
  • Gaius Marius (157 BC–86 BC), Roman general, reorganized the Roman Legion
  • Lucius Cornelius Sulla (138 BC–78 BC), Roman general and dictator
  • Quintus Sertorius (122 BC–72 BC), Roman general
  • Pompey (106 BC–48 BC), Roman general, Caesar's greatest rival and leader of the Republican army during the civil war
  • Julius Caesar (100 BC–44 BC), Roman military leader and dictator, conquered Gaul and defeated his rival Pompey in a civil war.
  • Mark Antony (83 BC–30 BC), Roman general and triumvir, served under Julius Caesar as his Master of Horse.
  • Augustus (63 BC–14 AD), the first Roman Emperor, successor of Julius Caesar. He wasn't a military commander per se.
  • Marcus Agrippa (63 BC–12 BC), Roman general that was Augustus' friend and leading general. Defeated Mark Antony at the decisive naval battle of Actium.
  • Germanicus Julius Caesar (16 BC or 15 BC–19 AD), Roman general and commander of Germania, he was also the father of Caligula.
  • Gnaeus Julius Agricola (40–93), Roman general that conquered large portions of Britain for the Roman Empire.
  • Trajan (53–117), Roman Emperor, extended the Roman Empire to its greatest extent.
  • Stilicho (359–408), a late Roman general.
  • Aurelian (215–275), Roman Emperor, Reunited the Roman Empire after decades of civil war during the latter part of the third century and the beginning of the fourth.
  • Constantine I (272)–337, Roman emperor. Famous for being the first Christian Roman Emperor. Helped to put an end to institutionalized persecution of Christians in the Empire.
  • Valens (328–378), Roman emperor and military commander, killed in the Battle of Adrianople.
  • Flavius Aetius (396–454), Roman general, checked the invasion of Attila the Hun.

Middle Ages

  • Songtsen Gampo (Tibetan warrior king)
  • Topiltzin Ce Acatl Quetzalcoatl Toltec leader and conqueror
  • Maharana Pratap Rana of Mewar
  • Lapu-Lapu (Datu in Mactan Island, Philippines)
  • George of Antioch (Sicilian admiral)
  • Tran Hung Dao (Vietnamese Grand General, under his guidance, Vietnamese defeated the Mongols three times)
  • Wolter von Plettenberg (Master of the Livonian Order)
  • Hermann of Salza (Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights)
  • Roger de Flor (leader of the Catalan Company)
  • Władysław II Jagiełło (King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, winner of great battle with Teutonic Order Army – Grunwald 1410)
  • Scanderbeg Albanian prince and general against the Ottoman encroachement in Europe 1443–1468
  • Stephen the Great (Moldavia ruler)
  • Vlad III the Impaler (Vlad is best known for his resistance against the Ottoman Empire and its expansion)
  • Jan Zizka (Commander of Taborite Army in Bohemia's Hussite Wars)
  • John Hunyadi (vlach-Hungarian general, governor of Hungary)
  • Nicholas Zrinski/Zrinyi (Croatian-Hungarian military leader)
  • Milos Obilic (Serbian Knight who killed Turkish Sultan Murad I during the Battle of Kosovo)
  • Þórður kakali Sighvatsson (Icelandic chieftain and military leader in Iceland in 13th century)

Africa

  • Sundiata Keita defeated Sosso king Sumanguru Kanté at the Battle of Kirina in 1235 and established the Mali Empire. Mali became one of the wealthiest Muslim kingdoms in the world at the time (roughly 1230–1450), exporting gold by the ton to North Africa, Europe and the Middle East.
  • Shaka Zulu leader of the zulu nation.

Albania

Franks

  • Clovis (First Christian King of the Franks)
  • Charles Martel (Mayor of the Palace of the Kingdom of the Franks). He stopped Arab-Muslim invasion into Europe in the Battle of Tours/Poitiers.
  • Charlemagne (King of the Franks, and Holy Roman Emperor)
  • Philip II (King of France, Crusader, and Conqueror of Normandy, Aquitaine, and Maine)

China

  • An Lushan (General during Emperor Xuanzong's reign, a Lushan is of Sogdian descent)
  • Yue Fei (Chinese general during the Southern Song Dynasty) known for his legendary tattoo saying "Ultimate Loyalty, Serve your Country"
  • Yang Ye (General serving the Later Han and Northern Song Dynasties)
  • Han Shizhong (Chinese general during the Southern Song Dynasty) fought beside Yue Fei in the campaign to drive out the Jin Jurchen dynasty
  • Zhu Yuanzhang (First Emperor of the Ming Dynasty) led the rebellion against the Mongol Yuan Dynasty
  • Sun Tzu (a heroic general of the king of Wu, Helü) Most famous for his work The Art of War, one of the most famous books on military strategy.

Korea

Bulgaria

in 896, annihilated the entire Byzantine army in the Battle of Anchialus in 917.

  • Ivan Asen I – recovered Bulgarian territories from the Byzantines and ultimately restored Bulgarian independence.
  • Kaloyan- Also known as the 'Romanslayer', during the Fourth Crusade, he crushed the Latin Crusaders at the Battle of Adrianople and defeated them repeatedly afterwards thus sealing the fate of the gravely weakened Latin Empire.
  • Ivan Asen II

Byzantine Empire

Arabs

Rashidun Caliphate Generals

  • Abu Bakr, first Caliph of Islam. He was a great friend to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
  • Umar ibn al Khattab (Second Caliph of Islam)
  • Uthman (Third Caliph of Islam)
  • Ali ibn Abi Talib (Fourth Caliph of Islam)
  • Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah – was Commander in Chief of the Rashidun army and the areas of Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine and Southern Turkey. He defeated the Byzantine army in the Battle of Maraj-al-Rome and Yarmouk. He appointed Khalid ibn al-Walid as commander of his Mobile guard.
  • Amr ibn al-Aas- defeated Byzantine forces in Egypt, under Theodore at the Battle of Heliopolis and the subsequent capitulation of Alexandria in November 641, Arab troops had taken over what was Roman Egypt.Later he defeated Manuel at Battle of Nikiou.
  • Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas – defeated the Sassanid Empire at the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah.
  • Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan
  • Muawiyah I – sacked Caesarea Mazaca in 647 AD, Salamis of Cyprus in 650 and re-invaded the island in 654, taking Rhodes as well. His initial naval campaigns were very successful defeating the Byzantine navy off the coast of Lycia (655).
  • Shurhabil ibn Hasana
  • Qa'qa ibn Amr
  • Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr – under leadership of Abdullah ibn Saad marched to Sbeitla, Tunisia, the capital of exarchate of Carthage, King Gregory. Gregory was defeated and killed in the Battle of Sufetula in 647.
  • Dhiraar ibn Azwar
  • Walid ibn Uqba – quelled a rebellion in Azerbaijan
  • Asim ibn Amr
  • Hakam ibn Amr – conquered Makran in 644 after defeating Hindu King of Sind Raja Rasal at a battle near River Indus.[citation needed]
  • Majasha ibn Masood – In 652, Balochistan (Iran) was re-conquered during the campaign against the revolt in Kermān.
  • Abdul Rehman ibn Samrah – crushed a revolt in Zarang, Afghanistan.He conquered Kabul and Ghazni. At the same time another column moved towards the Quetta District in the north-western part of Balochistan (Pakistan) and in 654 conquered an area up to the ancient city of Dawar and Qandabil today known as Bolan.
  • Abdullah ibn Aamir
  • Khalid ibn al-Walid- won numerous battles for Arab Muslims in the Roman Syria, Roman Egypt and Persian fronts. He helped defeat the Byzantine army at the Battle of Yarmouk. This battle is also considered to be one of Khalid ibn al-Walid's most decisive victories.
  • Abdullah ibn Saad – Tripolitania was taken, followed by Sufetula, 150 miles south of Carthage. Abdallah's booty-laden force returned to Egypt in 648. He defeated Constans II at the naval Battle of the Masts in 655.
  • Al-Ahnaf Ibn Qays – helped complete the conquest of Khurasan by bringing Tustar and Marwir-Rawdh into the fold of Muslim Arab Empire and pushed Yazdgerd III all the way to Merv in Turkmenistan where he died bringing the Sassanian Imperial dynasty to an end.
  • Al-Nu'man ibn Muqarrin al-Muzani defeated the Persian Yazdgerd III at the Battle of Nihawānd.
  • Salman ibn Rabiah
  • Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah
  • Ayadh ibn Ghanam – raided Armenia[citation needed]
  • Habib ibn Muslaimah – commanded a full-scale invasion up to the Black Sea. He conquered Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia during Caliph Umar's reign the territories emerged as an autonomous principality within the Muslim Arab Empire. During Caliph Uthman ibn Affan's reign, a revolt broke out, and Uthman commissioned Habib ibn Muslaimah again to re-conquer Armenia and Georgia.

Umayyad Caliphate Generals

Abbasid Caliphate Generals

  • As-Saffah – established the Abbasid empire after defeating the Umayyads at Battle of the Zab in 750.
  • Ziyad ibn Salih – defeated the Chinese Tang Dynasty at the Battle of Talas in 751 and took control of Syr Darya (Central Asia).
  • Abu Muslim Khorasani
  • Asad ibn al-Furat – began a major campaign for the conquest of Sicily.
  • Harun al-Rashid defeats Nikephoros I at the Battle of Krasos in 805.
  • Ali ibn Isa ibn Mahan was defeated at the Battle of Rayy in March 811.
  • Tahir ibn Husayn, a Persian general served under al-Ma'mun and led the armies that would defeat Caliph al-Amin at the Battle of Rayy in March 811, followed by the Siege of Baghdad in which Caliph al-Amin was killed and al-Ma'mun became the next Caliph.
  • Abdullah ibn Tahir al-Khurasani, most famous for pacifying the lands of the Caliphate following the civil war between al-Amin and al-Ma'mun.
  • Simjur al-Dawati, received the surrender of Zaranj from al- Mu'addal.
  • Ghassan ibn Abbad, crushed a rebellion in Sind in 831–832.
  • Muhammad ibn Humayd al-Tusi, defeated by Babak Khorramdin, a Persian revolutionary leader of the Khurramiyyah in 831.
  • Al-Afshin laid Siege to Babak Castle, used siege machinery and naphtha-throwers, and finally stormed Babak Castle in August 837 defeating and capturing Babak Khorramdin who was later executed.
  • Ishaq ibn Ibrahim ibn Mu'sab, defeated the Khurramiyyah at Hamadan in 833.
  • Ujayf ibn Anbasa
  • Caliph Al-Mu'tasim defeated Byzantine emperor Theophilos with the help of general Al-Afshin on 21 July 838 at the Battle of Anzen. He then took Ancyra, followed by the Sack of Amorium a few weeks later.
  • Al-Wathiq defeated Theoktistos at the Battle of Mauropotamos in 844.
  • Bugha al-Kabir helped Calpihs Al-Wathiq and Al-Mutawakkil crush revolts. He attacked and burned Tiflis in 851–852.
  • Al-Qummi crushed the Bujah African rebellion of Upper Egypt in 856.
  • Al-Muwaffaq along with Musa bin Bugha defeated Ya'qub-i Laith Saffari at the Battle of Dair al-'Aqul in Iraq in 876.
  • Ahmad ibn Tulun declared his independence from the Abbasid Caliphate in 874, amid chaos in Iraq due to the Zanj Rebellion establishing the Tulunid Dynasty of Egypt. In 877 he defeated Abbasid forces under Musa bin Bugha
  • Muhammad bin Sulayman with naval support from frontier forces based in Tarsus invaded Egypt and Shaiban ibn Ahmad ibn Tulun was forced to retreat with his army to Fustat, where on 10 January 905 he surrendered unconditionally thus bringing an end to the Tulunid Dynasty of Egypt.
  • Nasir ad-Daula the Hamdanid ruler of Al-Jazira supported Caliph Al-Muttaqi by restoring order in Baghdad between 940–941.
  • Tuzun the Turk, took Baghdad and removed Caliph Al-Muttaqi in 944. He defeated the Buwayhids in a Battle at Wasit.
  • Ahmad Mu'izz al-Daula the Buwayhid, took power in Baghdad after appeal from Caliph Al-Mustakfi to restore order in the city.

Mashriq Muslim Dynasties Generals

Zengid dynasty: 1127–1250

Ayyubid dynasty: 1171–1246

Mamluks: 1250–1517

Maghreb Muslim Dynasties Generals

  • Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rustam
  • Ubaydallah al-Mahdi Billah, founder of Fatimid Empire
  • Idris I
  • Jawhar as-Siqilli, conquered Egypt for the Fatimids and founded the city of Cairo.
  • Yusuf ibn Tashfin, Almoravid general, defeated King Alfonso VI of León and Castile and the combined armies of León, Aragón and Castile on 23 October 1086, at the Battle of Sagrajas, halting the Christian advance for four generations in the Iberian Peninsula.
  • Abd al-Mu'min, Almohad General and founder of the Almohad Empire.
  • Yaqub al-Mansur, the Almohad General and Amir, defeated Castilian King Alfonso VIII at the Battle of Alarcos, on 18 July 1195.
  • Al-Afdal Shahanshah was Fatimid vizier and commander of Egyptian forces during the First Crusade
  • Abu Marwan Abd al-Malik I Saadi, defeated the Portuguese army under Abu Abdallah Mohammed II Saadi and King Sebastian of Portugal at the Battle of Alcácer Quibir on 4 August 1578
  • Ahmad al-Mansur
  • Judar Pasha, defeated Askia Ishaq II of the Songhai Empire at The Battle of Tondibi, a decisive confrontation in Morocco's sixteenth-century invasion of the Sub-Saharan Empire.
  • Al-Rashid, In 1666 he took Fes and ended the rule of the Saadi dynasty. Later he captured Marrakech in 1669 and occupied the Sous and the Little Atlas (Agadir, Morocco).
  • Ahmed Bey
  • Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri
  • Lalla Fatma N'Soumer
  • Omar Mukhtar

Afghan

Durrani Empire

  • Ahmad Shah Abdali – defeated the Maratha Empire at the Battle of Panipat (1761). He established The Durrani Empire which was a large state that included territories within modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, the Khorasan province of Iran and a smaller section of western India.

Turkic Muslim Generals

Ghaznavid

Ghurids

  • Muhammad of Ghor- defeated Prithviraj Chauhan at the Second Battle of Tarain. He also conquered the Ghaznavid empire and extended his territory up to Lahore. Upon his death, Qutb-ud-din Aybak, Muhammad Ghori's most capable general, took control of Muhammad's Indian conquests and declared himself the first Sultan of Delhi thus establishing Sultanate of Delhi.

Seljuks

Ortoqids

Danishmends

Ottoman Empire

others

Normans

  • King William I of England (Duke of Normandy conquered England. Was known as William the Bastard and later as William the Conqueror.
  • Robert of Selby (Anglo-Norman general in the service of Sicily)
  • Robert Guiscard (Norman conqueror of Naples and S. Sicily)

Vikings

  • Cnut the Great (King of England, Denmark, Norway, and parts of Sweden)
  • Rurik (founder of the Rus' rule in Eastern Europe)
  • Erik the Red (colonizer of Greenland)
  • Leif Ericson (explorer who is considered to be the first European to reach North America)
  • Olaf Tryggvason (king of Norway from 995 to 1000. He forced thousands to convert to Christianity. He once burned London Bridge down out of anger because people were disobeying his orders)
  • Bagsecg (A Viking who Invaded and pillaged in England in 870, But was killed in 871 at The Battle of Ashdown)
  • Oleg of Novgorod (Varangian prince (or konung) who ruled all or part of the Rus people during the early tenth century, launched attack on Constantinople)

Persia (during the Middle Ages)

Sassanid Empire

  • Yazdegerd II, defeated the Kidarites in 450 and drove them out beyond the Oxus River. Advancing his pro-Zoroastrian policy, he battled an uprising of Armenian Christians in the Battle of Vartanantz in 451 and killed Vartan Mamikonian the Armenian commander.
  • General Sukradisambiguation needed drove the Hephthalites out of Persia during the reign of Emperor Balash.
  • Kavadh I joined the Ephthalites and began the Anastasian War against the Byzantine Empire. In 502 he took Theodosiopolis in Armenia; in 503 Amida on the Tigris. In 505 an invasion of Armenia by the western Huns from the Caucasus led to an armistice, during which the Romans paid subsidies to the Persians for the maintenance of the fortifications on the Caucasus. Iberian War began with the defection of Iberian king Gourgen to the Romans after three major battles. Kavadh I won the war against Byzantine Empire.
  • al-Mundhir IV ibn al-Mundhir an Arab general helped Kavadh I defeat Roman general Belisarius at the Battle of Nisibis in 530.
  • Azarethes defeated Roman general Belisarius in the Battle of Callinicum in 531. This defeat forced the Byzantine Empire to pay heavy tributes in exchange for a peace treaty.
  • Khosrau I aka Anushiravan the Just,invaded Syria and sacked the great city of Antioch, deporting its people to Mesopotamia, where he built for them a new city near Ctesiphon under the name of "Khosrau-Antioch". The Lazic War was fought between the Byzantine and Sassanid Empire for controlling the region of Lazica what is now western Georgia. Lazic war lasted for twenty years, from 541 to 562, with varying success and ended in the Byzantine victory and peace treaty. Khosrau I destroyed the Hephthalite Empire and in 567 he conquered Bactria. Khosrau I conquered the city of Dara on the Euphrates in 573, but after a largely unsuccessful incursion of Anatolia in 576 he was heavily defeated by the Romans in a battle near Melitene.
  • Vahriz was a Sassanid Persian general who in 570 freed Himyarite Kingdom of Yemen from the Ethiopians of Axum under Khosrau I directive.
  • Bahram Chobin, defeated a large Göktürk army in the First Perso-Turkic War in 588 taking Balkh and Herat. He rebelled against Khosrau II and took the throne as King Bahram VI for about a year till he was ousted by Khosrau II with the help of his ally Maurice.
  • Khosrau Pervez, despite early victories against Byzantine Empire he was defeated by Heraclius at the Battle of Nineveh.
  • Shahin commanded forces invading Roman territory in the Transcaucasus, winning a battle near Theodosiopolis in 607/8. Following the expulsion of Roman forces from that region, in 611 Shahin led an advance into Anatolia, capturing Caesarea, but was driven out by Roman counter-attack led by the Emperor Heraclius in the summer of 612 and forced to withdraw to Armenia. In 613 the Roman offensive pressed on into Syria, but the combined Persian armies under Shahin and Shahrbaraz crushingly defeated Heraclius near Antioch and again near the Cilician Gates. As a result, in 614 Shahin was able to campaign all the way across Anatolia to Chalcedon on the shore of the Bosphoros opposite Constantinople, and over the following years mounted further invasions of Anatolia, causing severe and widespread devastation. In the spring of 618, Iranian troops of Shahin and of Shahrbaraz entered Egypt and besieged Alexandria, which soon fell.
  • Shahrbaraz took Damascus and Jerusalem from the Byzantine Empire in 613 and 614 respectively, and the Holy Cross was carried away in triumph.
  • Rhahzadh, was defeated by Heraclius at the Battle of Nineveh
  • Bahman, defeated the Abu Ubaid of the Rashidun Caliphate at the Battle of the Bridge in 634. He was eventually defeated and killed at the Battle of Nihawānd.
  • Rostam Farrokhzād, a powerful Sāsānian general and aristocrat from Armenia who in 631 conquered Armenia from its Byzantine governor Prince Varazdirot. He was defeated by Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas at the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah in 636 and Iraq annexed by Rashidun Caliphate.

Muslim Iran

  • Ya'qub-i Laith Saffari, was the founder of the Saffarid dynasty in Sistan he defeated Ibrahim ibn Ilyas Samanid ruler of Herat in 867 who was sent by governor of Tahirid Khurasan, Muhammad ibn Tahir during the Abbasid Caliphate
  • 'Ismail Samani, father of Tajiks took the city of Talas, the capital of the Karluk Turks in 893. Later established Samanid boundaries of Transoxiana and Khorasan by defeating the Saffarids.
  • Imad al-Daula, defeated the Turkish general Yaqut from Abbasid Caliphate at Baghdad in 934 establishing Buwayhid Confederacy of Persian revivalists within Abbasid Caliphate.
  • Shah Ala ad-Din Muhammad, by 1205 had conquered all of eastern Great Seljuq Empire and declared himself Shah In 1212 he defeated the Gur-Khan Kutluk and conquered the lands of the Kara-Khanid Khanate, now ruling a territory from the Syr Darya almost all the way to Baghdad, and from the Indus River to the Caspian Sea known as the Khwarezm Empire. It was he who brought the wrath of Genghis Khan to the Muslim world by killing his ambassadors.
  • Jalal ad-Din Minkbarny with a badly equipped army decisively defeated the Mongols at the Battle of Parwan which forced Genghis Khan to face Jalal himself at the Battle of Indus in 1221.
  • Ismail I, founded the Safavid Shia state in Azerbaijan in 1502, and had incorporated all of Iran by 1509.
  • Shah ‘Abbas I, defeated the Uzbeks after 10 years of constant warfare at the battle of Herat in 1597. In 1603 he took Baghdad and in 1605 Basra from the Ottomans and by 1611 Shirvan and Kurdistan as well. In 1602, he expelled the Portuguese from Bahrain. In 1615, he killed more than 60,000 Georgians and deported a further 100,000 in Tblisi after a rebellion. A united army of the Turks and Tatars was completely defeated near Sultanieh in 1618. In 1622 he took the island of Hormuz from the Portuguese: much of the trade was diverted to the town of Bandar 'Abbas. The Persian Gulf was now a Persian Domain.
  • Nadir Shah Afshar, rose to power during a period of anarchy in Persia after a rebellion by Afghans and both the Ottomans and the Russians had seized Persian territory for themselves. Nader reunited the Persian realm and removed the invaders. He became so powerful that he decided to depose the last members of the Safavid dynasty, which had ruled Persia for over 200 years, and become shah himself in 1736. His campaigns created a great Iranian Empire. In 1738 conquered Kandahar. Invaded the Mughal Empire and He defeated the Mughal army at the Battle of Karnal in February 1739, he was assassinated in 1747.
  • Muhammad Khan Qajar, In 1795 he attacked Georgia and also captured Khorasan. Shah Rukh, ruler of Khurasan and grandson of Nadir Shah, was tortured to death. He was the First Persian ruler to make Tehran, then only a village, a capital.

Crusaders

Indonesia

  • Raden Wijaya (1293–1309), the founder and the first Raja (king) of Majapahit, his army defeated Mongol army at Tuban East java in 1293
  • Gajah Mada, (14th century), the Majapahit Prime Minister that united Nusantara (southeast Asia)
  • Sultan Agung of Mataram or Sultan Agung Anyokrokusumo or Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo (1613–1645), He was the constructor of the Karta Palace, and the Royal Graveyard of Imogiri.
  • Cut Nyak Dien, Commander of Aceh war against Dutch occupation[citation needed]
  • Pangeran Diponegoro, Commander of war against Dutch occupation during 1825–1830 at center of Java
  • Pattimura, Commander of war against Dutch occupation at Saparua, Ambon.

India

  • Lalitaditya Muktapida (8th century), Kashmiri king who conquered a number of Indian, Uttarakuru, Kamboja, Turkic, Tocharian, Tibetan and Dardic kingdoms.
  • Devapala (9th century), Bengali Pala king who conquered the Northern Indian, North-East Indian, Andhra Pradesh, Huna and Kamboja kingdoms.
  • Pluikeshi II the great who defeated king Mahendraverma of Pallava kingdom and then famed Harshavardhana and only one king in India who received the delegation from Emperor Khusro III of Persia to Help him check the onslaught of Arab Muslim Invasion.
  • King Govinda III of RASHTRAKUTA kingdom
  • King Krishna III of Rashtrakuta Kingdom
  • Raja Raja Chola I (AD 985–1014), Chola king who Conquered Chera, Pandya kingdoms. Rajaraja invaded and burnt Sri Lanka to the ground in AD 993. He also invaded Chalukyas, Kalinga and Vengi nations.
  • Rajendra Chola I (11th century), Tamil Chola king and naval commander who conquered the Pala Empire, Srivijaya Empire, Sri Lanka, and the Chalukya, Rashtrakuta and Pandya dynasties.
  • Bakhtiyar Khilji, laid the foundation of Muslim rule in Bengal by defeating Lakshman Sen in 1205.
  • Zafar Khan (13th century), Muslim Indian general who defeated invaders from the Mongol Empire.
  • Alauddin Khilji
  • Tuluva Sri Krishna Deva Raya, Tulu: ತುಳುವಾ ಶ್ರೀ ಕೃಷ್ಣದೇವರಾಯ, Kannada: ಶ್ರೀ ಕೃಷ್ಣದೇವರಾಯ, Telugu: శ్రీకృష్ణదేవరాయ) also known as Krishna Raya (AD 1509–1529), was the famed Emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire. The rule of Krishna Deva Raya marks a period of much military success in Vijayanagar history. On occasion, the king was known to change battle plans abruptly and turn a losing battle into victory
  • Zahir ud-Din Muhammad Babur – conquered northern India after winning three battles namely; the Battle of Panipat, Battle of Khanwa and Battle of Ghaghra establishing the Mughal Empire.
  • Sher Shah Suri – In 1539, he was able to defeat Humayun in the Battle of Chausa. Again in 1540, he defeated Humayun in the Battle of Kannauj, and went on to capture Delhi and Agra.
  • Akbar the Great – defeated the Hindu leader Hemu at the Battle of Panipat (1556)
  • Maharana Pratap the ruler of Mewar was defeated by Raja Man Singh at the Battle of Haldighati in 1576.
  • Malik Ambar (1607–1626) He is known to have mobilized the Marathas and transformed them into warriors to fight against the mighty Mughal Empire. He is said to be the only general from the Deccan region to have challenged the might of the great Mughals who dominated India during the medieval age.
  • Aurangzeb, Mughal ruler annexed the whole of Deccan.
  • Guru Gobind Singh (22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708), was the tenth Guru of the Sikhs. He was a warrior, a poet, and a spiritual leader, who fought 11 battles with the Mughals and their Rajput alliances
  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Sikh king of the sovereign country of Punjab and the Sikh Empire
  • Tipu Sultan, the 'Tiger of Mysore' fought the Anglo-Mysore Wars
  • Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (a.k.a. Shivaji Raje Bhosle) (1627–1680), Maratha king who was the founder of Maratha empire in western India in 1674.
  • Sambhaji (1657–1689), Maratha king who fought vigorously with the Mughals.
  • Baji Rao I (1699–1740), peshwa who expanded Maratha empire in northern India in early 18th century.

Sri Lanka

  • Parākramabāhu I (1123–1186), King of Polonnaruwa who unified the three sub kingdoms of the island and undertook military campaigns in southern India and in Myanmar.
  • Gajabâhu I, King of Rajarata led a successful invasion of Chola territory.
  • Dutthagamani Abhaya, King of Rajarata, unified the island and ended the first Chola occupation
  • Vijayabâhu I, King of Polonnaruwa, unified the island and ended the second Chola occupation

Japan

  • Takeda Shingen, daimyo during the Sengoku period of Japan. Known for the famous phrase "Swift as the Wind, Silent as a Forest, Fierce as Fire, and Immovable as a Mountain" on his standard; demonstrating his political and military strategies.
  • Uesugi Kenshin daimyo during the Sengoku period Japan. Known as the "Dragon of Echigo for his prowess on the battlefield, considered the primary rival of Takeda Shingen.
  • Sanada Yukimura, retainer of Takeda Shingen, praised as "a hero who may appear once in hundred years" and "crimson demon of war". In legend, he is the leader of the Sanada Ten Braves.
  • Minamoto no Yoshitsune, general whose decisive victories brought down the Taira clan during the Genpei War.
  • Oda Nobunaga (1534–1582), warlord during the Sengoku period of Japan. First of the three unifiers of Japan.
  • Toyotomi Hideyoshi, seized control over Japan after the death of Oda Nobunaga.
  • Tokugawa Ieyasu, finally ended the Sengoku period, pacified and united Japan, and founded the Tokugawa shogunate that would last over 250 years.
  • Date Masamune, daimyo during the Edo period of Japan. He went on to found the modern-day city of Sendai. He was more iconic for being called dokuganryu the one-eye dragon.

Mongols

  • Genghis Khan, Great Khan of the Mongols, also known as Temüjin.
  • Ögedei Khan, Second Great Khan of the Mongols
  • Muqali, general, commanded Mongol campaigns in Manchuria)
  • Subutai, general and childhood friend of Genghis Khan
  • Jebe Noyon, general, participated in campaigns in Central Asia and Russia.
  • Batu Khan, conqueror of Eastern Europe and first Khan of the Golden Horde.
  • Berke, Khan of the Golden Horde
  • Hulagu, Khan of the Ilkhanate
  • Kitbuqa, general of the Ilkhanate, defeated in the Battle of Ain Jalut
  • Burundai, general of the Golden Horde
  • Nogai Khan, general and kingmaker of the Golden Horde
  • Kublai Khan, Fifth Great Khan of the Mongols, finished the conquest of China.
  • Mamai, general and kingmaker of the Golden Horde
  • Qutlugh Khwaja, launched several attacks on both Delhi Sultanate and Ilkhanate.
  • Uzbeg Khan longest-reigning Khan of the Golden Horde
  • Tokhtamysh, Khan of the Golden Horde
  • Ghazan
  • Kuchlug
  • Tughlugh Timur
  • Timur, 14th-century conqueror of much of western and central Asia, founder of the Timurid Empire and Timurid dynasty, also known as Tamerlane

Vietnam

  • Trưng sisters, The Trưng sisters (Vietnamese: Hai Bà Trưng; literally: two ladies Trưng) (c. 12 - AD 43) were leaders who rebelled against Chinese rule for three years, and are regarded as national heroines of Vietnam.
  • Ngô Quyền, general who led the struggle for independence against the Chinese In AD 938.
  • Lý Thường Kiệt who defeated Song China in 1075.
  • Tran Hung Dao, general during the Trần Dynasty. Lead the armies that thrice repelled Mongol invasions of Vietnam.
  • Lê Lợi, A military commander and founder of the le dynasty, he is among the most famous figures from the medieval period of Vietnamese history.
  • Nguyễn Huệ known as Emperor Quang Trung (光中皇帝; Quang Trung Hoàng đế ). He was also one of the most successful military commanders in Vietnam's history

Russian

  • St. Alexander Nevsky, Prince of Novgorod (1236–1259), Grand Duke of Kiev (1249–1263), Grand Duke of Vladimir-Suzdal (1252–1263)
  • Daniel of Galicia, King of Galicia–Volhynia
  • Dovmont of Pskov, Prince of Pskov
  • Igor Svyatoslavich, Prince of Novgorod-Sversky
  • Ivan III the Great, Grand Duke of Moscow
  • Ivan IV the Terrible, First Tsar of Russia
  • Mstislav the Bold, Prince of Novgorod (1210–1218), Count of Halych (1215–1226)
  • Oleg of Novgorod, Prince of Novgorod and Kiev
  • Prince Dmitry Pozharsky, Russian military leader
  • Prince Mikhail Skopin-Shuisky, Russian military leader
  • Svyatoslav I of Kiev, Prince of Kiev
  • St. Vladimir, Grand Duke of Kiev
  • Yaroslav I the Wise, Grand Duke of Kiev

English

Scottish

Irish

  • Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill, Irish high king and military commander.
  • Brian Boru, King of Munster and gained the High Kingship of Ireland, victor at the Battle of Clontarf.
  • Hugh O'Neill, 3rd earl of Tyrone (Irish nobleman and general, commander of Irish army in the 9 years war)
  • Hugh Dubh O'Neill (commander of Irish forces in the Irish Confederate Army)
  • Felim O'Neill of Kinard, a commander in the Confederate army during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms
  • Eoghan Rua Ó Néill, a commander in the Spanish army and later led the Irish Confederate Army.

French

Iberian

Serbian

Welsh

Modern era

Bulgarian

Vladimir Vazov Mihail Savov

Italian

English

British

Brigadier William Patrick Bewley 1937-

Persian

  • Nadir Shah, Iran

Spanish

Aztec

Mapuche

  • Caupolicán (Mapuche) military leader of the Mapuche people of Chile during the Arauco War
  • Lautaro (Mapuche) (Mapuche warrior and leader who fought and defeated the Spanish in a series of campaigns in southern Chile)

Lakota

  • Chief Gall (Lakota)

Lithuanian

Mbundu

  • Nzinga of Ndongo and Matamba (Warrior Queen of the Mbundu people; kept Portugal at bay)

Indian

French

Russian

Chinese

  • Koxinga (Ming general, took over Taiwan)

Polish

Cossack

Austrian

Swedish

Dutch

German

Haitian

American

Egyptian

Shawnee

Katipunero

  • Andres Bonifacio (Katipunero)

Zulu

  • Shaka (changed the Zulu tribe from a small clan into a nation)

Gran Colombian

Brazilian

Argentinian

Chilean

Colombia

Mexican

Texan

  • Stephen F. Austin (Texas Revolution))
  • Sam Houston (Texas Revolution)

C.S.A

Japan

Armenia

  • Andranik Toros Ozanian (Balkan Wars, World War I, Armenia)

Serbia

Bulgaria

  • Nikola Todorov Zhekov (World War I Bulgaria)
  • Vladimir Vazov (World War I Bulgaria, never defeated; defeated superior Anglo-Greek forces at Doiran)

Ottoman

Australian

Canadian

Irish

Filipino

  • Emilio Aguinaldo (First Philippine President, Philippine-Spanish War)
  • Macario Sakay (Filipino General, 80 years of rebellion against Spain)
  • Gabriela Silang (Filipina Revolutionary Leader)

Sudanese

Apache

Korean

  • Kim Jwa-jin (Leader of the Northern Military Administration Office Army of Korea)
  • Hong Beom-do (Leader of the Greater Korea Independence Army)

World War II and later

Year(s) Name Party War(s) Battle(s)
1982 Hew Pike United Kingdom Falklands War Battle of Mount Longdon
Michael Scott (British Army officer) Battle of Mount Tumbledown
Nick Vaux Battle of Mount Harriet
1983 Hudson Austin Grenada Cold War Invasion of Grenada
Joseph Metcalf, III United States
Ronald Reagan
1983–1991 Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr.
Gulf War Battle of Khafji
1984 Hossein Kharrazi Iran Persian Gulf Conflict Iran–Iraq War Battle of the Marshes
Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale Khalistan movement Operation Blue Star
Kanwar Pal Singh Gill Punjab Police (India)
Kuldip Singh Brar Indian Army
Shabeg Singh Khalistan movement
1988 Ali Sayad Shirazi Iran Persian Gulf Conflict Iran–Iraq War Operation Mersad
Massoud Rajavi People's Mujahedin of Iran
1989–1990 George H. W. Bush United States United States invasion of Panama
Manuel Noriega Panamanian Public Forces
Maxwell R. Thurman United States
1991 Anton Tus Croatia Breakup of Yugoslavia Yugoslav Wars Croatian War of Independence Battle of the Barracks
Blago Zadro Battle of Vukovar
Fahd of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Gulf War Battle of Khafji
Goran Hadžić Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia Breakup of Yugoslavia Yugoslav Wars Croatian War of Independence Battle of Vukovar
H. R. McMaster United States Gulf War Battle of 73 Easting
Khalid bin Sultan Saudi Arabia Battle of Khafji
Marko Babić (soldier) Croatia Breakup of Yugoslavia Yugoslav Wars Croatian War of Independence Battle of Vukovar
Montgomery Meigs United States Gulf War Battle of Medina Ridge
Salah Aboud Mahmoud Iraq Battle of 73 Easting
Battle of Khafji
Veljko Kadijević Yugoslav People's Army Breakup of Yugoslavia Yugoslav Wars Croatian War of Independence Battle of the Barracks
Veselin Šljivančanin Battle of Vukovar
Života Panić
1991–1993 Željko Ražnatović Republic of Serbian Krajina Operation Maslenica
Serb Volunteer Guard Battle of Vukovar
1991–1995 Mile Mrkšić Republic of Serbian Krajina Bosnian War Operation Storm
Croatian War of Independence
Yugoslav People's Army Battle of Vukovar
1991–2003 Saddam Hussein Ba'ath Party War on Terror Iraq War 2003 invasion of Iraq
Iraq Gulf War Battle of Khafji
1992 Giorgi Karkarashvili Georgian Armed Forces Georgian–Abkhazian conflict War in Abkhazia (1992–1993) Battle of Gagra
Sultan Sosnaliyev Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus
1992–1994 Stanislav Galić Republika Srpska Breakup of Yugoslavia Yugoslav Wars Bosnian War Siege of Sarajevo
1992–1995 Mustafa Hajrulahović Talijan Bosnia and Herzegovina
1993 Agim Çeku Croatia Croatian War of Independence Operation Maslenica
Gurgen Daribaltayan Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Nagorno-Karabakh War Battle of Kalbajar
Janko Bobetko Croatia Breakup of Yugoslavia Yugoslav Wars Croatian War of Independence Operation Maslenica
Mohamed Farrah Aidid Somali National Alliance Conflicts in the Horn of Africa Somali Civil War Operation Gothic Serpent Battle of Mogadishu (1993)
Monte Melkonian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Nagorno-Karabakh War Battle of Kalbajar
Shamil Asgarov Azerbaijan
William F. Garrison United States Conflicts in the Horn of Africa Somali Civil War Operation Gothic Serpent Battle of Mogadishu (1993)
1994–1995 Akhmed Zakayev Chechen Republic of Ichkeria First Chechen War Battle of Grozny (1994–1995)
Lev Rokhlin Russia
Pavel Grachev
Salman Raduyev Chechen Republic of Ichkeria
Turpal-Ali Atgeriyev
1994–1996 Dragomir Milošević Republika Srpska Breakup of Yugoslavia Yugoslav Wars Bosnian War Siege of Sarajevo
1994–2000 Anatoly Kvashnin Russia First Chechen War Battle of Grozny (1994–1995)
Second Chechen War Battle of Grozny (1999–2000)
Aslan Maskhadov Chechen Republic of Ichkeria First Chechen War Battle of Grozny (1994–1995)
Second Chechen War Battle of Grozny (1999–2000)
Ruslan Gelayev First Chechen War Battle of Grozny (1994–1995)
Second Chechen War Battle of Grozny (1999–2000)
1994–2005 Shamil Basayev First Chechen War Battle of Grozny (1994–1995)
Second Chechen War Battle of Grozny (1999–2000)
Yarmuk Jamaat 2005 Nalchik raid
1994–2008 Vladimir Shamanov Russia First Chechen War Battle of Grozny (1994–1995)
Georgian–Abkhazian conflict Battle of the Kodori Valley
1995 Atif Dudaković Bosnia and Herzegovina Breakup of Yugoslavia Yugoslav Wars Bosnian War Operation Storm
Croatian War of Independence
Fikret Abdić Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia Bosnian War
Croatian War of Independence
Zvonimir Červenko Croatia Bosnian War
Croatian War of Independence
1999 Agim Ramadani Kosovo Liberation Army Kosovo War Battle of Košare
Pervez Musharraf Pakistan Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts Kargil War
Ved Prakash Malik India
1999–2000 Ibn Al-Khattab Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Second Chechen War Battle of Grozny (1999–2000)
Mikhail Malofeyev Russia
Viktor Kazantsev
2001 Abdul Majid Rouzi Northern Alliance Afghan civil war War in Afghanistan (2001–2021) Battle of Qala-i-Jangi
War on Terror
Abdul Rashid Dostum Afghan civil war
Fall of Mazari Sharif
War on Terror Battle of Qala-i-Jangi
Fall of Mazari Sharif
Atta Muhammad Nur Afghan civil war
War on Terror
Bismillah Khan Mohammadi Afghan civil war Battle of Tora Bora
War on Terror
Gul Agha Sherzai Afghanistan Afghan civil war Fall of Kandahar
War on Terror
Hamid Karzai Afghan civil war Battle of Tarin Kowt
Fall of Kandahar
War on Terror Battle of Tarin Kowt
Fall of Kandahar
Ismail Khan Northern Alliance Afghan civil war 2001 uprising in Herat
War on Terror
Jason Amerine United States Afghan civil war Battle of Tarin Kowt
War on Terror
Mohammad Mohaqiq Northern Alliance Afghan civil war Fall of Mazari Sharif
War on Terror
Osama bin Laden Al-Qaeda Afghan civil war Battle of Tora Bora
War on Terror
Yahya Rahim Safavi Iran Afghan civil war 2001 uprising in Herat
War on Terror
2001–2003 Tommy Franks United States Afghan civil war
Battle of Tora Bora
Fall of Kabul
Fall of Kandahar
Fall of Mazari Sharif
War on Terror Iraq War 2003 invasion of Iraq
War in Afghanistan (2001–2021) 2001 uprising in Herat
Battle of Tora Bora
Fall of Kabul
Fall of Kandahar
Fall of Mazari Sharif
2002 Aviv Kochavi Israel Arab–Israeli conflict Israeli–Palestinian conflict Second Intifada Operation Defensive Shield Battle of Nablus
Franklin L. Hagenbeck United States Afghan civil war War in Afghanistan (2001–2021) Operation Anaconda
War on Terror
Mahmoud Tawalbe Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine Arab–Israeli conflict Israeli–Palestinian conflict Second Intifada Operation Defensive Shield Battle of Jenin
Shaul Mofaz Israel Battle of Nablus
Yasser Arafat Fatah
Yitzhak Gershon Israel Battle of Nablus
Zakaria Zubeidi al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades Battle of Jenin
2003 Ahmed Chalabi Iraqi National Congress War on Terror Iraq War 2003 invasion of Iraq
Ali Hassan al-Majid Iraq Battle of Nasiriyah
Babaker Shawkat B. Zebari Kurdistan Democratic Party
Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti Iraqi Armed Forces
Brian Burridge United Kingdom
George W. Bush United States
Izzat Ibrahim ad-Douri Ba'ath Party
Jalal Talabani Patriotic Union of Kurdistan
Kosrat Rasul Ali
Massoud Barzani Kurdistan Democratic Party
Qusay Hussein Fedayeen Saddam
Uday Hussein
2003–2004 Richard F. Natonski United States Battle of Nasiriyah
Second Battle of Fallujah
2004 Abdullah al-Janabi al-Qaeda in Iraq First Battle of Fallujah
Ba'ath Party Second Battle of Fallujah
Ali Muhammad Jan Orakzai Pakistan Army War in North-West Pakistan Battle of Wana
Ayman al-Zawahiri Al-Qaeda
James Mattis United States Iraq War Second Battle of Fallujah
James T. Conway First Battle of Fallujah
Nek Muhammad Wazir Taliban War in North-West Pakistan Battle of Wana
2004–2005 Abu Musab al-Zarqawi al-Qaeda in Iraq Iraq War Battle of Al Qaim
First Battle of Fallujah
2005 Anzor Astemirov Yarmuk Jamaat Second Chechen War 2005 Nalchik raid
Ilyas Gorchkhanov
2006 Abdi Hasan Awale Qeybdiid Ethiopia Conflicts in the Horn of Africa Somali Civil War War in Somalia (2006–2009) Battle of Bandiradley
War on Terror
Abu Ayyub al-Masri al-Qaeda in Iraq Iraq War Operation Together Forward
David Fraser (soldier) Canadian Army Afghan civil war War in Afghanistan (2001–2021) Operation Mountain Thrust
War on Terror
George W. Casey, Jr. United States Army Iraq War Operation Together Forward
Mohamed Afrah Qanyare Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism Conflicts in the Horn of Africa Somali Civil War Advance of the Islamic Courts Union Battle of Mogadishu (2006)
War on Terror
Mohamud Muse Hersi Puntland Conflicts in the Horn of Africa Somali Civil War War in Somalia (2006–2009) Battle of Bandiradley
War on Terror
Musa Sudi Yalahow Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism Conflicts in the Horn of Africa Somali Civil War Advance of the Islamic Courts Union Battle of Mogadishu (2006)
War on Terror
Rahmatullah Raufi Afghan National Army Afghan civil war War in Afghanistan (2001–2021) Operation Mountain Thrust
War on Terror
2006–2007 Akhtar Mohammad Osmani Taliban Afghan civil war Operation Mountain Fury
War on Terror
David Richards (British Army officer) United Kingdom Afghan civil war
War on Terror
2006–2008 Barre Adan Shire Hiiraale Somalia Conflicts in the Horn of Africa Somali Civil War War in Somalia (2006–2009) Battle of Kismayo (2008)
War on Terror
Transitional Federal Parliament Conflicts in the Horn of Africa Somali Civil War Battle of Jilib
Battle of Ras Kamboni
Fall of Kismayo
War on Terror Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa Battle of Ras Kamboni
War in Somalia (2006–2009) Battle of Jilib
Battle of Ras Kamboni
Fall of Kismayo
Dan Halutz Israel Defense Forces Arab–Israeli conflict Israeli–Palestinian conflict Second Intifada 2006 Israel–Gaza conflict
2007–2008 Israel–Gaza conflict Operation Hot Winter
Muqtada al-Sadr Mahdi Army War on Terror Iraq War Iraqi insurgency Civil war in Iraq Battle of Basra (2008)
Iraq spring fighting of 2008
Operation Together Forward
2006–2009 Ismail Haniyeh Hamas Arab–Israeli conflict Israeli–Palestinian conflict Gaza War
Second Intifada 2006 Israel–Gaza conflict
2007–2008 Israel–Gaza conflict Operation Hot Winter
Khaled Mashal Gaza War
Second Intifada 2006 Israel–Gaza conflict
2007–2008 Israel–Gaza conflict Operation Hot Winter
Mohammed Deif Gaza War
Second Intifada 2006 Israel–Gaza conflict
Yoav Galant Israel Defense Forces Gaza War
Second Intifada 2006 Israel–Gaza conflict
2007–2008 Israel–Gaza conflict Operation Hot Winter
2006–2011 Sharif Sheikh Ahmed Islamic Courts Union Conflicts in the Horn of Africa Somali Civil War Advance of the Islamic Courts Union Battle of Mogadishu (2006)
War in Somalia (2006–2009) Battle of Jilib
Battle of Ras Kamboni
Fall of Kismayo
War on Terror Advance of the Islamic Courts Union Battle of Mogadishu (2006)
Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa Battle of Ras Kamboni
War in Somalia (2006–2009) Battle of Jilib
Battle of Ras Kamboni
Fall of Kismayo
Transitional Federal Government Conflicts in the Horn of Africa Somali Civil War War in Somalia (2009–) Battle of Mogadishu (2010–2011)
War on Terror
2006–2012 Hassan Abdullah Hersi al-Turki