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The following lists are of massacres that have occurred in Azerbaijan (numbers may be approximate).

Before 1980

Name Year Date Location Deaths Victims Notes
Battle of Ganja (1804) 1804 February Ganja 3,000[1]-7,000[2] Azeri inhabitants of Ganja Civilians were massacred during the capture of the city by the Russians; some of the captured soldiers were executed[3]
Armenian–Tatar massacres of 1905–1907 1905– 1907 February Baku; Nakhichevan; Shusha; Tiflis 3,000-10,000 Armenians, Azeris
Shamkhor Massacre 1918 January Şəmkir 1,000 Russians Russian soldiers killed by Azerbaijani nationalists[4][5][6]
March Days 1918 March 30-April 2 Azerbaijan 3,000-12,000 Azeris Azeris and other Muslim civilians were killed by members of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation and Bolsheviks.[8][8]
September Days 1918 September Baku 10,000-30,000 Armenians Armenians killed by the Army of Islam;[9][10] victims include small children, and many robberies and rapes took place during the massacre[11]
Khaibalikend Massacre 1919 June 5–7 Nagorno-Karabakh 600-700 Armenians Armenians killed by armed ethnic Azeri and Kurdish irregulars and Azerbaijani soldiers;[12] many women and children were killed, bodies were dumped into water wells, and the villages of Khaibalikend, Jamillu, Karkujahan and Pahliul were destroyed[13][14]
Shusha pogrom 1920 March 22–26 Shusha 500[15][16]-30,000[17][18] Armenians Armenians killed by Azerbaijanis; many children were killed and many women were raped
1920 Ganja Revolt 1920 June Ganja 15,000 Azeris Bolsheviks slaughtered civilians including women and children after the capture of rebel Ganja. Many women were raped and Koran were burnt.[19][20]

Nagorno-Karabakh War

The following is a list of massacres and pogroms, which took place in the course of the Nagorno-Karabakh War between Armenians and Azerbaijanis.

Name Year Date Location Deaths Victims Notes
Sumgait pogrom 1988 February 27-March 1 Sumgait 32 Armenians Armenians killed by Azeris; 20 ambulances were destroyed,[21] and reports detail widespread rape,[22] mutilation, robberies, and disembowling of fetuses[23][24]
Kirovabad pogrom 1988 November Kirovabad 130[25] Armenians Armenians killed by Azeris[26][27]
Baku Pogrom 1990 January 13 Baku 90 Armenians Armenians killed; many incidents of rape, robbery, and torture;[28] 700 injured[29][30]
Black January 1990 January 19–20 Baku, Azerbaijan 133-137 Peaceful protesters of the Azerbaijani national independence movement Killed by Soviet troops; ambulance workers rushing to help the wounded and random by-passers, including women and children, among the dead
Malibeyli and Gushchular Massacre 1992 February 10–12 Malibeyli, Ashaghi Gushchular, Yukhari Gushchular villages of Shusha Rayon 8-15 Azeris Azeris killed by Armenian irregular armed units[31]
Capture of Garadaghly 1992 February 17 Qaradağlı, Khojavend 20-90 Azeris Azeris killed[32]
Khojaly Massacre 1992 February 25—26 Xocalı, Azerbaijan 161-613 Azeris Azeris killed by Armenian Troops; many women and children among the dead[33]
Maraga Massacre 1992 April 10 Maraga 40-100 Armenians Armenians killed, many decapitated; bodies were buried in a mass grave outside the village[34]


  1. Peter Avery; William Bayne Fisher, Gavin Hambly, Charles Melville (1991-10-25). The Cambridge history of Iran: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic. Cambridge University Press. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-521-20095-0.
  2. Mansoori, Firooz (2008). "17" (in fa). Studies in History,Language and Culture of Azerbaijan. Tehran: Hazar-e Kerman. p. 245. ISBN 978-600-90271-1-8. 
  4. The formation of the Soviet Union: communism and nationalism, 1917-1923 By Richard Pipes - page 103
  5. the Modern encyclopedia of Russian and Soviet history, Volume 39 by Joseph L. Wieczynski - page 170
  6. Wladimir S. Woytinsky: La Democratie. p. 113
  7. Michael Smith. "Pamiat' ob utratakh i Azerbaidzhanskoe obshchestvo/Traumatic Loss and Azerbaijani. National Memory" (in ru). Azerbaidzhan i Rossiia: obshchestva i gosudarstva (Azerbaijan and Russia: Societies and States). Sakharov Center. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 "New Republics in the Caucasus". March 1920. p. 492. 
  9. Hovannisian. Armenia on the Road to Independence, p. 227.
  10. Human Rights Watch. Playing the "Communal Card": Communal Violence and Human Rights. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1995.
  11. Walker. Armenia, p. 261.
  12. Hovannisian, Richard. The Republic of Armenia: Vol. I, The First Year, 1918-1919. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971, pp. 176-177, notes 51-52.
  13. (Armenian) Vratsian, Simon. Հայաստանի Հանրապետութիւն (The Republic of Armenia). Paris: H.H.D. Amerikayi Publishing, 1928, pp. 286-87.
  14. Hovannisian. Republic of Armenia, Vol. I, p. 181.
  15. Richard G. Hovannisian. The Republic of Armenia, Vol. III: From London to Sèvres, February–August 1920
  16. Thomas de Waal. Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through Peace and War. ISBN 0-8147-1944-9
  17. "The Nagorno-Karabagh Crisis:A Blueprint for Resolution" (PDF). Public International Law & Policy Group and the New England Center for International Law & Policy. June 2000. p. 3. "In August 1919, the Karabagh National Council entered into a provisional treaty agreement with the Azerbaijani government. Despite signing the Agreement, the Azerbaijani government continuously violated the terms of the treaty. This culminated in March 1920 with the Azerbaijanis' massacre of Armenians in Karabagh's former capital, Shushi, in which it is estimated that more than 20,000 Armenians were killed." 
  18. Why IDPs Matter in the Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict by Seepan V. Parseghian, p.5
  19. The I.L.P.'s ALLIES. Soviet Massacre in the Caucasus // Western Gazette. — 1920. — 1 June. — page 12.
  20. 15,000 massacred // Cheltenham Chronicle. — 1920. — 2 June. — page 4
  21. (Russian) "Сумгаит, Один месяц поздно" ("Sumgait, One Month Later"). Moskovskiye Novosti. April 13, 1988.
  22. Shahmuratian. Sumgait Tragedy, Interview with Levon Akopyan, p. 227.
  23. Lee, Gary. "Eerie Silence Hangs Over Soviet City." Washington Post. September 4, 1988. p. A33. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
  24. Ein Volk, ein Land. DER SPIEGEL 13/1988
  25. "130 Died, Sakharov Says". The New York Times. 1988-11-26. p. 6. Retrieved 2013-02-22. 
  26. Stuart J. Kaufman, Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War, Cornell University Press, 2001, p. 77.
  27. Soviet Tells of Blocking Slaughter of Armenians: General Reports His Soldiers Have Suppressed Dozens of Massacre Attempts by Azerbaijanis. Los Angeles Times. 27 November 1988. Retrieved 24 August 2013
  28. Committee on the elimination of discrimination against women
  29. Europa World Year: Book 1 - Page 638, Taylor & Francis Group
  30. Thomas de Waal: Black Garden - Armenia and Azerbaijan Through Peace and War. New York University Press, 2003, p. 90
  31. Denber, Rachel; Goldman, Robert K. (1992). Bloodshed in the Caucasus: escalation of the armed conflict in Nagorno Karabakh. Praeger Publishers. pp. 24–27. ISBN 0-275-96241-5. Retrieved 2010-12-20. 
  32. "Letter dated 20 May 2005 from the Permanent Representative of Azerbaijan to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General". Retrieved August 24, 2012. 
  33. Letter from the Charge d'affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Azerbaijan to the United Nations Office Archived 2012-02-17 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 20 August 2013
  34. Cox, Caroline and John Eibner. Ethnic Cleansing in Progress: War in Nagorno Karabakh. Zurich and Washington D.C.: Institute for Religious Minorities in the Islamic World, p. 58, 1993.

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