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List of experimental aircraft
X-planes group photo.jpg
a group of 1950s NACA research aircraft

This is a list of experimental aircraft, or aircraft used or built to conduct experiments involving aerodynamics, structural materials, propulsion systems, configuration and equipment. Prototypes, pre-production and homebuilt aircraft described as experimental but which were not used in this manner outside of their own development are excluded.

Germany

Dornier Do 29 tilt rotor STOL

  • Akaflieg Berlin B 9 – prone pilot
  • Akaflieg Darmstadt/Akaflieg München DM1 – delta wing
  • Albatros L.81 - elektron metal structure testbed
  • AVA AF 1 – augumented lift
  • Blohm & Voss Fg 227 – scale proof of concept
  • DFS 194 – tailless rocket aircraft used in development of Me 163
  • DFS 346 – supersonic reconnaissance aircraft used for research
  • Dornier Do 29 – tilt rotor STOL

Heinkel He 178 jet engine research aircraft

Opel RAK.1 rocket engine research aircraft

Japan

Gasuden Koken

  • Gasuden Koken – long range experimental aircraft
  • Honda MH02 - materials and engine placement
  • Kawasaki Ki-78 - high speed research aircraft
  • Kayaba Ku-2 - tailless glider
  • Kayaba Ku-3 - tailless glider
  • Kayaba Ku-4 - tailless research aircraft
  • Kimura HK-1 - tailless glider
  • Mitsubishi RP-1 - experimental helicopter
  • MXY-6 – canard scale testbed for Kyushu J7W
  • Shin Meiwa UF-XS – proof of concept demonstrator for Shin Meiwa US-1A

Russia/Soviet Union

Antonov A-40 tank glider

Bartini Beriev VVA-14 Ekranoplan

  • Alexeyev Ekranoplans
  • Antonov A-40 – tank glider
  • Atonov 181 – custer channel wing demonstrator
  • Bartini Beriev VVA-14 – Ekranoplan
  • Bartini Stal-6 – high speed aircraft
  • Chyeranovskii BICh-3 – tailless delta research aircraft
  • Chyeranovskii BICh-11 – flying wing to test wingtip rudders
  • Chyeranovskii BICh-16 – human powered ornithopter
  • Chyeranovskii BICh-18 – human powered ornithopter
  • Chizhevski BOK-1 – high altitude research aircraft
  • Chizhevski BOK-5 – tailless research aircraft
  • Grigorovich I-Z – recoilless cannon evaluation
  • Grushin Octyabrenok – tandem wing
  • Kozlov PS – invisible aircraft (covered in transparent material)
  • MAI EMAI – magnesium construction
  • Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-8 – pusher canard proof of concept
  • Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-105 – lifting body
  • Mikoyan Project 1.44 – technology demonstrator
  • Mikoyan-Gurevich N – mixed propulsion system

Yakovlev Yak-36 VTOL research vehicle

Sweden

Taiwan (Republic of China)

  • Chu Hummingbird - experimental helicopter

United Kingdom

Avro 707 research aircraft in formation with Avro Vulcan bomber prototypes

Fairey Delta 2 research aircraft

Gloster E.28/39 jet engine research aircraft

Miles M.35 Libellula canard research aircraft

  • Armstrong Whitworth Ape – aerodynamic test vehicle
  • Armstrong Whitworth A.W.52 - flying wing
  • Avro 707 – aerodynamic proof of concept for Avro Vulcan delta wing bomber
  • Avro Ashton – jet engine research vehicle based on Avro Tudor
  • BAC 221 – modified fairey Delta 2 for high speed delta research
  • Baynes Bat - experimental tailless glider
  • Blackburn B-20 - retractable hull seaplane
  • Boulton Paul P.6 – used for wing research
  • Boulton Paul P.92 – half scale proof of concept
  • Boulton Paul P.111 - delta wing research aircraft
  • Boulton Paul P.120 - delta wing research aircraft
  • Bristol 138 – high altitude research aircraft
  • Bristol 188 - high speed flight research
  • British Aerospace EAP – technology demonstrator
  • Cierva W.9 - experimental helicopter
  • de Havilland DH 108 Swallow – swept wing tailless transsonic research aircraft
  • English Electric P.1A - supersonic research aircraft
  • Fairey Delta 1 - delta wing research aircraft
  • Fairey Delta 2 - delta wing research aircraft
  • Fairey Jet Gyrodyne – jet powered rotor
  • Folland Fo.108 – engine test bed
  • General Aircraft GAL.56 - tailless swept wing glider
  • Gloster E.28/39 – early jet engine research
  • Gloster Meteor F8 "Prone Pilot" – prone position flight control research
  • Gloster Trent Meteor - turboprop propulsion
  • Hafner A.R.III Gyroplane – experimental autogyro
  • Handley Page H.P.17 – aerodynamic slot research
  • Handley Page H.P.20 – aerodynamic slot research
  • Handley Page H.P.75 Manx – tailless flight research
  • Handley Page HP.88 – supporting development of Handley Page Victor
  • Handley Page HP.115 – low speed delta wing research
  • Hawker P.1052 - swept wing testbed that led to the Hawker Hunter
  • Hawker P.1072 - testbed for Armstrong Siddeley Snarler rocket booster
  • Hawker P.1127 – experimental V/STOL combat aircraft development aircraft that led to the Hawker Harrier
  • Hillson Bi-mono – slip wing research
  • Hunting H.126 – blown flap research
  • Miles M.3E Gillette Falcon – high speed flight research
  • Miles M.30 – blended wing body design
  • Miles M.35 Libellula – tandem wing fighter testbed
  • Miles M.39B Libellula – tandem wing research
  • Miles M.52 – supersonic flight research
  • Parnall Parasol - wing pressure and aileron testing
  • Parnall Peto - experimental submarine launched aircraft.
  • Parnall Prawn - flying boat testing buried engine with variable angle thrust line
  • Reid and Sigrist R.S.4 Bobsleigh - prone-pilot research
  • Rolls-Royce Thrust Measuring Rig – low speed VTOL control test rig

Rolls-Royce thrust measuring rig VTOL testbed

  • Saro Shrimp - experimental half scale flying boat for development of cancelled Saunders-Roe S.38
  • Saunders-Roe SR.53 - mixed rocket/jet propulsion development aircraft for cancelled Saunders-Roe SR.177
  • Short Cockle – tested metal construction techniques for flying boat hulls
  • Short Mayo Composite – tested piggyback aircraft concept
  • Short Mussel – testing metal construction techniques for aircraft floats
  • Short S.6 Sturgeon – tested aluminium construction techniques for aircraft
  • Short S.31 - half scale model for Short Stirling development
  • Short SB.1 – tailess glider for isoclinic wing research
  • Short SB.4 Sherpa - improved, powered version of Short SB.1
  • Short SB.5 – prove/develop wing for English Electric Lightning
  • Short SC.1 – VTOL research
  • Short Silver Streak - stressed skin construction, developed into Short Springbok
  • Supermarine 508 – development aircraft with vee tail
  • Supermarine 525 - swept wing development aircraft for Supermarine Scimitar program
  • Cierva W.9 – helicopter with anti-torque jet efflux
  • Vickers Type 618 Nene-Viking – jet engine testbed
  • Vickers Type 470 and Type 486 WellingtonWhittle jet engine testbeds
  • Vickers Type 602 Wellington Mark XRolls Royce Dart turboprop testbed
  • Westland-Hill Pterodactyl - series of tailless monoplanes
  • Youngman-Baynes High Lift - testbed for Youngman flaps

United States

Bell X-1 supersonic research aircraft

Bell X-5 variable sweep wing testbed

North American X-15 hypersonic rocket-powered research aircraft

X-planes

Grumman X-29 forward swept wing and stability research aircraft

Other US experimental aircraft

US Army Bell 533 high speed helicopter research aircraft

XFV-12A on ramp at NAA in Columbus, Ohio

File:Jones0041c.JPG

Scaled Composites Proteus in flight during 2002 for US Department of Energy ARM-UAV program

  • Acme Sierra – pusher configuration
  • ALTUS, Pathfinder and Helios were NASA's NASA Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology experimental aircraft
  • AstroFlight Sunrise
  • Ball-Bartoe Jetwing – blown wing research
  • Bell D-292 – Advanced Composite Airframe Program
  • Bell L-39 – swept wing research
  • Bell Model 65 – tiltjet VTOL
  • Bell XV-15 – tiltrotor VTOL and precursor to V-22 Osprey.
  • Bell 533 – a modified UH-1B helicopter used by the US Army for experimentation with various high speed technology enhancements.
  • Budd BB-1 Pioneer – stainless steel construction
  • Burnelli RB-1 – lifting body proof of concept vehicle
  • Chrysler VZ-6 – ducted fan
  • Convair NB-36 – nuclear propelled aircraft testbed
  • Convair XF-92 Dart - delta wing jet
  • Curtiss-Wright VZ-7
  • Curtiss-Wright X-100 – tilt rotor VTOL (developed into X-200 and X-19)
  • Custer Channel Wings
  • DARPA Falcon Project
  • Doak VZ-4 – tiltfan VTOL
  • Douglas D-558-I Skystreak – supersonic research
  • Douglas D-558-II Skyrocket – supersonic research
  • Fairchild VZ-5 – deflected air VTOL
  • Farrar LSG-1 Bird Flight Machine

Lockheed Vega Winnie Mae high altitude research aircraft – confirmed existence of jet stream

Lifting body research aircraft – from left to right, X-24A, M2-F3 and HL-10

  • Lockheed XV-4 Hummingbird – jetlift VTOL
  • LTV XC-142 – VTOL transport
  • Martin 162A Tadpole Clipper – proof of concept aircraft
  • Martin XB-26H Marauder – tandem undercarriage
  • NASA AD-1 Oblique Wing
  • NASA Hyper III
  • NASA M2-F1 - lifting body/re-entry vehicle
  • NASA Pathfinder - solar powered aircraft
  • Northrop F-5 Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstrator – shockwave reduction

Northrop N-9M flying wing

  • Northrop HL-10 – lifting body/re-entry vehicle research
  • Northrop M2-F2 – lifting body/re-entry vehicle research
  • Northrop M2-F3 – lifting body/re-entry vehicle research
  • Northrop N-1M – flying wing research
  • Northrop N-9M – flying wing proof of concept aircraft for Northrop YB-35
  • Northrop Tacit Blue – Stealth technology demonstrator
  • Piasecki PV-2 – helicopter technology demonstrator
  • Piasecki VZ-8 Airgeep – liftfan VTOL research
  • Piasecki X-49 – experimental compound helicopter
  • Republic XF-84H "Thunderscreech" – supersonic propellor
  • Republic XF-91 Thunderceptor – inversely tapered swept wing
  • Rockwell HiMAT - Maneuverability and control research
  • Rotary Rocket Roton
  • Ryan VZ-3 Vertiplane – blown flap VTOL research
  • Ryan XV-5 Vertifan – fan lift VTOL research
  • Sawyer Skyjacker II – Low aspect ratio research aircraft

Vought V-173 disk wing research aircraft

  • Scaled Composites Proteus - telecommunication relay testbed
  • Schweizer SGS 1-29 - laminar flow research
  • Sikorsky S-69 – compound co-axial research
  • Sikorsky S-72 – helicopter/aircraft hybrid research
  • Sikorsky S-75 – Advanced Composite Aircraft Program
  • Sikorsky S-76 SHADOW – Sikorsky Helicopter Advanced Demonstrator and Operator Workload
  • Stinson L-1 Vigilant – 1 example modified for boundary layer experiments
  • Travel Air 2000 Besler steam aircraft
  • Vertol VZ-2 – tilt wing VTOL research
  • Vought V-173 "Flying Pancake" – disk wing research for Vought XF5U
  • Vought V-326[3] – high altitude test aircraft
  • Vought-Sikorsky VS-300 – helicopter

See also

References

  1. Harrison, Ronald W., Gee Bee Ascender, Journal AAHS Fall 1984, p 190-191
  2. Hannan, Bill, le Gee Bee qui volait a l'envers, Le Fanatique de l' Aviation, No 161, page numbers unknown
  3. Eckland, K.O. (2009-04-25). "Aerofiles Vought (Chance Vought), Lewis & Vought, Vought-Sikorsky". USA: Aerofiles.com. http://aerofiles.com/_vot.html. Retrieved 20 September 2011. 

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