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The main battles in the history of the Ottoman Empire are shown below. The life span of the empire was more than six centuries and the maximum territory at the zenith of power (second half of the 16th century) stretched from central Europe to the Persian Gulf and from the Caspian Sea to North Africa. The number of battles the empire fought is quite high. But here only the more important battles are listed. Among these, the battles fought in the 20th century (Turco-Italian War, Balkan Wars, and World War I ) as well as the sieges (like the sieges of Constantinople, Cairo, Belgrade, Bagdad, etc.) which most lists include as battles are not shown except in cases where the siege is followed by a battle (i.e. Vienna, Khotyn, Plevna).[1][2]

Ottoman EmpireList of battles

Europe Asia Africa Sea

(Color legend for the location of the battle)

Year Name Opponent
1302 Bapheus Byzantine Empire
1303 Dimbos Byzantine Empire
1329 Pelekanon Byzantine Empire
1355 Ihtiman Bulgarian Empire
1364[dn 1] Maritsa Serbia, Bulgarian Empire
1381 Dubrovnica Serbia
1385 Savra Serbia
1388 Bileca Bosnia
1389 Kosovo Serbia, Bosnia, Realm of Branković
1395 Rovine Wallachia (South Romania)
1396 Nicopolis Crusades[dn 2] (Hungary, France, Knights Hospitaller, Venice)
1402 Ankara Timurid Empire
1444 Varna Crusades (Hungary, Poland and many others)
1448 Second Kosovo Hungary, Wallacia
1457 Ujëbardha Albania
1462 Targoviste Wallachia
1464 Ohrid Albania
1473 Otlukbeli Akkoyunlu Turkmens
1475 Vasliu Moldavia (North Romania)
1476 Valea Alba Moldavia
1479 Câmpul Pâinii Hungary, Serbia
1493 Krbava Croatia, Hungary
1499 Zonchio Venice
1500 Modon Venice
1514 Chaldiran Safavid Persia
1516 Marj Dabiq Mamluk Egypt
1516 Yaunis Khan Mamluk Egypt
1517 Ridanieh Mamluk Egypt
1526 Mohács Hungary, Holy Roman Empire, Papal States, Poland
1529 Vienna Holy Roman Empire, Kingdom of Bohemia, Spain
1529 Formentera Holy Roman Empire
1538 Preveza Holy League (Holy Roman Empire, Venice, Genoa, Knights of Malta, Papal States)
1541 Algiers Holy Roman Empire
1545 Sokhoista Georgia
1552 Ponza Genoa
1558 Mostaganem Holy Roman Empire
1560 Cerbe Holy Roman Empire, Genoa, Papal states, Knights of Malta
1571 Lepanto Holy League (Holy Roman Empire, Venice, Genoa, Papal states, Knights of Malta)
1578 Çıldır Safavid Persia
1583 Torches[dn 3] Safavid Persia
1588 Wadi al-Laban Morocco
1593 Sisak Holy Roman Empire, Croatia
1596 Keresztes Holy Roman Empire and many more
1620 Tutora Poland-Lithuania, Moldavia
1621 Khotyn (1621) Poland-Lithuania
1649 Focchies Venice
1654 Dardanelles (1654) Venice
1654 Dardanelles (1655) Venice
1654 Dardanelles (1656) Venice
1654 Dardanelles (1657) Venice
1663 Köbölkút Holy Roman Empire
1664 Saint Gotthard Holy Roman Empire
1673 Khotyn (1673) Poland-Lithuania
1683 Vienna Holy Roman Empire, Poland-Lithuania
1687 Second Mohács Holy Roman Empire
1691 Slankamen Holy Roman Empire
1694 Ustechko Poland-Lithuania
1695 Oinousses Islands Venice
1695 Lugos Holy Roman Empire
1696 Andros Venice
1696 Cenei Holy Roman Empire
1697 Ulaş Holy Roman Empire
1697 Zenta Holy Roman Empire
1711 Pruth River Russian Empire
1716 Petrovaradin Holy Roman Empire
1717 Imbros Venice
1717 Matapan Venice, Portugal, Knights of Malta, Papal States
1737 Banja Luka Holy Roman Empire
1739 Grocka Holy Roman Empire
1739 Stavuchany Russian Empire
1757 Khresili Georgia
1770 Aspindza Georgia
1770 Chesma Russian Empire
1770 Larga Russian Empire
1770 Kagul Russian Empire
1774 Kozluca Russian Empire
1774 Kerch Russian Empire
1789 Sebeş Holy Roman Empire
1789 Fokşani Holy Roman Empire, Russian Empire
1789 Rymnik Holy Roman Empire, Russian Empire
1790 Kerch Russian Empire
1798 Pyramids France
1799 Abukir France
1807 Arpachai Russian Empire
1807 Athos Russian Empire
1812 Al Safra Saudi Arab rebels
1813 Jeddah Saudi Arab rebels
1815 Čegar Serbian rebels
1821 Alamana Greek rebels
1821 Dragashani Greek rebels
1822 Dervenakia Greek rebels
1822 Nauplia Greek rebels
1822 Chios Greek rebels
1825 Gerontas Greek rebels
1827 Kamatero Greek rebels
1827 Navarino Russian Empire, United Kingdom, France
1829 Kulevicha Russian Empire
1830 Algiers France
1831 Third Kosovo Bosnia (revolters)
1839 Konya Egypt (revolters)
1839 Nizib Egypt (revolters)
1853 Oltenitza Russian Empire
1853 Sinop Russian Empire
1854 Kurekdere Russian Empire
1855 Eupatoria Russian Empire
1877 Kızıl Tepe Russian Empire
1877 Plevna Russian Empire, Romania, Bulgaria (revolters)
1877 Shipka Russian Empire, Bulgaria (revolters)
1877 Tashkessen Russian Empire
1878 Plovidiv Russian Empire
1878 Mouzaki Greece
1897 Domokos Greece

The sultans of the Ottoman Empire participated in some of the battles listed above. For those battles see List of the Ottoman battles in which the sultan participated

See also


  1. Some sources show the date as 1371. But according to Ottoman chronicles the date is 1364[citation needed]
  2. In most Ottoman European battles troops from many countries fought against Ottomans. Here, only the major opponents are listed.
  3. The battle continued during the night, both sides using torches. Hence the name


  1. Nicolae Jorga: Geschiste des osmanischen , trans. by Nilüfer Epçeli, Yeditepe Yayınları, İstanbul, 2009, ISBN 975-6480-17-3[page needed]
  2. Prof.Dr.Yaşar Yücel-Prof.Dr.Ali Sevim: Türkiye Tarihi II, III, IV, AKDTYK Yayınları, İstanbul, 1990,[page needed]

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