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Twenty-four known prisoner-of-war camps existed across Canada during World War I. The ethnic groups arrested and detained in internment camps were Austro-Hungarians (mostly Ukrainians) and Germans. Austro-Hungarian Prisoners were mainly residents of Canada from the Ukraine. Since Ukraine was then a province of the empire of Austria-Hungary, many still had Austro-Hungarian nationality and were considered to be resident enemy aliens. William Dostock, for example, who immigrated to Canada in 1910 from Austria-Hungary and was not yet naturalized was interned from 1915–1920 as an enemy alien.[1]

German prisoners were mainly residents of Canada from Germany. Germans formed a large proportion of the detainees since Canada served as a place of detention for German prisoners of war on behalf of the British.[1]

The prisoners were given various tasks; many worked in the forests as logging crews. In addition to the main camps there were branch camps and labour camps.

Camp Location Province Type of Buildings Period
Amherst Internment Camp Amherst Nova Scotia Malleable Iron Foundry April 1915 to September 1919
Beauport Quebec The Armoury December 1914 to June 1916
Castle Mountain Internment Camp Banff & Castle Mountain Alberta Dominion Park July 1915 to July 1917
Brandon Manitoba Exhibition Building September 1914 to July 1916
Edgewood British Columbia Bunk Houses August 1915 to September 1916
Fernie & Morrissey British Columbia Rented premises June 1915 to October 1918
Halifax Nova Scotia Halifax Citadel September 1914 to October 1918
Jasper Alberta Dominion Park February 1916 to August 1916
Kapuskasing, Ontario Ontario Bunk Houses December 1914 to February 1920
Kingston, Ontario Ontario Fort Henry August 1914 to November 1917
Lethbridge Alberta Exhibition Building September 1914 to November 1916
Monashee & Mara Lake British Columbia Tents and Bunkhouses June 1915 to July 1917
Montreal Quebec Immigration Hall August 1914 to November 1918
Eaton Internment Camp Munson & Eaton Alberta Railway Cars October 1918 to March 1919
Nanaimo British Columbia Provincial government building September 1914 to September 1915
Niagara Falls Ontario The Armoury December 1914 to August 1918
Petawawa Ontario Militia Camp December 1914 to May 1916
Revelstoke & Field & Otter British Columbia Bunk Houses September 1915 to October 1916
Sault-St-Marie Ontario The Armoury January 1915 to January 1918
Spirit Lake Spirit Lake Quebec Bunk Houses January 1915 to January 1917
Toronto Ontario Stanley Barracks December 1914 to October 1916
Winnipeg Manitoba Fort Osborne September 1914 to July 1916
Valcartier Quebec Militia Camp April 1915 to October 1915
Vernon British Columbia Provincial government building September 1914 to February 1920


See also


  • Internment Operations, 1914-1920: Report by Sir William Otter,1921. (AMICUS 28573593)
  • Internment Operations:The Role of Old Fort Henry in World War I by Lubomyr Y. Luciuk and edited by Bryan Rollason, 1980.(AMICUS 2357598)


  • A Bare and Impolitic Right: Internment and Ukrainian-Canadian Redress by Bohdan S. Kordan and Craig Mahovsky, 2004. (AMICUS 28573593)
  • Commemorating an Injustice: Fort Henry and Ukrainian Canadian as "Enemy Aliens" During the First World War, editor John B. Gregorovich, 1994. (AMICUS 13936871)
  • Enemy Aliens, Prisoners of War: Internment in Canada During the Great War by Bohdan S. Kordan, 2002. (AMICUS 27491559)
  • Freedom Had a Price (videorecording); producer/director/editor Yurij Luhovy; associate producer, Zorianna Hrycenko; script writers Thom Richardson and Oksana Rozumna; narrator Paul Almond, 1994. (AMICUS 14190060)
  • In fear of the Barbed Wire Fence: Canada's First National Internment Operations and the Ukrainian Canadians, 1914-1920 by Lubomyr Luciuk, 2001. (AMICUS 23071505)
  • In my Charge: the Canadian Internment Camp Photographs of Sergeant William Buck by Lubomyr Y. Luciuk & Borys Sydoruk, 1997.

(AMICUS 15993713)

  • In the Shadow of the Rockies: Diary of the Castle Mountain Internment Camp, 1915-1917; edited and introduced by Bohdan S. Kordan and Peter Melnycky, 1991. (AMICUS 10660898)
  • Interned Without Cause, by Peter Krawchuk, translated from the Ukrainian by Pat Prokop, 1985.(AMICUS 5270594)
  • Righting an Injustice: the Debate Over Redress for Canada's First National Internment Operations, edited by Lubomyr Luciuk; afterword by Mary Manko Haskett, 1994. (AMICUS 13412334)
  • Righting Historical Wrongs: Internment, Acknowledgement and Redress by Kordan, Bohdan S, 1993. (AMICUS 13649978)
  • Roll Call: Lest We Forget; compiled by Lubomyr Y. Luciuk with the assistance of Yurieva and Roman Zakaluzny, 1999. (AMICUS 22419242)
  • A Time for Atonement: Canada's First National Internment Operations and the Ukrainian Canadians, 1914-1920 by Lubomyr Luciuk, 1988. (AMICUS 7644718)
  • Without Just Cause: Canada's First National Internment Operations and the Ukrainian Canadians, 1914-1920 by Lubomyr Y. Luciuk, 2006. (AMICUS 32338124)

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