Military Wiki

RF-4C Phantom II photo of Zweibrücken Air Base, West Germany, photographed on September 18, 1979

This is a list of aircraft used by the United States Air Force and its predecessor organizations for combat reconnaissance and aerial mapping.

The first aircraft acquired by the Aeronautical Division, U.S. Signal Corps were not fighters or bombers, they were reconnaissance aircraft. From the first days of World War I, the airplane demonstrated its ability to be the "eyes of the army." Technology has improved greatly over the almost century since the first reconnaissance aircraft used during World War I. Today reconnaissance aircraft incorporate stealth technology; the newest models are piloted remotely. However, the mission of reconnaissance pilots remains the same.

The United States is almost unique in having developed aircraft designed specifically for the reconnaissance role, examples including the Lockheed SR-71, Lockheed U-2, Republic XF-12, and Hughes XF-11 (the last two did not enter production). Other nations needing reconnaissance aircraft generally use modified versions of standard bomber, fighter, and other types. The United States has, of course, also operated reconnaissance variants of aircraft designed for other purposes, as the list below demonstrates.

World War I aircraft

O-57 Grasshopper at the National Museum of the United States Air Force

A British de Havilland Mosquito XVI of Eighth Air Force.


North American P-51C-5-NT Mustang (F-6C) Serial 42-103368 of the 15th TRS at St. Dizler Airfield, France, Autumn 1944. This aircraft was flown by Captain John H. Hoefler, who used it to shoot down three enemy aircraft in June 1944.

P-38G/F-5B photoreconnaissance aircraft

Boeing B-29-95-BW (F-13) Superfortress "Kee Bird", 45-21768 46th Reconnaissance Squadron, 1947

North American RB-45C-5-NA Tornado 48-033, 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Wing

North American RF-100A-10-NA Super Sabre 53-1551. Used by Detachment 1 of 7407th Support Sqn of 7499th Support Group. Crashed near Neidenbach, West Germany Oct 1, 1956. Pilot ejected safely.

RB-57As of the 363d Tactical Reconnaissance Wing, 1954

Douglas RB-66B-DL Destroyer Serial 54-0419, 25th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing, 1965.

Martin/General Dynamics RB-57F-CF 63-13291, 7407th Combat Support Squadron, Rhein-Main AB, West Germany. Aircraft retired to AMARC as BM0106, May 30, 1974

McDonnell Douglas RF-4C-38-MC Phantom 68-0568, 17th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, 26th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing, Zweibrücken Air Base, West Germany in mid-1970s Southeast Asia camouflage motif.


95th Reconnaissance Squadron Lockheed TR-1A, AF Serial No. 80-1081 - 1989

SR-71 Blackbird

Predator launching a Hellfire missile

RQ-4 Global Hawk (02-2010) at Beale AFB

MC-12W Liberty (08-0376) of the 362nd Expeditionary Reconnaissance Squadron, Joint Base Balad, Iraq

Initially flown with a pilot and an observer, the observer would often sketch the scene of the ground below. Soon, some English observers thought it would be easier and more accurate to use their cameras to photograph the enemy lines. Unfortunately, both sides knew that if they were receiving valuable information from their pilots, the other side must be doing the same, and aircraft became armed to shoot down the other's. After the war, England estimated that its flyers took one-half million photographs during the four years of the war, and Germany calculated that if you laid all its aerial photographs side by side, they would cover an area six times the size of Germany.

The United States did not produce any aircraft of its own design for use in combat during World War I. However several British and French designs were used by Air Service Aero Squadrons for reconnaissance missions

British two-seat biplane day-bomber, used by the Air Service; DH-4-BP Experimental photoreconnaissance version. Produced under licence in the United States and used by the Army Air Service until 1932.[1]
French biplane reconnaissance aircraft.[2]

Attack aircraft

The F-3A was a conversion of 46 A-20J and K models for night-time photographic reconnaissance (F-3 were a few conversions of the original A-20). It was used in all major Theaters of Operations. The first Allied aircraft to land at Itazuke Airfield, Japan after the August 1945 surrender was an F-3A.[3]
A-29B converted for photo-survey.[4]

Bomber aircraft

The F-9 was the photographic reconnaissance variant.[5][6]
F-9A was assigned to some B-17Fs that were converted to photographic configuration in a manner similar to that of the F-9 but differing in some camera details. Both the F-9s and F-9As were re-designated F-9B after further camera changes.
F-9C was assigned to ten B-17Gs converted for photographic reconnaissance in a manner similar to the F-9, F-9A, and F-9B conversions of the B-17F. Redesignated FB-17 after 1948.
Obsolete as a strategic bomber, B-18 and B-18As were used for antisubmarine warfare reconnaissance after the Pearl Harbor Attack until their withdrawal from service in 1943 by the B-24 Liberator which had a substantially longer range and a much heavier payload.[7]
The F-7 was the photographic reconnaissance variant.[8]
XF-7 was the designation of B-24D 41-11653 by removing all the bombing equipment and installing eleven reconnaissance cameras in the nose, bomb bay, and aft fuselage
F-7 was the designation of four additional B-24Ds were converted to reconnaissance configuration.
F-7A were B-24Js that had a camera located in the nose, and cameras installed in the aft bomb bay. The full defensive armament suite of the bomber was retained
F-7B were B-24Ms which carried all five cameras in the aft bomb bay. Most F-7Bs were conversions of late-model B-24Ms, although a few B-24Js and Ls became F-7Bs as well.
The F-10 was the photographic reconnaissance variant of 45 B-25Ds. Used primarily for mapping over remote areas which had been poorly mapped. Mostly flown over areas of the Pacific, Northern Canada, Amazon basin of Brazil and over the Himalayas.[9]
RB-26B, RB-26C based on variants developed in the postwar era. Used for night photography and carried flash flares for illumination.[10]
RB-26L was assigned to two RB-26Cs that were modified in 1962 for night photography missions in South Vietnam. Assigned to Bien Hoa Air Base in March 1963, and were for a while the only aircraft in South Vietnam with any real night reconnaissance capability.[11]
Reconnaissance versions of the B-29 were a primarily postwar development to perform SAC's global reconnaissance mission.[12]
The F-13 was the photographic reconnaissance variant of the B-29.
The F-13A was the B-29A model. Carried three K-17B, two K-22 and one K-18 cameras with provisions for others. Redesignated as RB-29/RB-29A in 1948.
Reconnaissance versions of the B-36 were used by SAC throughout the 1950s.[13]
RB-36D carried up to 23 cameras, primarily K-17C, K-22A, K-38, and K-40 cameras. Included a small darkroom where a photo technician could develop the film. The second bomb bay contained up to 80 T86 photo flash bombs, while the third bay could carry an extra 3000 gallon droppable fuel tank. The fourth bomb bay carried ferret ECM equipment. Had a 50-hour flight endurance capability.
RB-36Es were B-36As refitted as reconnaissance aircraft. Also equipped with the four J-47 jet engines and advanced electronics.
RB-45C was the reconnaissance version of the B-45, the first United States jet bomber. A total of 12 cameras. Flew combat missions over Korea, but found to be vulnerable to the MiG-15 and withdrawn. Also flew penetration missions over Eastern Europe but withdrawn in the mid-1950s.[14]
Reconnaissance versions of the B-47 were SAC's first very long range jet strategic reconnaissance aircraft.[15]
RB-47B daylight only reconnaissance version
YRB-47B was a conversion of the B-47B specifically intended for the training of crews for RB-47E
RB-47E strategic reconnaissance version. As compared with the standard B-47E, the nose of the RB-47E was 34 inches longer so that it could house a special air-conditioned compartment for cameras and other sensitive equipment. Eleven cameras could be carried, along with ten photoflash bombs and supplementary photoflash cartridges for night photography.
The Boeing B-50 Stratofortress was a postwar improvement of the B-29. It was developed with several versions for SAC's global strategic reconnaissance mission.[16]
RB-50B/E was earmarked for photographic reconnaissance and observation missions. featured 9 cameras. Also equipped for weather reconnaissance instruments
RB-50F carried SHORAN Radar designed to conduct mapping, charting, and geodetic surveys.
RB-50G designed for electronic warfare
RB-52B was the designation of the B-52B when carrying a two-man pressurized capsule installed in the bomb bay which could perform electronic countermeasures or photographic reconnaissance work. The reconfiguring of the aircraft was a fairly straightforward process and the capsule could usually be installed in about four hours.[17]
RB-57A Tactical Air Command/USAFE reconnaissance version of the B-57A bomber (1953-58). Tactical failure, replaced by RF-101C Voodoos.
RB-57A-1 In 1955, a program was begun to convert ten RB-57As to a high-altitude "RB-57A-1" reconnaissance under a project first known as Lightweight and later renamed Heartthrob. The black-painted aircraft being used for reconnaissance missions against the East Bloc in the late 1950s. One was rumored to have been shot down in 1956 while observing the Hungarian uprising. Two were operated by the Republic of China (Taiwan) Air Force, and one of these was known to have been shot down, on 18 February 1958, by Red Chinese fighters. Details still undisclosed.
RB-57A-2 Two RB-57As were modified with a bulbous nose containing AN/APS-60 mapping radar in 1957 under project SARTAC. Assigned to Germany, operational use still not disclosed.
RB-57D was a high-altitude reconnaissance version of the B-57 Canberra. Had a range of 2000 nautical miles that could operate at altitudes of 65,000 feet. A total of 20 aircraft were eventually built
RB-57E Patricia Lynn Project was a highly-classified project during the Vietnam War where a small number of B-57Es were converted into high-altitude tactical reconnaissance aircraft used over Indochina.
RB-57F was a very-high altitude reconnaissance version developed by General Dynamics in 1962. The USAF approached General Dynamics to investigate updating the RB-57 to produce a virtually new high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The new design, designated RB-57F, was almost an entirely new aircraft, with three-spar wing structure having a span of 122 feet. The aircraft carried high-altitude cameras and was used for taking oblique shots at 45 degrees up to 60nm range from the aircraft and provided a 30 inch resolution. ELINT/SIGINT equipment was carried in the nose. A total of 21 RB-57F aircraft were eventually re-manufactured from existing B-57A, B-57B and RB-57D aircraft. Some of the RF-57Fs were involved in the Early Day programme that involved high altitude air sampling for evidence of Soviet nuclear tests.
RB-66 was the designation for the USAF reconnaissance version of the Navy A-3 Skywarrior[18]
RB-66B carried flash bombs in its bomb bay for night photography missions and was equipped with a battery of reconnaissance cameras. Was primary night photographic reconnaissance weapon system of TAC, PACAF and USAFE.
RB-66C was a specialized electronic reconnaissance and electronic countermeasures aircraft designed for jamming of Soviet built Radar. Used in Europe; saw extensive use during the Vietnam War.

Fighter aircraft

Spitfire PR XI was the photoreconnaissance variant of the Mk IX Fighter. Received by Eighth Air Force in late 1943. All Eighth Air Force Spitfires delivered were in the standard RAF "PRU Blue" with the aircraft serial number painted on the tail.[19]
Mosquito F-8-DH (Nose cameras), 40 Aircraft received by Eighth Air Force.
Mosquito PR Mk XVI (Bomb bay cameras) 80 Aircraft received by Eighth and Ninth Air Force. These were used for a variety of photographic and night reconnaissance missions[19]
F-4-1 was based on the P-38E. Most used for training in the United States, however nine of these aircraft were deployed to the United Kingdom as part of the 5th PS (Photographic Squadron) in mid-1942.[20]
F-5A, F-5B, F-5C and F-5E all based on variants of the P-38G, Was primary long-range USAAF photoreconnaissance fighter aircraft prior to the introduction of the P-51. Used extensively in all major theaters of operations.[21]
27 P-39Fs were converted into P-39F-2 variants for the ground-attack and reconnaissance role. Used for training, never engaged in combat.[19]
F-6A, F-6B, F-6C, F-6D, F-6K all based on models of the P-51. All flew unarmed, fitted with two K-24 oblique cameras mounted behind the pilot in the fuselage. Also carried vertical cameras along centerline of fuselage. F-6s eventually became the dominant long-range photographic aircraft in ETO. In 1948, surviving F-6s were redesignated as RF-51D/K[19]
F-15A Reporter was a postwar photoreconnaissance variant. 36 produced; most sent to Japan. Extensive aerial photos were taken of beaches, villages, road networks, and cultural centers. Included in this job was the mapping of the Korean Peninsula, which proved invaluable when the Korean War broke out in 1950. A few also served in the Philippines and Celebes. Included in their mission was the mapping of the route of the Bataan Death March for war crimes prosecutions. Last retired just a few months before the outbreak of the Korean War.[22]
RF-80A was first jet reconnaissance aircraft of the USAAF. The second YP-80A prototype, 44-84988, was completed in 1944 as the XF-14; a reconnaissance version of the basic fighter. It had a redesigned nose that rotated forward for servicing and carried only vertical seeing cameras. It was unarmed. The RF-80A was designated as such in 1948 and carried three or four cameras capable of side, downward and forward observation. The RF-80A proved itself in combat during the Korean War and took part in numerous sorties over North Korea as well as sorties along the border with North Korea and China, near the Yalu River. RF-80As deployed to USAFE in 1953; operated until 1955, last returned to United States in 1956. Remained in second-line service until 1958.
RF-80C. Photoreconnaissance version of F-80C.[23]
RF-84F known as Thunderflash; replacement for RF-80 introduced in 1954. Most were replaced by McDonnell RF-101 Voodoo aircraft in the late 1950s. After that, they served with Air National Guard squadrons until well into the 1960s.[24]
A reconnaissance version of the F-86 was a limited production/modification of the Sabre[25]
RF-86A used in Korean War. Were modifications of F-86As at the Tsuiki REMCO facility in Japan
RF-86F was post Korean War variant used by Far East Air Forces for clandestine and standard reconnaissance missions after the Korean War ended. Limited production and service as USAF opted for the Republic RF-84F Thunderflash as its next-generation tactical reconnaissance aircraft.
RF-100A Highly classified reconnaissance version of the Super Sabre known as the "Slick Chick". 6 produced; a handful (3) were used by USAF primarily for penetration of Soviet-controlled airspace missions in Europe. Afterwards were sold to the Chinese Nationalist Air Force on Taiwan for penetration of mainland Communist China airspace. Carried four drop tanks rather than the usual two because the mission profile called for a lot of high-speed flight under afterburner and there was no provision for midair refuelling. Missions still undisclosed.[26][27][28]
The versatile Voodoo was the fastest USAF tactical reconnaissance aircraft put into service.
RF-101A Was USAF's first supersonic photographic reconnaissance aircraft. Flew vital reconnaissance missions over Cuba during the Missile Crisis of October 1962, confirming and then monitoring the Soviet missile buildup on that island. Used extensively in Europe, replacing RF-84Fs[29]
RF-101C Differed from the RF-101A in being able to accommodate a centerline nuclear weapon, so that it could carry out a secondary nuclear strike mission if ever called upon to do so. Also flew over Cuba during Cuban Missile Crisis (unarmed)[30]
RF-101H Remanufactured F-101Cs to serve as unarmed reconnaissance aircraft with the Air National Guard.[31]
RF-101G Remanufactured F-101As to serve as unarmed reconnaissance aircraft with the Air National Guard.
RF-4C (Model 98DF), Was primary USAF Tactical Reconnaissance aircraft from 1966-1992. The first operational unit to receive the RF-4C was the 16th TRS of the Tactical Air Command 363rd TRW at Shaw AFB, achieving initial combat-readiness in August 1965. Saw extensive use in USAFE; in PACAF during the Vietnam War flying day missions until 1972 over North and South Vietnam as well as Laos, usually flying alone and without fighter escort. The aircraft posted an impressive record during the most intense years of the war.[32]
Began Air National Guard service in 1971. Collapse of Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact in 1989 began retirement of active-duty RF-4Cs. The inactivation of the last USAFE and TAC RF-4C units was in the planning stages when Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990, and further inactivation plans were put on hold. RF-4Cs used during Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm. When the first air strikes against Iraq took place on January 17, 1991, the RF-4Cs were in action from the start. At first, they were limited to daylight operations, flying over Kuwait almost every day in search of Republican Guard units. They flew over Baghdad looking for such targets as rocket fuel plants, chemical weapons plants, and command and communications centers. The RF-4Cs were repeatedly diverted from other photographic missions to go and look for Scud launchers hiding in western Iraq.[33]
After Desert Storm; RF-4Cs were retired rapidly. Nevada ANG finally turned in its last four RF-4Cs on September 27, 1995. This brought the era of RF-4C service with United States armed forces to an end after 30 years of operations.[34]

Note: Both the F-15 Eagle[35] and F-16 Falcon[36] had prototype RF-15 and RF-16s built, but were never put into production.

Observation aircraft

Many developed in the 1920s and 1930s; a few saw combat during World War II. After the establishment of the USAF, light observation aircraft became an Army mission. O-2 Skymaster and OV-10 Broncos were Forward Air Control (FAC) aircraft of the Vietnam War, retired in the late 1970s, replaced by the OA-10A version of the A-10 Thunderbolt II.

Strategic Reconnaissance aircraft

Developed by Central Intelligence Agency; first flight occurred at the Groom Lake (Area 51), Nevada on 1 August 1955. CIA and USAF U-2s began operations in 1956. Has been in continual use for over 50 years as primary USAF strategic reconnaissance aircraft.[37]
Developed as A-12 by Central Intelligence Agency; first flight took place at Groom Lake (Area 51), Nevada, on 25 April 1962. USAF developed SR-71 from CIA design; first flight took place on 22 December 1964. Operational use of SR-71 began in 1968. Retired in 1989 due to budget reductions. Three aircraft returned to service 1994; retired in 1998 due to budget reductions.[38]

Transport aircraft

Airborne warning and control system (AWACS) aircraft based on the Boeing 707 that provides all-weather surveillance, command, control and communications[39]
Battle management and command and control aircraft based on the Boeing 707 that tracks ground vehicles and some aircraft, collects imagery, and relays tactical pictures to ground and air theater commanders.[40]
First flown in 2009. Aircraft is a medium-altitude manned special-mission turboprop tactical reconnaissance aircraft that supports coalition and joint ground forces. Provides real-time full-motion video and signals intelligence.[41][42]
F-2 Photo-Reconnaissance trainer; built to carry two to four aerial cameras; also performed mapping missions over the United States; F-2A improved version. 69 aircraft produced. Postwar redesignated as RC-45A in 1948; retired 1953[43][44]
A military version of the Lockheed Constellation, it was designed to serve as an airborne early warning system to supplement the Distant Early Warning Line, using two large radomes, a vertical dome above and a horizontal one below the fuselage.[45]
RC-135s are a family of reconnaissance aircraft. Based on the C-135 Stratolifter airframe, various types of RC-135s have been in service since 1961. Many variants have been modified numerous times, resulting in a large variety of designations, configurations, and program names.[46]

Unmanned aerial vehicles

Hunter-killer UAV in use since 1995. Initially conceived in the early 1990s for reconnaissance and forward observation roles, the Predator carries cameras and other sensors but has been modified and upgraded to carry and fire two AGM-114 Hellfire missiles or other munitions.[47]
Unarmed very long range strategic reconnaissance UAV[48]
Hunter-killer UAV designed for long-endurance, high-altitude surveillance. The MQ-9 carries a variety of weapons including the GBU-12 Paveway II laser-guided bomb, the AGM-114 Hellfire II air-to-ground missiles, the AIM-9 Sidewinder and recently, the GBU-38 JDAM (Joint Direct Attack Munition). Tests are underway to allow for the addition of the AIM-92 Stinger air-to-air missile [49]
Small hand-launched remote-controlled unmanned aerial vehicle.[50]
Under development by Boeing and DARPA[51]
Unarmed flying wing design stealth reconnaissance UAV.[52]
Unarmed remote sensing UAV, providing real-time direct situational awareness and force protection information for Air Force security forces expeditionary teams.[53]
  • Wasp III
Unarmed remote sensing UAV, providing real-time direct situational awareness and target information for Air Force Special Operations Command Battlefield Airmen.[54]

See also


 This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website

  • United States Military Aircraft since 1909, Gordon Swanborough and Peter M. Bowers, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989.
  • Famous Bombers of the Second World War, William Green, Doubleday, 1959.
  • War Planes of the Second World War, Fighters, Volume Four, William Green, Doubleday, 1964.
  1. The U.S. Aircraft Industry During World War I
  2. Aerial Reconnaissance in World War I
  3. Mesko, Jim, 1994, A-20 Havoc in Action, Aircraft Number 144, Squadron/Signal Publications. ISBN 0-89747-317-5
  4. Baugher, Lockheed A-29B
  5. Thompson, Scott A, 2000, Final Cut: The Post War B-17 Flying Fortress: The Survivors, Pictorial Histories Publishing Company. ISBN 1-57510-077-0
  6. Baugher, F-9 Photographic Reconnaissance
  7. Baugher - B-18 Bolo
  8. Davis, Larry, 1987, B-24 Liberator in action - Aircraft No. 80, Squadron/Signal Publications. ISBN 0-89747-190-3
  9. Avery, Lambert, 1993, B-25 Mitchell: The Magnificent Medium, Specialty Pr Pub & Wholesalers. ISBN 0-9625860-5-6
  10. Wagner, Ray, 1982, American Combat Planes, Third Enlarged Edition, Doubleday. ISBN 0-930083-17-2
  11. Baugher, Douglas A-26C Invader
  12. Mann, Robert, 2009, The B-29 Superfortress Chronology, 1934-1960, McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-4274-3
  13. Meyers Jacobsen, 1998, Convair B-36: A Comprehensive History of Americas Big Stick, Schiffer. ISBN 0-7643-0530-1
  14. Baugher - North American RB-45C Tornado
  15. Bowers, Peter M. "The Boeing B-47" Aircraft in Profile, Volume 4. Windsor, Berkshire, UK: Profile Publications Ltd., 2nd revised and enlarged edition, 1970. ISBN 0-85383-013-4.
  16. - Boeing B-50B Superfortress
  17. Baugher - Boeing RB-52B/B-52B Stratofortress
  18. Baugher - Douglas B-66 Destroyer
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 United States Army Air Force Reconnaissance Aircraft
  20. Baugher - Lockheed F-4 Lightning
  21. Baugher - Lockheed P-38G/F-5A Lightning
  22. Pape, Garry R., John M. and Donna Campbell. Northrop P-61 Black Widow: The Complete History and Combat Record. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1991. ISBN 0-87938-509-X.
  23. Lockheed RF-80 Shooting Star
  24. McLaren, David. Republic F-84 Thunderjet, Thunderstreak & Thunderflash: A Photo Chronicle. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Military/Aviation History, 1998. ISBN 0-7643-0444-5.
  25. Baugher - North American F-86 Sabre
  26. North American RF-100A Super Sabre
  27. USAF Serial Number Search, RF-100
  28. North American RF-100A Slick Chick
  29. Baugher - McDonnell RF-101A Voodoo
  30. McDonnell RF-101B Voodoo
  31. Baugher - McDonnell RF-101G/H Voodoo
  32. Lake, Donald, 2002, McDonnell F-4 Phantom: Spirit in the Skies, Aerospace Publishing / Airtime Publishing; Enlarged 2nd edition ISBN 1-880588-31-5
  33. Kinzey, Bert, 1991, The fury of Desert Storm : the air campaign, TAB Books. ISBN 0-8306-3078-3
  34. Baugher - McDonnell RF-4C Phantom II
  35. Baugher - RF-15 "Peek Eagle"
  36. Baugher - General Dynamics RF-16 Fighting Falcon
  37. Wikipedia, Lockheed U-2
  38. Wikipedia, Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird
  39. Wikipedia - Boeing E-3 Sentry
  40. Wikipedia E-8 Joint STARS
  41. MC-12 flies first combat mission
  42. Newest manned spy plane scores points in war effort
  43. Beech C-45J Expediter
  44. Beechcraft Model 18
  45. Wikipedia - Lockheed EC-121 Warning Star
  46. Wikipedia Boeing RC-135
  47. MQ-1B Predator USAF Factsheet
  48. Wikipedia RQ-4
  49. MQ-9 Reaper USAF Factsheet
  50. RQ-11B Raven USAF Factsheet
  51. Wikipedia YMQ-18
  52. USAF RQ-170 Sentinel Factsheet
  53. USAF Scan Eagle Factsheet
  54. USAF Wasp III Factsheet

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).