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Military of ancient Rome
753 BC – AD 476
Structural history
Roman army (unit types and ranks, legions, auxiliaries, generals)
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The following is a List of Roman wars and battles [1] fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date.

8th century BC

The city of Rome in 753 BC

7th century BC

6th century BC

508 BC Siege by Etruscans (forces in blue) of Rome (forces in red).

5th century BC

4th century BC

3rd century BC

Roman conquest of Italy through the Latin War (red), Samnite Wars (pink/orange), Pyrrhic War (beige), and Punic Wars (green).

  • Wars with Gauls and Etruscans (285–282 BC)
    • 284 BC – Battle of Arretium – A Roman army under Lucius Caecilius is destroyed by the Gauls.
    • 283 BC – Battle of Lake Vadimo – A Roman army under P. Cornelius Dolabella defeats the Etruscans and Gauls.
    • 282 BC – Battle of Populonia – Etruscan resistance to Roman domination of Italy is finally crushed.

Expansion of Rome by 200 BC

2nd century BC

  • Achaean War (146 BC)
    • 146 BC – Battle of Corinth – Romans under Lucius Mummius defeat the Achaean League forces of Critolaus, who is killed. Corinth is destroyed and Greece comes under direct Roman rule.

1st century BC

Expansion of Rome from 200 BC (green) to 100 BC (orange).

Roman holdings in the East (red), clients (pink), and other nations.

  • Second Mithridatic War (83–82 BC)
    • 82 BC – Battle of Halys – Roman general Lucius Licinius Murena fights Mithridates and Gordius after launching several raids, to which the Romans lose.

The extent of the Roman Republic in 40 BC after Caesar's conquests.

  • Caesar's Civil War (49–45 BC)
    • 49 BC, June – Battle of Ilerda – Caesar's army surround Pompeian forces and cause them to surrender.
    • 49 BC, 24 August – Battle of the Bagradas River – Caesar's general Gaius Curio is defeated in North Africa by the Pompeians under Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia. Curio commits suicide.
    • 48 BC, 10 July – Battle of Dyrrhachium – Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat by Pompey in Macedonia
    • 48 BC, 9 August – Battle of Pharsalus – Caesar decisively defeats Pompey, who flees to Egypt
    • 47 BC, February – Battle of the Nile – Caesar defeats the forces of the Egyptian king Ptolemy XIII
    • 46 BC, 4 January – Battle of Ruspina – Caesar loses perhaps as much as a third of his army to Titus Labienus
    • 46 BC, 6 February – Battle of Thapsus – Caesar defeats the Pompeian army of Metellus Scipio in North Africa.
    • 45 BC, 17 March – Battle of Munda – In his last victory, Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus Pompey the Younger in Hispania. Labienus is killed in the battle and the Younger Pompey captured and executed.
  • War with Pontus
    • 47 BC, May – Battle of Zela – Caesar defeats Pharnaces II of Pontus. This is the battle where he famously said Veni, vidi, vici. (I came, I saw, I conquered.)
  • Liberators' civil war (44–42 BC)
    • 43 BC, 14 April – Battle of Forum Gallorum – Antony, besieging Caesar's assassin Decimus Brutus in Mutina, defeats the forces of the consul Pansa, who is killed, but is then immediately defeated by the army of the other consul, Hirtius
    • 43 BC, 21 April – Battle of Mutina – Antony is again defeated in battle by Hirtius, who is killed. Although Antony fails to capture Mutina, Decimus Brutus is murdered shortly thereafter.
    • 42 BC, 3 October – First Battle of PhilippiTriumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's assassins Marcus Brutus and Cassius. Although Brutus defeats Octavian, Antony defeats Cassius, who commits suicide.
    • 42 BC, 23 October – Second Battle of Philippi – Brutus's army is decisively defeated by Antony and Octavian. Brutus escapes, but commits suicide soon after.

1st century

The Roman Empire under Augustus: The Republic in 31 BC (yellow) and Augustus's conquests (shades of green). Client states are in pink.

2nd century

The extent of the Roman Empire under Trajan (117) The Empire is in red and dependencies are in pink.[2]

3rd century

The Empires of Gaul (green), Rome (red), and Palmyra (yellow) in 271.

See Crisis of the Third Century

  • Persian wars
    • 217 – Battle of Nisibis – Bloody stalemate between the Parthians and the Roman army under Emperor Macrinus.
    • 231-232 - War between Ardashir I and Severus Alexander; resulted in humiliating Roman defeat and withdrawal.
    • 243 – Battle of Resaena – Roman forces under Gordian III defeat the Persians under Shapur I.
    • 260 – Battle of Edessa – Emperor Shapur I of Persia defeats and captures the Roman Emperor Valerian
    • 296 or 297 – Battle of Carrhae – Romans under the Caesar Galerius are defeated by the Persians under Narseh.
    • 298 – Battle of Satala – Galerius secures a decisive victory against Narseh, following a peace treaty.

4th century

The Roman Empire under the Tetrarchy, with the territory of Constantius (yellow), Maximian (green), Galerius (pink), and Diocletian (purple)

The Roman Empire in 337, showing the Empire under Constantine (shaded purple) and other Roman dependencies (light purple).

The 4th century begins with civil war resulting in the ascendancy of Constantine I, then, after his death, wars with Persia and Germanic tribes, punctuated frequently with more civil wars.

  • Wars with Persia (344–363)
    • 344 – Battle of Singara – Emperor Constantius II fights an indecisive battle against King Shapur II of Persia
    • 359 – Siege of Amida – Sassanids capture Amida from Romans
    • 363, 29 May – Battle of Ctesiphon – Emperor Julian defeats Shapur II of Persia outside the walls of the Persian capital, but is unable to take the city, and his death leads to an ultimate disaster on the retreat back to Roman territory.

5th century

Map showing the paths of invasion by various groups into Eastern and Western Roman territory

The 5th century involves the final fall of the Western Roman Empire to Goths, Vandals, Alans, Huns, and Franks.

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 Jones, Jim. "ROMAN HISTORY TIMELINE". West Chester University of Pennsylvania, 2013. http://courses.wcupa.edu/jones/his101/web/t-roman.htm. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  2. Bennett, J. Trajan: Optimus Princeps. 1997. Fig. 1

Sources

External links


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